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Summary Autonomy has played a role in moral and political thought throughout the modern era.  Immanuel Kant is perhaps only the most important historical thinker to contribute to its prominence.  The history of philosophy--from ancient philosophy forward--is full of discussions relevant to understanding autonomy and its roles.
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  1. A Critical Study Of The Religion-Ethic Relation In Kant's Philosophy.Dr Y. Shaqoul - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 25.
    Kant's endeavours in the field of practical philosophy or ethics are considered to be like his Copernican revolution in the speculative field. As he did so in the field of sepeculative philosophy, he tried to pose a new approach in ethics which comprises the positive points of his predecessors. In his view, this ethical theory is universal, necessary, and humanistic. In this approach the moral agent, like the very deed itself and it's end, is more important than other elements. This (...)
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  2. Jean Jacques Rousseau.Christopher Bertram - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau remains an important figure in the history of philosophy, both because of his contributions to political philosophy and moral psychology and because of his influence on later thinkers. Rousseau's own view of philosophy and philosophers was firmly negative, seeing philosophers as the post-hoc rationalizers of self-interest, as apologists for various forms of tyranny, and as playing a role in the alienation of the modern individual from humanity's natural impulse to compassion. The concern that dominates Rousseau's work is to (...)
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  3. Women, Liberty, and Forms of Feminism.Karen Detlefsen - forthcoming - In Jacqueline Broad & Karen Detlefsen (eds.), Women and Liberty, 1600-1800: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter shows how Mary Astell and Margaret Cavendish can reasonably be understood as early feminists in three senses of the term. First, they are committed to the natural equality of men and women, and related, they are committed to equal opportunity of education for men and women. Second, they are committed to social structures that help women develop authentic selves and thus autonomy understood in one sense of the word. Third, they acknowledge the power of production relationships, especially friendships (...)
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  4. Karl Ameriks, Kant and the Fate of Autonomy; Eckart Forster, Kant's Final Synthesis; Brigitte Sassen, Ed., Kant's Early Critics.C. Kerslake - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  5. Power Freedom and Relational Autonomy.Ericka Tucker - 2021 - In Aurelia Armstrong, Keith Green & Andrea Sangiacomo (eds.), Spinoza and Relational Autonomy. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 149-163.
    In recent years, the notion of relational autonomy has transformed the old debate about the freedom of the individual in society. For Spinoza, individual humans are embedded in natural, social and political circumstances from which they derive their power and freedom. I take this to mean that Spinoza’s is best described as a constitutive theory of relational autonomy. I will show how by defining freedom in terms of power, Spinoza understands individual freedom as irreducibly relational. I propose that Spinoza develops (...)
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  6. End in Itself, Freedom, and Autonomy: The Place of the “Naturrecht Feyerabend” in Kant’s Moral Rationalism.Stefano Bacin - 2020 - In Margit Ruffing, Annika Schlitte & Gianluca Sadun Bordoni (eds.), Kants “Naturrecht Feyerabend”: Analysen und Perspektiven. Berlin-Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 91–115.
    The chapter deals with the two most distinctive elements of the Introduction of the Naturrecht Feyerabend, namely the notions of an end in itself and autonomy. I shall argue that both are to be interpreted with regard to the aim of explaining the ground of right. In this light, I suggest that the notion of an end in itself counters a voluntarist conception like Achenwall’s with a claim whose necessity has a twofold ground: First, the representation of an unconditional worth (...)
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  7. Paradoxien der Autonomie. Freiheit Und Gesetz I.Thomas Khurana & Christoph Menke (eds.) - 2019, 2nd ed. - Berlin, Germany: August Verlag.
    Der Gedanke, der sich in der modernen Idee der Autonomie verdichtet, ist ein doppelter: Die Figur der Autonomie enthält zugleich eine neue Auffassung von Normativität und eine eigene Konzeption von Freiheit. Dem Gedanken der Autonomie zufolge ist ein Gesetz, das wahrhaft normativ ist, eines, als dessen Urheber wir uns selbst betrachten können; und eine Freiheit, die im vollen Sinne wirklich ist, drückt sich in Gestalt eben solcher selbstgegebener Gesetze aus. Die Idee der Autonomie artikuliert so die Einsicht, dass man Freiheit (...)
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  8. The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy.Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Autonomy is one of the central concepts of contemporary moral thought, and Kant is often credited with being the inventor of individual moral autonomy. But how and why did Kant develop this notion? The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy is the first essay collection exclusively devoted to this topic. It traces the emergence of autonomy from Kant's earliest writings to the changes that he made to the concept in his mature works. The essays offer a close historical and (...)
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  9. Independence as Relational Freedom.Alan M. S. J. Coffee - 2018 - In Sandrine Berges & Siani Alberto (eds.), Women Philosophers on Autonomy. London, UK: pp. 94-112.
    In spite of its everyday connotations, the term independence as republicans understand it is not a celebration of individualism or self-reliance but embodies an acknowledgement of the importance of personal and social relationships in people’s lives. It reflects our connectedness rather than separateness and is in this regard a relational ideal. Properly understood, independence is a useful concept in addressing a fundamental problem in social philosophy that has preoccupied theorists of relational autonomy, namely how to reconcile the idea of individual (...)
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  10. Rousseau on the Ground of Obligation: Reconsidering the Social Autonomy Interpretation.Rafeeq Hasan - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 17 (2):233-243.
    In Rousseau’s Social Contract, political laws are rationally binding because they satisfy the interests that motivate individuals to obey such laws. The later books of Emile justify morality by showing that it is continuous with the natural dispositions of a well-brought-up subject and is thus conducive to genuine happiness. In both the moral and political cases, Rousseau argues for an internal connection between the rational ground of an obligation and the broader aspects of human psychology that are satisfied and expressed (...)
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  11. Liberty and Insecurity in the Criminal Law: Lessons From Thomas Hobbes.Henrique Carvalho - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (2):249-271.
    In this paper, I provide an extensive examination of the political theory of Thomas Hobbes in order to discuss its relevance to an understanding of contemporary issues and challenges faced by criminal law and criminal justice theory. I start by proposing that a critical analysis of Hobbes’s account of punishment reveals a paradox that not only is fundamental to understanding his model of political society, but also can offer important insights into the preventive turn experienced by advanced liberal legal systems. (...)
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  12. The Problem of Normative Authority in Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche.Paul Katsafanas - 2017 - In Tom Bailey & João Constâncio (eds.), Nietzsche’s Engagements with Kant, Volume I: Ethics. Bloomsbury.
    Kant and Hegel share a common foundational idea: they believe that the authority of normative claims can be justified only by showing that these norms are self-imposed or autonomous. Yet they develop this idea in strikingly different ways: Kant argues that we can derive specific normative claims from the formal idea of autonomy, whereas Hegel contends that we use the idea of freedom not to derive, but to assess, the specific normative claims ensconced in our social institutions and practices. Exploring (...)
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  13. Contempt and Moral Subjectivity in Kantian Ethics.Bryan Lueck - 2016 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 78 (2):305-327.
    I argue in this paper that Immanuel Kant's account of the moral wrongness of contempt in the Metaphysics of Morals provides important resources for our understanding of the nature of moral subjectivity. Although Kant typically emphasizes the subject's position as autonomous addressor of the moral law, his remarks on contempt bring into relief a dynamic relationship at the heart of practical subjectivity between the addressor and addressee positions. After tracing the development of reflection concerning the addressor and addressee positions in (...)
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  14. Christopher Yeomans: The Expansion of Autonomy: Hegel’s Pluralistic Philosophy of Action: New York: Oxford University Press. 978–0-19-939,454-8 228 Pp. Hardback. Index. 74.00$.Tim Rojek - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):801-803.
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  15. Heidegger, Sociality, and Human Agency.B. Scot Rousse - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (2):417-451.
    According to Heidegger's Being and Time, social relations are constitutive of the core features of human agency. On this view, which I call a ‘strong conception’ of sociality, the core features of human agency cannot obtain in an individual subject independently of social relations to others. I explain the strong conception of sociality captured by Heidegger's underdeveloped notion of ‘being-with’ by reconstructing Heidegger's critique of the ‘weak conception’ of sociality characteristic of Kant's theory of agency. According to a weak conception, (...)
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  16. China Confronts Kant When University Students Experience the Angst of Freedom.Robert Keith Shaw - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (6).
    An existential interpretation of student angst in Chinese universities raises issues of autonomy and freedom. The governance arrangements in China create a conflict for Chinese students who in their coursework are urged to become critical-minded and open-minded. In this essay, Kant’s moral theory provides access to this phenomenon. His theory of duty–rationality–autonomy–freedom relates the liberty of thought to principled action. Kantian ideals still influence western business and university practice and they become relevant in China as that country modernises. The abilities (...)
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  17. What Should I Do?Julian Wuerth - 2016 - Routledge.
    Of all his contributions to philosophy it is perhaps Kant's writings on ethics that are the most widely read. Kant himself posed the famous question: What should I do? In this engaging and lucid book Julian Wuerth explores the question that frames Kant's moral philosophy and places it in a contemporary context, offering a stimulating and direct path into Kant's moral thought. He opens with a helpful introduction to the main traditions in ethics prior to Kant before outlining Kant’s theory (...)
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  18. What Should I Do?Julian Wuerth - 2016 - Routledge.
    Of all his contributions to philosophy it is perhaps Kant's writings on ethics that are the most widely read. Kant himself posed the famous question: _What should I do?_ In this engaging and lucid book Julian Wuerth explores the question that frames Kant's moral philosophy and places it in a contemporary context, offering a stimulating and direct path into Kant's moral thought. He opens with a helpful introduction to the main traditions in ethics prior to Kant before outlining Kant’s theory (...)
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  19. Sartre and Sertillanges on Creation.Paul Clavier - 2015 - Review of Metaphysics 69 (1):73-92.
    Before setting up the notion of “creation of the self,” Sartre intends to defeat the very concept of creation on the ontological level. He makes the statement that the created entity would not enjoy the least autonomy because it would depend wholly upon its creator. Sartre maintains that a created being cannot escape divine subjectivity, unless it is self-supported and self-sustained, that is, uncreated. Catholic scholar Sertillanges completely changes the deal: in his view, it is because of its existential autonomy (...)
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  20. Catholic Feminist Ethics Reconsidered.Hille Haker - 2015 - Journal of Religious Ethics 43 (2):218-243.
    Taking Catholic sexual ethics and liberal feminist ethics as points of departure, this essay argues that both frameworks are ill-prepared to deal with the moral problems raised by sex trafficking: while Catholic sexual ethics is grounded in a normative understanding of sexuality, liberal feminist ethics argues for women's sexual autonomy, resting upon freedom of action and consent. From a perspective that attends both to the phenomenological interpretation of embodied selves and the Kantian normative interpretation of dignity, it becomes possible to (...)
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  21. Frihed og lykke i Rousseaus retfærdiggørelse af staten.Rafeeq Hasan - 2015 - Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi 3 (1):71-94.
    Political philosophers tend to think that Rousseau is significant because his contractarianism anticipates Kant. However, reading Rousseau in this way requires us to ignore his frequent and emphatic appeals to the role of happiness as collective flourishing in establishing the rational authority of justice. I offer a reading of Rousseau’s political theory which accounts for this eudaimonistic aspect of his thought. I argue that for Rousseau, as for Kant, obligations are structured by the autonomous willing of agents who bind themselves (...)
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  22. Aristotle, Autonomy, and Design: Ancient Wisdom and the Modern Home.Mark Jensen - 2015 - Architecture Philosophy 1 (2):199 - 213.
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  23. Kant on Freedom of Empirical Thought.Markus Kohl - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (2):301-26.
    It is standardly assumed that, in Kant, “free agency” is identical to moral agency and requires the will or practical reason. Likewise, it is often held that the concept of “spontaneity” that Kant uses in his theoretical philosophy is very different from, and much thinner than, his idea of practical spontaneity. In this paper I argue for the contrary view: Kant has a rich theory of doxastic free agency, and the spontaneity in empirical thought (which culminates in judgments of experience) (...)
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  24. Agency and Self‐Sufficiency in Fichte's Ethics.Michelle Kosch - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):348-380.
  25. Ética da Receptividade: Aspectos de Uma Filosofia Moral Segundo Jean-François Lyotard.Lars Leeten - 2015 - Trans/Form/Ação 38 (1):133-146.
    O presente artigo aborda a dimensão ética no pensamento de Jean-François Lyotard. Como conceito decisivo para essa relação, é aqui proposto o conceito de receptividade. Partindo dele, deseja-se mostrar que é possível reconstruir uma concepção de responsabilidade ética no pensamento do filósofo francês, a qual se coloca em sentido diametralmente oposto à concepção de autonomia: a obrigação ética se torna por conta disso afetiva, fundada e repousando na capacidade de se deixar falar. Com vistas a uma determinação mais acurada dessa (...)
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  26. Excavating Foundations of Legal Personhood: Fichte on Autonomy and Self-Consciousness.Susanna Lindroos-Hovinheimo - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (3):687-702.
    Law functions on the basis of some presuppositions of what a person is. The purposes and tasks that are projected on a legal system depend on an understanding of personhood. Also, courts continuously find themselves in situations where they have to define the person or the legal subject, at times with surprising consequences. However, legal theory lacks clear criteria for personhood. We do not know who or what a legal person is, nor do we know what kind of being we (...)
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  27. Narrative Identity, Autonomy, and Mortality: From Frankfurt and MacIntyre to Kierkegaard, by John J. Davenport; and Self, Value and Narrative: A Kierkegaardian Approach, by Anthony Rudd.John Lippitt - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (2):219-230.
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  28. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy.Ohad Nachtomy - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):193-196.
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  29. Recognition, Freedom, and the Self in Fichte's Foundations of Natural Right.Michael Nance - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):608-632.
    In this paper I present an interpretation of J. G. Fichte's transcendental argument for the necessity of mutual recognition in Foundations of Natural Right. Fichte's argument purports to show that, as a condition of the possibility of self-consciousness, we must take ourselves to stand in relations of mutual recognition with other agents like ourselves. After reconstructing the steps of Fichte's argument, I present what I call the ‘modal dilemma’, which highlights a serious ambiguity in Fichte's deduction. According to the modal (...)
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  30. Constructing Authorities: Reason, Politics and Interpretation in Kant's Philosophy.Onora O'Neill - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays brings together the central lines of thought in Onora O'Neill's work on Kant's philosophy, developed over many years. Challenging the claim that Kant's attempt to provide a critique of reason fails because it collapses into a dogmatic argument from authority, O'Neill shows why Kant held that we must construct, rather than assume, the authority of reason, and how this can be done by ensuring that anything we offer as reasons can be followed by others, including others (...)
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  31. Early Sartre on Freedom and Ethics.Peter Poellner - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):221-247.
    This paper offers a revisionary interpretation of Sartre's early views on human freedom. Sartre articulates a subtle account of a fundamental sense of human freedom as autonomy, in terms of human consciousness being both reasons-responsive and in a distinctive sense self-determining. The aspects of Sartre's theory of human freedom that underpin his early ethics are shown to be based on his phenomenological analysis of consciousness as, in its fundamental mode of self-presence, not an object in the world. Sartre has a (...)
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  32. Kant on Moral Autonomy Ed. By Oliver Sensen.Frederick Rauscher - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):552-553.
  33. Autonomy After Auschwitz: Adorno, German Idealism, and Modernity. [REVIEW]Carl Sachs - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (4):595-599.
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  34. Kantian Ethics: Value, Agency and Obligation.Robert Stern - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This volume presents a selection of Robert Stern's work on the theme of Kantian ethics. It begins by focusing on the relation between Kant's account of obligation and his view of autonomy, arguing that this leaves room for Kant to be a realist about value. Stern then considers where this places Kant in relation to the question of moral scepticism, and in relation to the principle of 'ought implies can', and examines this principle in its own right. The papers then (...)
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  35. Agency and Evil in Fichte’s Ethics.Owen Ware - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    This paper examines Fichte's proof of evil in §16 of the System of Ethics. According to the majority of commentators, Fichte was mistaken to consider his proof Kantian in spirit (Piché 1999; Kosch 2006, 2011; Dews 2008; and Breazeale 2014). For rather than locate our propensity to evil in an act of free choice, Fichte locates it in a natural force of inertia. However, the distance between Kant and Fichte begins to close if we read his concept of inertia, not (...)
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  36. Self‐Legislation and Self‐Command in Kant's Ethics.Eric Entrican Wilson - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (2):256-278.
    In his later writings, Kant distinguishes between autonomy and self-mastery or self-command. My article explains the relation between these two ideas, both of which are integral to his understanding of moral agency and the pursuit of virtue. I point to problems with other interpretations of this relation and offer an alternative. On my view, self-command is a condition or state achieved by those agents who become proficient at solving problems presented by the passions. Such agents are able to stick to (...)
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  37. The Expansion of Autonomy: Hegel's Pluralistic Philosophy of Action.Christopher Yeomans - 2015 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Georg Lukács wrote that "there is autonomy and 'autonomy.' The one is a moment of life itself, the elevation of its richness and contradictory unity; the other is a rigidification, a barren self-seclusion, a self-imposed banishment from the dynamic overall connection." Though Lukács' concern was with the conditions for the possibility of art, his distinction also serves as an apt description of the way that Hegel and Hegelians have contrasted their own interpretations of self-determination with that of Kant. But it (...)
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  38. Kant on Moral Autonomy. [REVIEW]Benjamin S. Yost - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (2):263-268.
  39. Infinite Autonomy: The Divided Individual in the Political Thought of G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche, by Jeffrey Church. [REVIEW]Matthew Bennett - 2014 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 45 (1):97-100.
  40. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy, by Carlos Fraenkel.James Bryson - 2014 - Faith and Philosophy 31 (4):492-494.
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  41. I—Ethics of Substance.Amber D. Carpenter - 2014 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 88 (1):145-167.
    Aristotle bequeathed to us a powerful metaphysical picture, of substances in which properties inhere. The picture has turned out to be highly problematic in many ways; but it is nevertheless a picture not easy to dislodge. Less obvious are the normative tones implicit in the picture and the way these permeate our system of values, especially when thinking of ourselves and our ambitions, hopes and fears. These have proved, if anything, even harder to dislodge than the metaphysical picture which supports (...)
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  42. The Morality of Unequal Autonomy: Reviving Kant’s Concept of Status for Stakeholders.Susan V. H. Castro - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (4):593-606.
    Though we cherish freedom and equality, there are human relations we commonly take to be morally permissible despite the fact that they essentially involve an inequality specifically of freedom, i.e., parental and fiduciary relations. In this article, I argue that the morality of these relations is best understood through a very old and dangerous concept, the concept of status. Despite their historic and continuing abuses, status relations are alive and well today, I argue, because some of them are necessary. We (...)
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  43. Appunti Sull'idea di Vita Tecnica a Partire Dalla "Kritik der Urteilskraft". Per Un’Archeologia Della Tecnica Moderna.Emanuele Clarizio - 2014 - Nóema 5 (2).
    I. Kant’s Critique of Judgment is a maintext to catch the epistemological tensions created by the emerging notion of life . By investigating the specific causality of life in order to explain the phenomenon of self-organization of the living, Kant uses the remarkable concept of technique of nature , thus establishing a strong analogy between technique and life.The consequences of this analogy affect not only the epistemology of life, but also the modern conception of technique.To a technicization of life corresponds (...)
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  44. Kant on Moral Autonomy. [REVIEW]Lara Denis - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):327-332.
  45. A Thomistic Appraisal of Human Enhancement Technologies.Jason T. Eberl - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):289-310.
    Debate concerning human enhancement often revolves around the question of whether there is a common “nature” that all human beings share and which is unwarrantedly violated by enhancing one’s capabilities beyond the “species-typical” norm. I explicate Thomas Aquinas’s influential theory of human nature, noting certain key traits commonly shared among human beings that define each as a “person” who possesses inviolable moral status. Understanding the specific qualities that define the nature of human persons, which includes self-conscious awareness, capacity for intellective (...)
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  46. Belonging to Oneself: Montaigne on Moral Autonomy.Christopher Edelman - 2014 - In Charlotte C. S. Thomas (ed.), No Greater Monster Nor Miracle Than Myself: The Political Philosophy of Michel de Montaigne. Mercer UP. pp. 36-58.
    In the essay “Of repentance,” Montaigne proclaims his moral autonomy, explaining to readers that he lives his life according to his own laws and that he judges himself in his own court. This essay attempts to give an account of the nature of Montaigne’s conception of autonomy, and ultimately argues that it deserves the attention of philosophers interested in alternatives to the conceptions of autonomy offered by figures from the history of philosophy such as Plato, Kant, and Rorty.
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  47. The Laws of the Spirit: A Hegelian Theory of Justice.Shannon Hoff - 2014 - State University of New York Press.
    Drawing from a variety of Hegel’s writings, Shannon Hoff articulates a theory of justice that requires answering simultaneously to three irreducibly different demands: those of community, universality, and individuality. The domains of “ethicality,” “legality,” and “morality” correspond to these essential dimensions of human experience, and a political system that fails to give adequate recognition to any one of these will become oppressive. The commitment to legality emphasized in modern and contemporary political life, Hoff argues, systematically precludes adequate recognition of the (...)
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  48. After MacIntyre.David Humbert - 2014 - Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (2):310-333.
    In his influential book After Virtue, Alasdair MacIntyre identifies Kierkegaard's view of ethics with that of Kant. Both Kant and Kierkegaard, according to MacIntyre, accept the modern paradigm of moral activity for which freedom of the will is the ultimate basis. Ronald M. Green, in Kierkegaard and Kant: The Hidden Debt, accepts and deepens this alignment between the two thinkers. Green argues that Kierkegaard deliberately obscured his debt to Kant by a systematic “misattribution” of his ideas to other thinkers, and (...)
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  49. Re‐Reading Diotima: Resources for a Relational Pedagogy.Rachel Jones - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (2):183-201.
    This article considers a range of responses to Plato's Symposium, paying particular attention to Diotima's speech on eros and philosophy. It argues that Diotima's teachings contain resources for a relational pedagogy, but that these resources come more sharply into focus when Plato's text is read through the lens of contemporary (20th and 21st century) thinkers. The article therefore draws on the work of David Halperin, Hannah Arendt, Jean-François Lyotard and Luce Irigaray to argue that Diotima points us towards the value (...)
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  50. Die Bedingungen der Anerkennung: Zum Zusammenhang von Macht, Anerkennung Und Unterwerfung Im Anschluss an Foucault.Kristina Lepold - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (2):297-317.
    The social-philosophical discourse of the last 20 years pictured recognition mainly as medium of human autonomy. In recent years however, concerns have been raised over whether recognition might not occasionally work in the opposite direction, as means of subjection. This article contends that these concerns rely on a misconstruction of the relationship between recognition and subjection as merely contingent. Developing themes from Foucault’s work, it argues that recognition rather always necessarily involves a moment of subjection. In the first part, I (...)
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