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  1. What Can the Discovery of Boron Tell Us About the Scientific Realism Debate?Jonathon Hricko - forthcoming - In Timothy D. Lyons & Peter Vickers (eds.), Contemporary Scientific Realism: The Challenge from the History of Science. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the work in chemistry that led to the discovery of boron and explores the implications of this episode for the scientific realism debate. This episode begins with Lavoisier’s oxygen theory of acidity and his prediction that boracic acid contains oxygen and a hypothetical, combustible substance that he called the boracic radical. And it culminates in the work of Davy, Gay-Lussac, and Thénard, who used potassium to extract oxygen from boracic acid and thereby discovered boron. This episode constitutes (...)
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  2. Ordonnancement de la Production. Lavoisier.P. Lopez & F. Roubelat - forthcoming - Hermes.
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  3. Alison M Roberts. Hathor’s Alchemy: The Ancient Egyptian Roots of the Hermetic Art. 336 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. East Sussex: Northgate Publishers, 2019. £27.50 (Paper); ISBN 9780952423331. [REVIEW]Marco Beretta - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):181-181.
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  4. Glen E. Rodgers. Traveling with the Atom: A Scientific Guide to Europe and Beyond. 551 Pp., App., Indexes. Croydon: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019. £29.99 (Paper); ISBN 9781788015288. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Alan Rocke - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):175-176.
  5. The Chemical Philosophy of Robert Boyle: Mechanicism, Chymical Atoms, and Emergence.Marina P. Banchetti - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This book examines the way in which Robert Boyle seeks to accommodate his complex chemical philosophy within the framework of a mechanistic theory of matter. More specifically, the book proposes that Boyle regards chemical qualities as properties that emerged from the mechanistic structure of chymical atoms. Within Boyle’s chemical ontology, chymical atoms are structured concretions of particles that Boyle regards as chemically elementary entities, that is, as chemical wholes that resist experimental analysis. Although this interpretation of Boyle’s chemical philosophy has (...)
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  6. ‘The Curious Ways to Observe Weight in Water’: Thomas Harriot and His Experiments on Specific Gravity.Stephen Clucas - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):302-327.
    This paper explores the experiments of the English mathematician Thomas Harriot on specific gravity in the years 1600-1605, as recorded in a series of manuscript notes in British Library Add. MS 6788. It examines the programme of reading undertaken by Harriot before these experiments, and describes a series of experiments conducted by him which compared the weight of a wide variety of substances in air and water. Harriot’s work is compared to that of his contemporary Marino Ghetaldi in Promotus Archimedis, (...)
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  7. Reflections on the Reception of Jean Perrin’s Experiments by His Contemporaries.Milena Ivanova - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):219-224.
  8. Experiment and Quantification of Weight: Late-Renaissance and Early Modern Medical, Mineralogical and Chemical Discussions on the Weights of Metals.Silvia Manzo - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):388-412.
    This paper explores how a set of observations on the weight of lead were interpreted and assessed between the 1540s and the 1630s across three different interconnecting disciplines: medicine, mineralogy and chemistry. The epistemic import of these discussions will be demonstrated by showing: 1) the changing role and articulation of experience and quantification in the investigation of metals; and 2) the notions associated with weight in different disciplinary frameworks. In medicine and mineralogy, weight was not considered as a specific subject (...)
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  9. From Food to Elements and Humors: Digestion in Late Renaissance Galenism.Elisabeth Moreau - 2020 - In Giouli Korobili & Roberto Lo Presti (eds.), Nutrition and Nutritive Soul in Aristotle and Aristotelianism. De Gruyter. pp. 319-338.
    In late Renaissance medicine, the example of digestion was frequently invoked to prove the elemental composition of the human body. Food was considered as being decomposed in its first elements by the stomach, and digested into a thick juice, which was assimilated by the liver and the body parts. Such a process points to the structure of the human body into four elements that are transformed into different types of humors during several stages of “concoction”. This chapter examines the Galenic (...)
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  10. Problem of the Direct Quantum-Information Transformation of Chemical Substance.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Computational and Theoretical Chemistry eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 3 (26):1-15.
    Arthur Clark and Michael Kube–McDowell (“The Triger”, 2000) suggested the sci-fi idea about the direct transformation from a chemical substance to another by the action of a newly physical, “Trigger” field. Karl Brohier, a Nobel Prize winner, who is a dramatic persona in the novel, elaborates a new theory, re-reading and re-writing Pauling’s “The Nature of the Chemical Bond”; according to Brohier: “Information organizes and differentiates energy. It regularizes and stabilizes matter. Information propagates through matter-energy and mediates the interactions of (...)
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  11. The History of Chemistry in Chemical Education.John C. Powers - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):576-581.
  12. Brightening Biochemistry: Humor, Identity, and Scientific Work at the Sir William Dunn Institute of Biochemistry, 1923–1931.Robin Wolfe Scheffler - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):493-514.
  13. Reporting the discovery of new chemical elements: working in different worlds, only 25 years apart.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):137-146.
    In his account of scientific revolutions, Thomas Kuhn suggests that after a revolutionary change of theory, it is as if scientists are working in a different world. In this paper, we aim to show that the notion of world change is insightful. We contrast the reporting of the discovery of neon in 1898 with the discovery of hafnium in 1923. The one discovery was made when elements were identified by their atomic weight; the other discovery was made after scientists came (...)
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  14. The Function of Microstructure in Boyle’s Chemical Philosophy: ‘Chymical Atoms' and Structural Explanation.Marina Banchetti-Robino - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):51-59.
    One of several important issues that inform contemporary philosophy of chemistry is the issue of structural explanation, precisely because modern chemistry is primarily concerned with microstructure. This paper argues that concern over microstructure, albeit understood differently than it is today, also informs the chemical philosophy of Robert Boyle. According to Boyle, the specific microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’, understood in geometric terms, accounts for the unique essential properties of different chemical substances. Because he considers the microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’ as semi-permanent, (...)
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  15. Pere Grapí, Inspiring Air: A History of Air-Related Science. Wilmington: Vernon Press, 2019. Pp. Ix + 352. ISBN 1-62273-738-5. £44.00. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Science 52 (4):717-719.
    Greatly detailed history of design changes of the eudiometer; unfortunately the annotation on many diagrams is illegible.
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  16. The Artificial Cell, the Semipermeable Membrane, and the Life That Never Was, 1864–1901.Daniel Liu - 2019 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 49 (5):504-555.
    Since the early nineteenth century a membrane or wall has been central to the cell’s identity as the elementary unit of life. Yet the literally and metaphorically marginal status of the cell membrane made it the site of clashes over the definition of life and the proper way to study it. In this article I show how the modern cell membrane was conceived of by analogy to the first “artificial cell,” invented in 1864 by the chemist Moritz Traube (1826–1894), and (...)
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  17. The Instrument of Science: Scientific Anti-Realism Revitalised.Darrell P. Rowbottom - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    Roughly, instrumentalism is the view that science is primarily, and should primarily be, an instrument for furthering our practical ends. It has fallen out of favour because historically influential variants of the view, such as logical positivism, suffered from serious defects. -/- In this book, however, Darrell P. Rowbottom develops a new form of instrumentalism, which is more sophisticated and resilient than its predecessors. This position—‘cognitive instrumentalism’—involves three core theses. First, science makes theoretical progress primarily when it furnishes us with (...)
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  18. What to Make of Mendeleev’s Predictions?K. Wray - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):139-143.
    I critically examine Stewart’s suggestion that we should weigh the various predictions Mendeleev made differently. I argue that in his effort to justify discounting the weight of some of Mendeleev’s failures, Stewart invokes a principle that will, in turn, reduce the weight of some of the successful predictions Mendeleev made. So Stewart’s strategy will not necessarily lead to a net gain in Mendeleev’s favor.
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  19. What to Make of Mendeleev’s Predictions?K. Brad Wray - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (2):139-143.
    I critically examine Stewart’s suggestion that we should weigh the various predictions Mendeleev made differently. I argue that in his effort to justify discounting the weight of some of Mendeleev’s failures, Stewart invokes a principle that will, in turn, reduce the weight of some of the successful predictions Mendeleev made. So Stewart’s strategy will not necessarily lead to a net gain in Mendeleev’s favor.
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  20. Kuhn, the History of Chemistry, and the Philosophy of Science.K. Brad Wray - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (1):75-92.
    I draw attention to one of the most important sources of Kuhn’s ideas in Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Contrary to the popular trend of focusing on external factors in explaining Kuhn’s views, factors related to his social milieu or personal experiences, I focus on the influence of the books and articles he was reading and thinking about in the history of science, specifically, sources in the history of chemistry. I argue that there is good reason to think that the history (...)
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  21. Plant and Soil Chemistry in Seventeenth-Century England: Worsley, Boyle and Coxe.Antonio Clericuzio - 2018 - Early Science and Medicine 23 (5-6):550-583.
    In seventeenth-century England agriculturalists, projectors and natural philosophers devoted special attention to the chemical investigation of plants, of soil composition and of fertilizers. Hugh Plat’s and Francis Bacon’s works became particularly influential in the mid-seventeenth century, and inspired much of the Hartlib Circle’s schemes and research for improving agriculture. The Hartlibians turned to chemistry in order to provide techniques for improving soil and to investigate plant generation and growth. They drew upon the Paracelsian chemistry of salts, as well as upon (...)
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  22. Spirits Coming Alive: The Subtle Alchemy of Francis Bacon’s Sylva Sylvarum.Dana Jalobeanu - 2018 - Early Science and Medicine 23 (5-6):459-486.
    Observations, experiments and inquiries into the world of plants figure prominently in Francis Bacon’s Sylva Sylvarum. My purpose in this article is to offer a survey of this very rich and relatively under-investigated natural historical material, with the purpose of showing two things. First, I show that these inquiries unveil a sophisticated instrumental approach. Bacon treats plants as chemical laboratories in which one can investigate the fundamental processes of nature and the continuous ‘pneumatisation’ of matter. A detailed examination of this (...)
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  23. Heads and Tails: Molecular Imagination and the Lipid Bilayer, 1917–1941.Daniel Liu - 2018 - In Karl Matlin, Jane Maienschein & Manfred Laubichler (eds.), Visions of Cell Biology: Reflections Inspired by Cowdry's General Cytology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 209-245.
    Today, the lipid bilayer structure is nearly ubiquitous, taken for granted in even the most rudimentary introductions to cell biology. Yet the image of the lipid bilayer, built out of lipids with heads and tails, went from having obscure origins deep in colloid chemical theory in 1924 to being “obvious to any competent physical chemist” by 1935. This chapter examines how this schematic, strictly heuristic explanation of the idea of molecular orientation was developed within colloid physical chemistry, and how the (...)
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  24. Chemical Dissolution and Kant’s Critical Theory of Nature.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (4):537-556.
    Kant conceives of chemical dissolutions as involving the infinite division and subsequent blending of solvent and solute. In the resulting continuous solution, every subvolume contains a uniform proportion of each reactant. Erich Adickes argues that this account stands in tension with other aspects of Kant’s Critical philosophy and his views on infinity. I argue that although careful analysis of Kant’s conception of dissolution addresses Adickes’ objections, the infinite division inherent to the process is beyond our human cognition, for Kant. Nevertheless, (...)
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  25. Guest Editor: Foundations of Chemistry (Special Issue).Marina P. Banchetti - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (1).
  26. Il neoplatonismo nell'ontologia chimica di Jan Baptista van Helmont.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2017 - In Il minimo, l’unità, e l’universo infinito nella cosmologia vitalistica di Giordano Bruno. Milano: Limina Mentis.
  27. A Chemistry of Human Nature: Chemical Imagery in Hume’s Treatise.Tamás Demeter - 2017 - Early Science and Medicine 22 (2-3):208-228.
  28. What is Chemistry, for Kant?Michael Bennett McNulty - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):85-112.
    Kant’s preoccupation with architectonics is a characteristic and noteworthy aspect of his thought. Various features of Kant’s argumentation and philosophical system are founded on the precise definitions of the various subdomains of human knowledge and the derivative borders among them. One science conspicuously absent from Kant’s routine discussions of the organization of knowledge is chemistry. Whereas sciences such as physics, psychology, and anthropology are all explicitly located in the architectonic, chemistry finds no such place. In this paper, I examine neglected (...)
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  29. Corpuscularism and Experimental Philosophy in Domenico Guglielmini's Reflections on Salts.Alberto Vanzo - 2017 - In Peter R. Anstey (ed.), The Idea of Principles in Early Modern Thought. New York: Routledge. pp. 147-171.
    Several recent studies of early modern natural philosophy have claimed that corpuscularism and experimental philosophy were sharply distinct or even conflicting views. This chapter provides a different perspective on the relation between corpuscularism and experimental philosophy by examining Domenico Guglielmini’s ‘Philosophical Reflections’ on salts (1688). This treatise on crystallography develops a corpuscularist theory and defends it in a way that is in line with the methodological prescriptions, epistemological strictures, and preferred argumentative styles of experimental philosophers. The examination of the ‘Reflections’ (...)
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  30. Van Helmont’s Hybrid Ontology and its Influence on the Chemical Interpretation of Spirit and Ferment.Marina Banchetti-Robino - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (2):103-112.
    This essay proposes to discuss the manner in which Jan Baptista van Helmont helped to transform the Neoplatonic notions of vital spirit and of ferment by giving these notions an unambiguously chemical interpretation, thereby influencing the eventual naturalization of these ideas in the work of late seventeenth century chymists. This chemical interpretation of vital spirit and ferment forms part of Helmont’s hybrid ontology, which fuses a corpuscular conception of minima naturalia with a non-corporeal conception of semina rerum. For Helmont, chemical (...)
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  31. Lavoisier’s “Reflections on Phlogiston” II: On the Nature of Heat.Nicholas W. Best - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):3-13.
    Having refuted the phlogiston theory, Lavoisier uses this second portion of his essay to expound his new theory of combustion, based on the oxygen principle. He gives a mechanistic account of thermodynamic phenomena in terms of a subtle fluid and its ability to penetrate porous bodies. He uses this hypothetical fluid to explain volume changes, heat capacity and latent heat. Beyond the three types of combustion that he distinguishes and defines, Lavoisier also explains other chemical sources of heat, such as (...)
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  32. What Was Revolutionary About the Chemical Revolution?Nicholas W. Best - 2016 - In Eric Scerri & Grant Fisher (eds.), Essays in Philosophy of Chemistry. Oxford University Press. pp. 37-59.
    Lavoisier and his allies should be regarded as philosophers of chemistry, for they took it upon themselves to carry out a scientific revolution. Inspired by enlightenment philosophy, they introduced new assumptions, apparatus and methods of experimentation. They provided a linguistic framework that would ensure These reforms, as much as any theoretical changes, are what make this period revolutionary. Moreover, by reading these scientists as philosophers of chemistry, we see that the Chemical Revolution was in many ways more revolutionary than Thomas (...)
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  33. Chemistry in Kant’s Opus Postumum.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):64-95.
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (MAN), Kant claims that chemistry is an improper, though rational science. The chemistry to which Kant confers this status is the phlogistic chemistry of, for instance, Georg Stahl. In his Opus Postumum (OP), however, Kant espouses a broadly Lavoiserian conception of chemistry. In particular, Kant endorses Antoine Lavoisier's elements, oxygen theory of combustion, and role for the caloric. As Lavoisier's lasting contribution to chemistry, according to some histories of the science, was his emphasis on (...)
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  34. Philosophy of Chemistry: Unkempt Jungle and Fertile Ground: Eric Scerri and Lee McIntyre : Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline . Dordrecht: Springer, 2015. Xii+233pp, $99 HB.Micah Newman - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):473-477.
  35. Review of Fumie Kawamura, Diderot Et la Chimie: Science, Pensée Et Écriture. [REVIEW]Charles T. Wolfe - 2016 - H-France Reviews 16.
  36. Antoine Lavoisier. Oeuvres de Lavoisier: Correspondance. Volume 7: 1792–1794. Edited by, Patrice Bret. Foreword by, Henri Kagan. Xv + 587 Pp., Illus., Tables, Apps., Index. Paris: Académie des Sciences, 2012. €70. [REVIEW]Marco Beretta - 2015 - Isis 106 (3):724-726.
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  37. Lavoisier’s "Reflections on Phlogiston" I: Against Phlogiston Theory.Nicholas W. Best - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):137-151.
    This seminal paper, which marks a turning point of the chemical revolution, is presented for the first time in a complete English translation. In this first half Lavoisier undermines phlogiston chemistry by arguing that his French contemporaries had replaced Stahl’s original theory with radically different systems that conceptualised the phlogiston principle in completely incompatible ways. He refutes their claims by showing that these later models were riddled with inconsistencies as to phlogiston’s weight, its ability to penetrate glass and its role (...)
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  38. Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology.Joshua D. K. Brown - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  39. Epistemology of a Believing Historian: Making Sense of Duhem's Anti-Atomism.Klodian Coko - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 50:71-82.
    Pierre Duhem’s (1861-1916) lifelong opposition to 19th century atomic theories of matter traditionally has been attributed to his conventionalist and/or positivist philosophy of science. Relatively recently, the traditional view has been challenged by the new claim that Duhem’s opposition to atomism was due to the precarious state of atomic theories at the beginning of the 20th century. In this paper, I present some of the difficulties with both the traditional and the new interpretation of Duhem’s opposition to atomism, and provide (...)
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  40. Ute Frietsch. Häresie und Wissenschaft: Eine Genealogie der paracelsischen Alchemie. 474 pp., illus., tables, bibl., index. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2013. €49.90. [REVIEW]Sietske Fransen - 2015 - Isis 106 (3):699-700.
  41. From Corpuscles to Elements: Chemical Ontologies From Van Helmont to Lavoisier.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2014 - In Lee McIntyre & Eric Scerri (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Springer. pp. 141-154.
  42. An Assemblage of Science and Home: The Gendered Lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and Early Twentieth-Century Physical Chemistry.Staffan Bergwik - 2014 - Isis 105 (2):265-291.
    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in (...)
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  43. Historical Teaching of Atomic and Molecular Structure.José Antonio Chamizo & Andoni Garritz - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 343-374.
    Besides the presentation and conclusions, the chapter is divided into two equally important sections. The first one describes the modern development of atomic and molecular structure, emphasising some of the philosophical problems that have been taken, and those that have to be faced in its understanding. The second discusses the alternative conceptions and difficulties of students of different educational levels and also the different approaches to its historical or philosophical teaching. Finally, we recognise the necessity for science teachers to assume (...)
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  44. The Place of the History of Chemistry in the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry.Kevin C. de Berg - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 317-341.
    To those of us who are sold on history, it may seem non-controversial to suggest that the learning and teaching of chemistry should give cognisance to the historical development of the subject. However, this suggestion is proving controversial amongst some in the chemistry profession. For example, in the October 2010 edition of Chemistry in Australia, Rami Ibo takes issue with the emphasis on the history of science in the HSC chemistry curriculum (Year 12) in New South Wales. He studied chemistry, (...)
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  45. Philosophy of Chemistry in Chemical Education: Recent Trends and Future Directions.Sibel Erduran & Ebru Z. Mugaloglu - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 287-315.
    In this chapter, we review recent trends in the philosophy of chemistry and its applications in chemical education. Chemistry has maintained quite a peripheral existence in the philosophy of science for a long time, thus evading focused attention and critical analysis. However, since the 1990s an increasing number of books, journals, conferences and associations focused on philosophy of chemistry highlighting the contributions of chemistry to philosophy of science (Bhushan and Rosenfeld, Of minds and molecules: new philosophical perspectives on chemistry. Oxford (...)
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  46. E. J. Holmyard and the Historical Approach to Science Teaching.Edgar W. Jenkins - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 2383-2408.
    E. J. Holmyard was a distinguished scholar and schoolmaster in England in the first half of the twentieth century. After graduating from Cambridge in both natural science and history, he quickly established a reputation for his research into the early history of chemistry, especially Islamic alchemy, and for his advocacy of a historical approach to the teaching of science. Both these interests found expression in his large number of school chemistry textbooks, many of which were highly successful and innovative publications, (...)
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  47. Nineteenth-Century Chemical Theory: Correction of a Misunderstanding.Paul Needham - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):165-167.
    I reply in this short note to some criticisms that Alan Rocke has recently made in this journal.
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  48. The Relevance of Boyle's Chemical Philosophy for Contemporary Philosophy of Chemistry.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2013 - In Jean-Pierre Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies, and Concepts.
  49. Kuhn and the Chemical Revolution: A Re-Assessment. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Blumenthal - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):93-101.
    A recent paper by Hoyningen-Huene argues that the Chemical Revolution is an excellent example of the success of Kuhn’s theory. This paper gives a succinct account of some counter-arguments and briefly refers to some further existing counter-arguments. While Kuhn’s theory does have a small number of more or less successful elements, it has been widely recognised that in general Kuhn’s theory is a “preformed and relatively inflexible framework” (1962, p. 24) which does not fit particular historical examples well; this paper (...)
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  50. Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry: Kostas Gavroglu and Ana Simões: Neither Physics nor Chemistry: A History of Quantum Chemistry. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2012, Xiv+351pp, $40.00, £27.95 HB.Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
    Contribution to a symposium on Kostas Gavroglu and Ana Simões, Neither Physics nor Chemistry, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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