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3561 found
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1 — 50 / 3561
  1. On Reading Newton as an Epicurean: Kant, Spinozism and the Changes to the Principia.Eric Schliesser - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):416-428.
  2. Exclusion and Affinity in Physics.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- i. Nature loves the sphere ii. when the light comes on iii. expansion from a quantum iv. the atom's brisance is defensive, perhaps v. particle and Physicist iterate the other vi. Bohm was like the wave function vii. the quest for Quantum Gravity, for Unity viii. Quantum Weirdness writ large ix. action is action at a distance x. think a simple Fractal xi. Pop Physics awes us with zeroes xii. the world is flat xiii. Sun is at the (...)
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  3. An Analysis of the Concept of Inertial Frame.Boris Culina - manuscript
    The concept of inertial frame of reference is analysed. It has been shown that this fundamental concept of physics is not clear enough. A definition of inertial frame of reference is proposed which expresses its key inherent property. The definition is operational and powerful. Many other properties of inertial frames follow from the definition or it makes them plausible. In particular, the definition shows why physical laws obey space and time symmetries and the principle of relativity, it resolves the problem (...)
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  4. Karl Popper: Conjectures and Refutations.Danny Frederick - manuscript
  5. What is Wrong with Ceteris-Paribus Law-Statements?Danny Frederick - manuscript
    It is often contended that the special sciences, and even fundamental physics, make use of ceteris-paribus law-statements. Yet there are general concerns that such law-statements are vacuous or untestable or unscientific. I consider two main kinds of ceteris-paribus law-statement. I argue that neither kind is vacuous, that one of the kinds is untestable, that both kinds may count as scientific to the extent that they form parts of conjunctions that imply novel falsifiable statements which survive testing, but that one kind (...)
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  6. On an Intrinsic Quantum Theoretical Structure Inside Einstein's Gravity Field Equations.Han Geurdes - manuscript
    As is well known, Einstein was dissatisfied with the foundation of quantum theory and sought to find a basis for it that would have satisfied his need for a causal explanation. In this paper this abandoned idea is investigated. It is found that it is mathematically not dead at all. More in particular: a quantum mechanical U(1) gauge invariant Dirac equation can be derived from Einstein's gravity field equations. We ask ourselves what it means for physics, the history of physics (...)
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  7. The Legitimate Route to the Scientific Truth - The Gondor Principle.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    We leave in a beautiful and uniform world, a world where everything probable is possible. Since the epic theory of relativity many scientists have embarked in a pursuit of astonishing theoretical fantasies, abandoning the prudent and logical path to scientific inquiry. The theory is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. However, it is not (...)
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  8. Feyerabend on the Quantum Theory of Measurement: A Reassessment.Daniel Kuby & Patrick Fraser - manuscript
    In 1957, Feyerabend delivered a paper titled “On the quantum‐theory of measurement” at the Colston Research Symposium in Bristol to sketch a completion of von Neumann’s measurement scheme without collapse, using only unitary quantum dynamics and well‐motivated statistical assumptions about macroscopic quantum systems. Feyerabend’s paper has been recognized as an early contribution to quantum measurement, anticipating certain aspects of decoherence. Our paper reassesses the physical and philosophical content of Feyerabend’s contribution, detailing the technical steps as well as its overall philosophical (...)
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  9. Physics and the Philosophy of Science – Diagnosis and Analysis of a Misunderstanding, as Well as Conclusions Concerning Biology and Epistemology.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    For two reasons, physics occupies a preeminent position among the sciences. On the one hand, due to its recognized position as a fundamental science, and on the other hand, due to the characteristic of its obvious certainty of knowledge. For both reasons it is regarded as the paradigm of scientificity par excellence. With its focus on the issue of epistemic certainty, philosophy of science follows in the footsteps of classical epistemology, and this is also the basis of its 'judicial' pretension (...)
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  10. The Early Modern Rationalists and the Substantial Form: From Natural Philosophy to Metaphysics.Valtteri Viljanen -
    This paper argues that, contrary to what one might think, early modern rationalism displays an increasing and well-grounded sensitivity to certain metaphysical questions the substantial form was designed to answer – despite the fact that the notion itself was in such disrepute, and emphatically banished from natural philosophy. This main thesis is established by examining the thought of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz through the framework constituted by what have been designated as the two aspects, metaphysical and physical, of the substantial (...)
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  11. Teleomechanism Redux? The Conceptual Hybridity of Living Machines in Early Modern Natural Philosophy.Charles T. Wolfe - manuscript
    We have been accustomed at least since Kant and mainstream history of philosophy to distinguish between the ‘mechanical’ and the ‘teleological’; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature exemplified by Newton and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings ultimately expressed in the concept of ‘organism’ – a purposive entity, or at least an entity possessed of functions. The beauty of this distinction is that it seems to make intuitive sense and to map onto historical and conceptual constellations in (...)
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  12. Bohr's Atomic Model and Paraconsistent Logic.Pandora Hadzidaki -
    Bohr’s atomic model is one of the better known examples of empirically successful, albeit inconsistent, theoretical schemes in the history of physics. For this reason, many philosophers use this model to illustrate their position for the occurrence and the function of inconsistency in science. In this paper, I proceed to a critical comparison of the structure and the aims of Bohr’s research program – the starting point of which was the formulation of his model – with some of its contemporary (...)
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  13. Review of Franklin *What Makes a Good Experiment?*. [REVIEW] Adam_Morton - forthcoming - Metascience 102.
    I praise Franklin's full descriptions of important and exemplary experiments, and wish that he had said more about why they are exemplary.
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  14. Information, Meaning and Physics: The Intellectual Transformation of the English School of Information Theory During 1946-1956.Javier Anta - forthcoming - Science in Context.
    In this comparative historical analysis, we will analyze the intellectual tendency that emerged between 1946 and 1956 to take advantage of the popularity of communication theory to develop a kind of informational epistemology of statistical mechanics. We will argue that this tendency results from a historical confluence in the early 1950s of certain theoretical claims of the so-called English School of Information Theory, championed by authors such as Gabor (1956) or MacKay (1969), and the search to extend the profound success (...)
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  15. How Certain is Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle?David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is a milestone of twentieth-century physics. We sketch the history that led to the formulation of the principle, and we recall the objections of Grete Hermann and Niels Bohr. Then we explain that there are in fact two uncertainty principles. One was published by Heisenberg in the Zeitschrift für Physik of March 1927 and subsequently targeted by Bohr and Hermann. The other one was introduced by Earle Kennard in the same journal a couple of months later. While (...)
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  16. OF WEIGHTING AND COUNTING: STATISTICS AND ONTOLOGY IN THE OLD QUANTUM THEORY.Massimiliano Badino - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of the History of Interpretations and Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford, Regno Unito:
  17. Better Appreciating the Scale of It.Siska De Baerdemaeker & Mike D. Schneider - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    In September 1931, a panel discussion was convened at Central Hall Westminsteron the subject of the ‘Evolution of the Universe’, at the centenary meeting of theBritish Association for the Advancement of Science. Center stage was what todo about the evolving universe being younger than the stars, evidently a paradoxin the relativistic study of the evolving universe, at the time. Here, we discusstwo diametrically opposed reactions to the paradox, which were each broadcastat the meeting by Lemaˆıtre and de Sitter, respectively. As (...)
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  18. What Is the Spatiotemporal Extension of the Universe? Underdetermination According to Kant’s First Antinomy and in Present-Day Cosmology.Claus Beisbart - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
  19. Kant’s Functional Cosmology: Teleology, Measurement, and Symbolic Representation in the Critique of Judgment.Silvia De Bianchi - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    In the 1780s Kant’s critique of rational cosmology clearly identified the limits of theoretical cosmology in agreement with the doctrine of transcendental idealism of space and time. However, what seems to be less explored, and remains still a desideratum for the literature, is a thorough investigation of the implications of transcendental philosophy for Kant’s view of cosmology in the 1790s. This contribution fills this gap by investigating Kant’s view of teleology and measurement in the Critique of Judgment, exploring their implications (...)
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  20. Degeneration and Entropy.Eugene Chua - forthcoming - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy.
    [Accepted for publication in Lakatos's Undone Work: The Practical Turn and the Division of Philosophy of Mathematics and Philosophy of Science, special issue of Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy. Edited by S. Nagler, H. Pilin, and D. Sarikaya.] Lakatos’s analysis of progress and degeneration in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes is well-known. Less known, however, are his thoughts on degeneration in Proofs and Refutations. I propose and motivate two new criteria for degeneration based on the discussion in Proofs and Refutations (...)
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  21. Special Section Introduction.Silvia De Bianchi & Federico Viglione - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    SPECIAL SECTION: BUILDING UNIVERSES: THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND MATHEMATICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF COSMOLOGY (EIGHTEENTH–TWENTIETH CENTURIES) .
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  22. Du Châtelet and Descartes on the Role of Hypothesis and Metaphysics in Science.Karen Detlefsen - forthcoming - In Eileen O'Neill & Marcy Lascano (eds.), Feminism and the History of Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    In this chapter, I examine similarities and divergences between Du Châtelet and Descartes on their endorsement of the use of hypotheses in science, using the work of Condillac to locate them in his scheme of systematizers. I conclude that, while Du Châtelet is still clearly a natural philosopher, as opposed to modern scientist, her conception of hypotheses is considerably more modern than is Descartes’, a difference that finds its roots in their divergence on the nature of first principles.
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  23. A “Physiogony” of the Heavens: Kant’s Early View of Universal Natural History.Cinzia Ferrini - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    From 1754 to 1756 Kant wrote on such central, related topics as the axial rotation of the Earth, the theory of heat, and the composition of matter, focusing on space, force, and motion. It has been noted that each of these topics pertains to his 1755 Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, in which he drew on extant cosmogonies and the analogical form of Newtonianism developed by naturalists including Buffon, Haller, and Thomas Wright. How does Kant build on (...)
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  24. Cosmology, Astronomy, and Philosophy Around 1800: Schelling, Hegel, Herder.Laura Follesa - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    This article focuses on debates on philosophical knowledge, mathematics, and the empirical sciences by analyzing the positions on cosmological and astronomical knowledge, around 1800, of three German authors: Herder, Schelling, and Hegel. I show the mutual interdependence of Schelling’s and Hegel’s Naturphilosophie and Herder’s Ideen, and I then demonstrate that the latter’s position during the last years of his life was a reaction to Schelling’s and Hegel’s speculative philosophy. While Herder seems to ignore the works of the Naturphilosophen in his (...)
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  25. Vesto Slipher, Nebular Spectroscopy, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology, 1912–22.Craig Fraser - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    This article looks at Vesto Slipher’s work on nebular spectroscopy between 1912 and 1922as well as related research by other astronomers of the period, and it examines the dissem-ination of their results more widely. Slipher’s observations are viewed as marking the di-viding line between speculation about the universe in traditional astronomy and theadvent of modern cosmology and the theory of an expanding universe. The intent is todocument the dissemination of Slipher’s results in the period leading up to the publicationof studies (...)
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  26. Andrew Janiak (Ed.), Space: A History. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Gorham - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  27. Physical systems, mathematical representation, and philosophical principles: the EPR paper and its influence.Guy Hetzroni - forthcoming - Iyyun.
    The paper portrays the influence of major philosophical ideas on the 1935 debates on quantum theory that reached their climax in the paper by Einstein, Podosky and Rosen, and describes the relevance of these ideas to the vast impact of the paper. I claim that the focus on realism in many common descriptions of the debate misses important aspects both of Einstein's and Bohr's thinking. I suggest an alternative understanding of Einstein's criticism of quantum mechanics as a manifestation of the (...)
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  28. Mathematical Analogies in Physics: The Curious Case of Gauge Symmetries.Guy Hetzroni & Noah Stemeroff - forthcoming - In Carl Posy & Yemima Ben-Menahem (eds.), Mathematical Knowledge, Objects and Applications. Springer.
    Gauge symmetries provide one of the most puzzling examples of the applicability of mathematics in physics. The presented work focuses on the role of analogical reasoning in the gauge argument, motivated by Mark Steiner's claim that the application of the gauge principle relies on a Pythagorean analogy whose success undermines naturalist philosophy. In this paper, we present two different views concerning the analogy between gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions, each providing a different philosophical response to the problem of the applicability (...)
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  29. From the Boundary of the World to the Boundary of Reason: The First Antinomy and the Development of Kant’s Critical Philosophy.Stephen Howard - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    An ancient cosmological debate lies behind the spatial part of the first antinomy in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Against the Aristotelian conception of a finite universe, a thought experiment proposed we imagine ourselves situated on the boundary of the world: what happens if we stretch a hand beyond the boundary? This article first shows that aspects of this debate persist in the cosmological claims of Huygens, Wolff, and Crusius. With his presentation of opposing arguments in the first antinomy, Kant (...)
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  30. Unificatory Power in the Old Quantum Theory: Informational Relevance of the Quantum Hypothesis.Molly Kao - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
  31. Philosophical Contexts of the Steady-State Universe.Helge Kragh - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    Modern standard big bang cosmology was preceded by a 15-year controversy with the rival steady-state theory of the universe. At a time when cosmologically relevant observations were scarce and cosmology was widely regarded as an immature science, or not a science at all, much of the debate took place by means of arguments that were essentially philosophical. Remarkably, professional philosophers, including some of the key figures of Anglo-American philosophy of science, took an active part in the debate; no less remarkably, (...)
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  32. Revaluing Laws of Nature in Secularized Science.Eli I. Lichtenstein - forthcoming - In Yemima Ben-Menahem (ed.), Rethinking the Concept of Laws of Nature. Springer.
    Discovering laws of nature was a way to worship a law-giving God, during the Scientific Revolution. So why should we consider it worthwhile now, in our own more secularized science? For historical perspective, I examine two competing early modern theological traditions that related laws of nature to different divine attributes, and their secular legacy in views ranging from Kant and Nietzsche to Humean and ‘governing’ accounts in recent analytic metaphysics. Tracing these branching offshoots of ethically charged God-concepts sheds light on (...)
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  33. The Constitution of Weyl’s Pure Infinitesimal World Geometry.C. D. McCoy - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    Hermann Weyl was one of the most important figures involved in the early elaboration of the general theory of relativity and its fundamentally geometrical spacetime picture of the world. Weyl’s development of “pure infinitesimal geometry” out of relativity theory was the basis of his remarkable attempt at unifying gravitation and electromagnetism. Many interpreters have focused primarily on Weyl’s philosophical influences, especially the influence of Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology, as the motivation for these efforts. In this article, I argue both that these (...)
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  34. Realism, Physical Meaningfulness, and Molecular Spectroscopy.Teru Miyake & George E. Smith - forthcoming - In Timothy D. Lyons & Peter Vickers (eds.), Contemporary Scientific Realism: The Challenge from the History of Science. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 159-182.
  35. The Quest for the Dynamic Structure of Reality: Xavier Zubiri, Phenomenology, and Quantum Mechanics.Bruno Nobre & João Carlos Onofre Pinto - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    It is the goal of this article to present and discuss the phenomenological interpretation of quantum mechanics of the twentieth-century Spanish philosopher Xavier Zubiri. After presenting an introduction to Zubiri and his relationship with phenomenology, we discuss the prominent role of the natural sciences, namely, physics, in the author’s philosophical system. To a certain extent, one can say that, in the footsteps of Edmund Husserl, one of Zubiri’s chief concerns was to develop a philosophical system that could accommodate the discoveries (...)
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  36. Homocentric Astronomy and the Animation of the Heavens: Girolamo Fracastoro Beyond Scholastic Psycho-Dynamics.Pietro Daniel Omodeo - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  37. Descartes on Necessity and the Laws of Nature.Nathan Rockwood - forthcoming - Journal of Analytic Theology.
    This paper is on Descartes’ account of modality and, in particular, his account of the necessity of the laws of nature. He famously argues that the necessity of the “eternal truths” of logic and mathematics depends on God’s will. Here I suggest he has the same view about the necessity of the laws of nature. Further, I argue, this is a plausible theory of laws. For philosophers often talk about something being physically necessary because of the laws of nature, but (...)
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  38. New Philosophical Perspectives on Scientific Progress.Yafeng Shan (ed.) - forthcoming - New York: Routledge.
    This collection of original essays offers a comprehensive examination of scientific progress, which has been a central topic in recent debates in philosophy of science. Traditionally, debates concerning scientific progress have focused on different methodological approaches, notably the epistemic and semantic approaches. The chapters in Part I of the book defend these two traditional approaches, as well as the newly revived functional and newly developed understanding-based approaches. Part II features in-depth case studies of scientific progress from the history of science. (...)
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  39. Aristotle and Linearity in Substance, Measure, and Motion.Paul Taborsky - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-25.
    The model of a closed linear measure space, which can be used to model Aristotle’s treatment of motion (kinesis), can be analogically extended to the qualitative ‘spaces’ implied by his theory of contraries in Physics I and in Metaphysics Iota, and to the dimensionless ‘space’ of the unity of matter and form discussed in book Eta of the Metaphysics. By examining Aristotle’s remarks on contraries, the subject of change, continuity, and the unity of matter and form, Aristotle’s thoughts on motion, (...)
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  40. “In Nature as in Geometry”: Du Châtelet and the Post-Newtonian Debate on the Physical Significance of Mathematical Objects.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - In Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant, Second Edition. Springer.
    Du Châtelet holds that mathematical representations play an explanatory role in natural science. Moreover, things proceed in nature as they do in geometry. How should we square these assertions with Du Châtelet’s idealism about mathematical objects, on which they are ‘fictions’ dependent on acts of abstraction? The question is especially pressing because some of her important interlocutors (Wolff, Maupertuis, and Voltaire) denied that mathematics informs us about the properties of real things. After situating Du Châtelet in this debate, this chapter (...)
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  41. Christa Jungnickel; Russell McCormmach. The Second Physicist: On the History of Theoretical Physics in Germany. (Archimedes, 48.) Xv + 408 Pp., Bibl., Index. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International, 2017. €176.79 (Cloth); ISBN 9783319495644. Paper and E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Lewis Pyenson - 2022 - Isis 113 (1):194-196.
  42. Kaila's Interpretation of Einstein-Minkowski Invariance Theory.Matias Slavov - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 93 (3):57-65.
    This essay explores Kaila's interpretation of the special theory of relativity. Although the relevance of his work to logical empiricism is well-known, not much has been written on what Kaila calls the ‘Einstein-Minkowski invariance theory’. Kaila's interpretation focuses on two salient features. First, he emphasizes the importance of the invariance of the spacetime interval. The general point about spacetime invariance has been known at least since Minkowski, yet Kaila applies his overall tripartite theory of invariances to space, time and spacetime (...)
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  43. How Physics Flew the Philosophers' Nest.Katherine Brading - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:312-20.
  44. The Role of Imagination in Ernst Mach’s Philosophy of Science: A Biologico-Economical View.Char Brecevic - 2021 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 11 (1):241-261.
  45. In Pursuit of the Non-Trivial.Colin R. Caret - 2021 - Episteme 18 (2):282-297.
    This paper is about the underlying logical principles of scientific theories. In particular, it concerns ex contradictione quodlibet the principle that anything follows from a contradiction. ECQ is valid according to classical logic, but invalid according to paraconsistent logics. Some advocates of paraconsistency claim that there are ‘real’ inconsistent theories that do not erupt with completely indiscriminate, absurd commitments. They take this as evidence in favor of paraconsistency. Michael calls this the non-triviality strategy. He argues that this strategy fails in (...)
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  46. Other Stars, Other Planets, and Other Life: A Primer That Goes Two-Thirds of the Way. [REVIEW]Marc Champagne - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):153-156.
    Thanks to advances in astronomical measurement and computer modeling, “now we know thousands of worlds” (Deacon 2020, 7). By contrast, “in 1990 all we could say was that one star, the Sun, out of hundreds of billions, definitely hosted planets” (ibid., 18). The word “definitely” does a lot of work here. Knowledge does not require, and indeed rarely attains, certainty, so we might rephrase the foregoing as “in 1990 all we could say with sufficient assurance was that one star, the (...)
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  47. Does von Neumann Entropy Correspond to Thermodynamic Entropy?Eugene Y. S. Chua - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (1):145-168.
    Conventional wisdom holds that the von Neumann entropy corresponds to thermodynamic entropy, but Hemmo and Shenker (2006) have recently argued against this view by attacking von Neumann's (1955) argument. I argue that Hemmo and Shenker's arguments fail due to several misunderstandings: about statistical-mechanical and thermodynamic domains of applicability, about the nature of mixed states, and about the role of approximations in physics. As a result, their arguments fail in all cases: in the single-particle case, the finite particles case, and the (...)
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  48. Descartes Et la Fabrique du Monde: Le Problème Cosmologique de Copernic À Descartes, Written by Édouard Mehl. [REVIEW]Antonella Del Prete - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (4):404-408.
  49. Towards a Comparative Perspective on Newton’s Working Methods.Steffen Ducheyne - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):152-161.
  50. How Important Was Religion to Newton’s “Secular” Studies?Mordechai Feingold - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):181-190.
1 — 50 / 3561