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Summary Autonomy has played a role in moral and political thought throughout the modern era.  Immanuel Kant is perhaps only the most important historical thinker to contribute to its prominence.  The history of philosophy--from ancient philosophy forward--is full of discussions relevant to understanding autonomy and its roles.
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  1. added 2018-10-26
    The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy.Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Autonomy is one of the central concepts of contemporary moral thought, and Kant is often credited with being the inventor of individual moral autonomy. But how and why did Kant develop this notion? The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy is the first essay collection exclusively devoted to this topic. It traces the emergence of autonomy from Kant's earliest writings to the changes that he made to the concept in his mature works. The essays offer a close historical and (...)
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  2. added 2018-09-28
    From Discipline and Autonomy: Kant's Theory of Moral Development.Paul Formosa - 2011 - In Klas Roth & Chris W. Surprenant (eds.), Kant and Education: Interpretations and Commentary. New York: Routledge. pp. 163--176.
    In this paper I argue that Kant develops, in a number of texts, a detailed three stage theory of moral development which resembles the contemporary accounts of moral development defended by Lawrence Kohlberg and John Rawls. The first stage in this process is that of physical education and disciplining, followed by cultivating and civilising, with a third and final stage of moralising. The outcome of this process of moral development is a fully autonomous person. However, Kant’s account of moral development (...)
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  3. added 2018-06-15
    Independence as Relational Freedom.Alan M. S. J. Coffee - 2018 - In Sandrine Berges & Siani Alberto (eds.), Women Philosophers on Autonomy. London, UK: pp. 94-112.
    In spite of its everyday connotations, the term independence as republicans understand it is not a celebration of individualism or self-reliance but embodies an acknowledgement of the importance of personal and social relationships in people’s lives. It reflects our connectedness rather than separateness and is in this regard a relational ideal. Properly understood, independence is a useful concept in addressing a fundamental problem in social philosophy that has preoccupied theorists of relational autonomy, namely how to reconcile the idea of individual (...)
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  4. added 2018-02-17
    Understanding Moral Obligation: Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard.Robert Stern - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    In many histories of modern ethics, Kant is supposed to have ushered in an anti-realist or constructivist turn by holding that unless we ourselves 'author' or lay down moral norms and values for ourselves, our autonomy as agents will be threatened. In this book, Robert Stern challenges the cogency of this 'argument from autonomy', and claims that Kant never subscribed to it. Rather, it is not value realism but the apparent obligatoriness of morality that really poses a challenge to our (...)
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  5. added 2018-02-17
    The Self as Creature and Creator: Fichte and Freud Against the Enlightenment.Matthew C. Altman & Cynthia D. Coe - 2007 - Idealistic Studies 37 (3):179-202.
    The conception of subjectivity that dominates the Western philosophical tradition, particularly during the Enlightenment, sets up a simple dichotomy: either the subject is ultimately autonomous or it is merely a causally determined thing. Fichte and Freud challenge this model by formulating theories of subjectivity thattranscend this opposition. Fichte conceives of the subject as based in absolute activity, but that activity is qualified by a check for which it is not ultimately responsible. Freud explains the behavior of the self in terms (...)
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  6. added 2018-02-17
    Grace and the New Man.Joshua Schulz - 2007 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):439 - 446.
    Kant’s discussion of radical evil and moral regeneration in Religion Within the Bounds of Reason Alone raises numerous moral and metaphysical problems.If the ground of one’s disposition does not lie in time, as Kant argues, how can it be reformed, as the moral law commands? If divine aid is necessary for thisimpossible reformation, how does this not destroy a person’s moral personality by bypassing her freedom? This paper argues that these problems can be resolved by showing how Kant can conceive (...)
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  7. added 2018-02-17
    Agency and Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory: Selected Essays.Andrews Reath - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Andrews Reath presents a selection of his best essays on various features of Kant's moral psychology and moral theory, with particular emphasis on his conception of rational agency and his conception of autonomy. Together the essays articulate Reath's original approach to Kant's views about human autonomy, which explains Kant's belief that objective moral requirements are based on principles we choose for ourselves. With two new papers, and revised versions of several others, the volume will be of great interest to all (...)
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  8. added 2018-02-17
    The British Moralists and the Internal 'Ought': 1640–1740.Stephen Darwall - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is (...)
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  9. added 2017-10-13
    Ni virtuosas ni ciudadanas: inconsistencias prácticas en la teoría de Kant.Concha Roldán - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (S1):185-203.
    En los círculos ortodoxos kantianos suelen disculparse las incoherencias del maestro diciendo que era un “hijo de su tiempo”. Ciertamente, en su época aún se excluía en toda Europa a las mujeres de la ciudadanía activa, privándolas de ser sujetos políticos y, con ello, sujetos éticos, de derecho, e incluso, históricos. Pero también es verdad que en ese momento está emergiendo un movimiento en defensa de la igualdad de género , en el que lamentablemente Kant no participa. En el presente (...)
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  10. added 2017-08-04
    Revolte, Eros Und Sprache. Walter Benjamins Metaphysik der Jugend.Johannes Steizinger - 2013 - Berlin, Germany: Kulturverlag Kadmos.
  11. added 2017-07-01
    Paradoxien der Autonomie: Zur Einleitung.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - In Thomas Khurana & Christoph Menke (eds.), Paradoxien der Autonomie. Berlin: August. pp. 7–23.
  12. added 2017-07-01
    Paradoxien der Autonomie.Thomas Khurana & Christoph Menke (eds.) - 2011 - Berlin: August.
  13. added 2017-01-15
    Hegel's Critique of Modernity: Reconciling Individual Freedom and the Community.Timothy C. Luther - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    While the Enlightenment brought about an unprecedented growth in freedom, it also gave rise to a set of dichotomies that Hegel's philosophy helps to overcome. In this book, Timothy C. Luther examines Hegel's contribution to polical philosophy and his attempt to resolve tensions in political philosophy and democracy_particularly, his reconciliation of individual liberty and community. Hegel's dialectic preserves what he sees as valuable in liberalism while reformulating it in a way that is more sensitive to community and historical context.
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  14. added 2017-01-15
    II. The "Elements" of Kant's Practical Philosophy: The Groundwork After 200 Years.Patrick Riley - 1986 - Political Theory 14 (4):552-583.
  15. added 2017-01-14
    The Laws of the Spirit: A Hegelian Theory of Justice.Shannon Hoff - 2014 - State University of New York Press.
    Drawing from a variety of Hegel’s writings, Shannon Hoff articulates a theory of justice that requires answering simultaneously to three irreducibly different demands: those of community, universality, and individuality. The domains of “ethicality,” “legality,” and “morality” correspond to these essential dimensions of human experience, and a political system that fails to give adequate recognition to any one of these will become oppressive. The commitment to legality emphasized in modern and contemporary political life, Hoff argues, systematically precludes adequate recognition of the (...)
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  16. added 2016-12-29
    Huellas en la autonomia. Algunas notas sobre criticas de Hegel a Kant.Pablo Gilabert - 1996 - Dialektica 1996 (8):93-115.
  17. added 2016-12-12
    Autonomy: Volume 20, Part 2.Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred D. Miller Jr & Jeffrey Paul (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    A central idea in moral and political philosophy, 'autonomy' is generally understood as some form of self-governance or self-direction. Certain Stoics, modern philosophers such as Spinoza, and most importantly, Immanuel Kant, are among the great philosophers who have offered important insights on the concept. Some theorists analyze autonomy in terms of the self being moved by its higher-order desires. Others argue that autonomy must be understood in terms of acting from reason or from a sense of moral duty independent of (...)
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  18. added 2016-12-12
    Hegel, Nietzsche, and Philosophy: Thinking Freedom.Will Dudley - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    This challenging study explores the theme of freedom in the philosophy of Hegel and Nietzsche. In the first half Will Dudley sets Hegel's Philosophy of Right within a larger systematic account and deploys the Logic to interpret it. The author shows that freedom involves not only the establishment of certain social and political institutions but also the practice of philosophy itself. In the second half, he reveals how Nietzsche's discussions of decadence, nobility and tragedy map on to an analysis of (...)
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  19. added 2016-12-12
    Kant and the Fate of Autonomy: Problems in the Appropriation of the Critical Philosophy.Karl Ameriks - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    It has been argued that Kant's all-consuming efforts to place autonomy at the center of philosophy have had, in the long-run, the unintended effect of leading to the widespread discrediting of philosophy and of undermining the notion of autonomy itself. The result of this 'Copernican revolution' has seemed to many commentators the de-centring, if not the self-destruction, of the autonomous self. In this major reinterpretation of Kant and the post-Kantian response to his critical philosophy, Karl Ameriks argues that such a (...)
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  20. added 2016-12-12
    Fichte's Theory of Subjectivity.Frederick Neuhouser - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first book in English to elucidate the central issues in the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a figure crucial to the movement of philosophy from Kant to German idealism. The book explains Fichte's notion of subjectivity and how his particular view developed out of Kant's accounts of theoretical and practical reason. Fichte argued that the subject has a self-positing structure which distinguishes it from a thing or an object. Thus, the subject must be understood as an activity (...)
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  21. added 2016-12-12
    Immanuel Kant's Moral Theory.Roger J. Sullivan - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book, sure to become a standard reference work, is a comprehensive, lucid, and systematic commentary on Kant's practical philosophy. Kant is arguably the most important moral philosopher of the modern period. Using as nontechnical a language as possible, Professor Sullivan offers a detailed, authoritative account of Kant's moral philosophy - including his ethical theory, his philosophy of history, his political philosophy, his philosophy of religion, and his philosophy of education - and demonstrates the historical, Kantian origins of such important (...)
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  22. added 2016-12-08
    Constructing Authorities: Reason, Politics and Interpretation in Kant's Philosophy.Onora O'Neill - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays brings together the central lines of thought in Onora O'Neill's work on Kant's philosophy, developed over many years. Challenging the claim that Kant's attempt to provide a critique of reason fails because it collapses into a dogmatic argument from authority, O'Neill shows why Kant held that we must construct, rather than assume, the authority of reason, and how this can be done by ensuring that anything we offer as reasons can be followed by others, including others (...)
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  23. added 2016-12-08
    Kant and the Cultivation of Virtue.Chris W. Surprenant - 2014 - Routledge.
    In this book, Chris W. Surprenant puts forward an original position concerning Kant’s practical philosophy and the intersection between his moral and political philosophy. Although Kant provides a detailed account of the nature of morality, the nature of human virtue, and how right manifests itself in civil society, he does not explain fully how individuals are able to become virtuous. This book aims to resolve this problem by showing how an individual is able to cultivate virtue, the aim of Kant’s (...)
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  24. added 2016-12-08
    Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.Mary Gregor & Jens Timmermann (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Published in 1785, Immanuel Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals ranks alongside Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics as one of the most profound and influential works in moral philosophy ever written. In Kant's own words, its aim is to identify and corroborate the supreme principle of morality, the categorical imperative. He argues that human beings are ends in themselves, never to be used by anyone merely as a means, and that universal and unconditional obligations must be understood as (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-08
    Kant, Religion, and Politics.James DiCenso - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers a systematic examination of the place of religion within Kant's major writings. Kant is often thought to be highly reductionistic with regard to religion - as though religion simply provides the unsophisticated with colourful representations of moral lessons that reason alone could grasp. James DiCenso's rich and innovative discussion shows how Kant's theory of religion in fact emerges directly from his epistemology, ethics and political theory, and how it serves his larger political and ethical projects of restructuring (...)
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  26. added 2016-12-08
    Suicide: The Philosophical Dimensions.Michael Cholbi - 2011 - Broadview Press.
    _Suicide_ was selected as a Choice _Outstanding Academic Title_ for 2012! _Suicide: The Philosophical Dimensions_ is a provocative and comprehensive investigation of the main philosophical issues surrounding suicide. Readers will encounter seminal arguments concerning the nature of suicide and its moral permissibility, the duty to die, the rationality of suicide, and the ethics of suicide intervention. Intended both for students and for seasoned scholars, this book sheds much-needed philosophical light on one of the most puzzling and enigmatic human behaviors.
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  27. added 2016-12-08
    Spinoza on Human Freedom: Reason, Autonomy and the Good Life.Matthew J. Kisner - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza was one of the most influential figures of the Enlightenment, but his often obscure metaphysics makes it difficult to understand the ultimate message of his philosophy. Although he regarded freedom as the fundamental goal of his ethics and politics, his theory of freedom has not received sustained, comprehensive treatment. Spinoza holds that we attain freedom by governing ourselves according to practical principles, which express many of our deepest moral commitments. Matthew J. Kisner focuses on this theory and presents an (...)
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  28. added 2016-12-08
    Theocracy and Autonomy in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy.Carlos Fraenkel - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (3):340-366.
    According to both contemporary intuitions and scholarly opinion, autonomy is something specifically modern. It is certainly taken to be incompatible with religions like Islam and Judaism, if these are invested with political power. Both religions are seen as centered on a divine Law (sharî'a, viz., torah) which prescribes what we may and may not do, promising reward for obedience and threatening punishment for disobedience. Not we, but God makes the rules. This picture is in important ways misleading. There is, I (...)
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  29. added 2016-12-08
    Representing the Unrepresentable: Rousseau's Legislator and the Impossible Object of the People.Kevin Inston - 2010 - Contemporary Political Theory 9 (4):393-413.
    Rousseau's paradox of how a multitude wills itself into the status of a sovereign people, by deciding to join the contract before existing as a people, with a general will to make that decision, presupposes the absence of any ultimate social grounds and the contingency of identities and structures. These presuppositions make Rousseau an unacknowledged precursor of Laclau's post-structuralist politics, refuting the view that Rousseau's politics seeks a totally transparent and harmonious state beyond the questioning and ambiguity defining the political. (...)
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  30. added 2016-12-08
    Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy.Ken Gemes & Simon May (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The principal aim of this volume is to elucidate what freedom, sovereignty, and autonomy mean for Nietzsche and what philosophical resources he gives us to re ...
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  31. added 2016-12-08
    Democracy, Multitudo and the Third Kind of Knowledge in the Works of Spinoza.Del Lucchese Filippo - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (3):339-363.
    In Spinoza, what I call the ‘Being Individual Multiple’ is the multitudo. Its form of life is Democracy, understood as the autonomous and conflictual organization of collective dynamics and not one form of government among others. Combining an original mode of argumentation with a critical discussion of opposing interpretations, I maintain that democracy is the translation into politics of the third and highest kind of knowledge in Spinoza, intuitive science. I argue moreover that the multitudo self-organized in a democracy has (...)
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  32. added 2016-12-08
    The Importance and Relevance of Hegel's Philosophy of Nature.Sebastian Rand - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 61 (2):379 - 400.
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's 'Philosophy of Nature' has often been accused of promoting a view of nature fundamentally at odds with the modern scientific understanding of nature. I show this accusation to be false by pointing to two aspects of Hegel's treatment of nature: its rejection of the 'a priori/a posteriori' distinction, and its connection to Hegel's conception of autonomy as freedom from givenness. I give a reading of Hegel's treatment of the laws of motion along these lines, and I (...)
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  33. added 2016-12-08
    Kantian Ethics.Allen W. Wood - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Allen Wood investigates Kant's conception of ethical theory, using it to develop a viable approach to the rights and moral duties of human beings. By remaining closer to Kant's own view of the aims of ethics, Wood's understanding of Kantian ethics differs from the received 'constructivist' interpretation, especially on such matters as the ground and function of ethical principles, the nature of ethical reasoning and autonomy as the ground of ethics. Wood does not hesitate to criticize and (...)
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  34. added 2016-12-08
    O Cilindro e o Cone.Paulo Vieira Neto - 2005 - Doispontos 2 (1).
    Examinamos a argumentação de Cícero contra o estoicismo no De Fato tentando reconstruir a melhor argumentação de Crisipo para a posição de uma filosofia que concilie a postulação do destino com a da liberdade humana. Fazemos isso, contudo tendo em vista a maneira como esse programa estóico é lembrado por Leibniz na Teodicéia. A estratégia para tanto consiste em examinar primeiro a maneira como Crisipo e Cícero poderiam traduzir o problema da relação do destino em termos causais, sugerindo uma diferença (...)
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  35. added 2016-12-08
    Plato's Socrates and Soseki's Sensei: Living the Sovereign Life.J. Lenore Wright - 2005 - Asian Philosophy 15 (1):61-76.
    Natsume S seki's novel Kokoro (1914) offers an indictment of the loneliness and isolation of a modernized Japan, a Japan in which people ?feel cut off from every other living thing?. In this essay, I argue that Plato and S seki offer analogous critiques of an eradicated honor culture; an eradication that is rooted in the political exchange of honorific autonomy for honorific heteronomy. Moreover, I suggest that the deprecation and subsequent demise of the Japanese samurai and Greek warrior?individuals for (...)
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  36. added 2016-12-08
    Kantian Personal Autonomy.Robert S. Taylor - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (5):602-628.
    Jeremy Waldron has recently raised the question of whether there is anything approximating the creative self-authorship of personal autonomy in the writings of Immanuel Kant. After considering the possibility that Kantian prudential reasoning might serve as a conception of personal autonomy, I argue that the elements of a more suitable conception can be found in Kant’s Tugendlehre, or “Doctrine of Virtue”—specifically, in the imperfect duties of self-perfection and the practical love of others. This discovery is important for at least three (...)
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  37. added 2016-12-08
    Reasonability, Normativity, and the Cosmopolitan Imagination: Arendt, Korsgaard, and Rawls.David M. Rasmussen - 2003 - Continental Philosophy Review 36 (2):97-112.
    In this essay I consider the normative implications of the notion of reasonability for the construction of an idea of public reason that is cosmopolitan in scope. First, I consider the argument for the distinction between reason and reasonability in the work of Sibley and Rawls. Second, I evaluate the normative implications of reasonability through a consideration of Korsgaard's recent work. Third, I argue for a notion of reasonability that moves us beyond a Kantian concept of autonomy through a consideration (...)
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  38. added 2016-12-08
    Interpreting Kant's Critiques.Karl Ameriks - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Karl Ameriks here collects his most important essays to provide a uniquely detailed and up-to-date analysis of Kant's main arguments in all three major areas of his work: theoretical philosophy (Critique of Pure Reason), practical philosophy (Critique of Practical Reason), and aesthetics (Critique of Judgment). Guiding the volume is Ameriks's belief that one cannot properly understand any one of these Critiques except in the context of the other two. The essays can be read individually, but read together they offer a (...)
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  39. added 2016-12-08
    Moral Philosophy From Montaigne to Kant.J. B. Schneewind (ed.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    This anthology contains excerpts from some thirty-two important seventeenth- and eighteenth-century moral philosophers. Including a substantial introduction and extensive bibliographies, the anthology facilitates the study and teaching of early modern moral philosophy in its crucial formative period. As well as well-known thinkers such as Hobbes, Hume, and Kant, there are excerpts from a wide range of philosophers never previously assembled in one text, such as Grotius, Pufendorf, Nicole, Clarke, Leibniz, Malebranche, Holbach and Paley. Originally issued as a two-volume edition in (...)
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  40. added 2016-12-08
    Foucault and Critique.Mark Bevir - 1999 - Political Theory 27 (1):65-84.
  41. added 2016-12-08
    Autonomy and Authority in Kant's Rechtslehre.Kevin E. Dodson - 1997 - Political Theory 25 (1):93-111.
    In the short essay on theory and practice, Kant declares that the social contract differs from all other types of contracts in that agreement to its is obligatory and may be exacted through the use of force. In this paper, I examine Kant's justification of the moral necessity of civil society. Kant locates the ground of our obligation to enter into a civil union in the necessity of property for action and civil society as the necessary condition of the institution (...)
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  42. added 2016-12-08
    Autonomy and Republicanism.Heiner Bielefeldt - 1997 - Political Theory 25 (4):524-558.
  43. added 2016-12-05
    Heidegger, Sociality, and Human Agency.B. Scot Rousse - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (2):417-451.
    According to Heidegger's Being and Time, social relations are constitutive of the core features of human agency. On this view, which I call a ‘strong conception’ of sociality, the core features of human agency cannot obtain in an individual subject independently of social relations to others. I explain the strong conception of sociality captured by Heidegger's underdeveloped notion of ‘being-with’ by reconstructing Heidegger's critique of the ‘weak conception’ of sociality characteristic of Kant's theory of agency. According to a weak conception, (...)
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  44. added 2016-12-05
    Kant on Moral Autonomy.Oliver Sensen (ed.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The concept of autonomy is one of Kant's central legacies for contemporary moral thought. We often invoke autonomy as both a moral ideal and a human right, especially a right to determine oneself independently of foreign determinants; indeed, to violate a person's autonomy is considered to be a serious moral offence. Yet while contemporary philosophy claims Kant as the originator of its notion of autonomy, Kant's own conception of the term seems to differ in important respects from our present-day interpretation. (...)
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  45. added 2016-10-28
    Legge e obbligatorietà: la struttura dell’idea di autolegislazione morale.Stefano Bacin - 2013 - Studi Kantiani 26:55-70.
    The paper argues for distinguishing two aspects in Kant’s idea of self-legislation of the moral law: the immediate character (i.e., the practical necessity) of the law itself and the lawgiving function attributed to the rational will. I argue that the novelty of Kant’s thesis chie y consists in the combination of the two aspects, and that this solves the alleged paradoxical character of the idea of self-legislation. As it grounds on the connection of a fundamental law with a lawgiving, Kant’s (...)
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  46. added 2016-10-07
    Women, Liberty, and Forms of Feminism.Karen Detlefsen - forthcoming - In Jacqueline Broad & Karen Detlefsen (eds.), Women and Liberty, 1600-1800: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter shows how Mary Astell and Margaret Cavendish can reasonably be understood as early feminists in three senses of the term. First, they are committed to the natural equality of men and women, and related, they are committed to equal opportunity of education for men and women. Second, they are committed to social structures that help women develop authentic selves and thus autonomy understood in one sense of the word. Third, they acknowledge the power of production relationships, especially friendships (...)
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  47. added 2016-01-25
    Kant, Mill and Consumer Autonomy: A Response to R. S. Downie.Vilhjálmur Árnason - 1999 - Ends and Means 3 (2).
  48. added 2016-01-25
    The Existential Background of Human Dignity. [REVIEW]B. D. A. - 1964 - Review of Metaphysics 17 (3):479-479.
  49. added 2016-01-24
    Garrido, Juan Manuel. El imperativo de la humanidad. La fundamentación estética de los derechos en Kant. Santiago de Chile: Orjikh Editores, 2012. 91 pp. [REVIEW]María Juliana Rojas Berrío & Duarte Pardo - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (S1):205-210.
    En los círculos ortodoxos kantianos suelen disculparse las incoherencias del maestro diciendo que era un "hijo de su tiempo". Ciertamente, en su época aún se excluía en toda Europa a las mujeres de la ciudadanía activa, privándolas de ser sujetos políticos y, con ello, sujetos éticos, de derecho, e incluso, históricos. Pero también es verdad que en ese momento está emergiendo un movimiento en defensa de la igualdad de género (querelle des femmes), en el que lamentablemente Kant no participa. En (...)
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  50. added 2016-01-24
    Kant- Foucault: autonomia e analítica da finitude: Série 2.Guilherme Castelo Branco - 2011 - Kant E-Prints 6:1-13.
    In his intellectual maturity, Michel Foucault, in articles and interviews, insists on the opposition between Descartes and Kant. This opposition would have historical and philosophical motivations. Descartes, when asked about the self, answers that it is a single subject, universal a-historical. Cartesian self is a substance that is not described by its circumstances; on the contrary, the “I” is a condition of knowledge and of representations. Kant, on the other hand, would have raised a completely distinct order problematization: "... the (...)
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