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2090 found
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1 — 50 / 2090
  1. On Reading Newton as an Epicurean: Kant, Spinozism and the Changes to the Principia.Eric Schliesser - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):416-428.
  2. Exclusion and Affinity in Physics.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- i. the atom's brisance is defensive, perhaps ii. particle and Physicist iterate the other iii. Bohm was like the wave function iv. the quest for Quantum Gravity, for Unity v. action is action at a distance vi. think a simple Fractal vii. the world is flat viii. Sun is at the center.
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  3. What is Wrong with Ceteris-Paribus Law-Statements?Danny Frederick - manuscript
    It is often contended that the special sciences, and even fundamental physics, make use of ceteris-paribus law-statements. Yet there are general concerns that such law-statements are vacuous or untestable or unscientific. I consider two main kinds of ceteris-paribus law-statement. I argue that neither kind is vacuous, that one of the kinds is untestable, that both kinds may count as scientific to the extent that they form parts of conjunctions that imply novel falsifiable statements which survive testing, but that one kind (...)
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  4. Karl Popper: Conjectures and Refutations.Danny Frederick - manuscript
  5. On an Intrinsic Quantum Theoretical Structure Inside Einstein's Gravity Field Equations.Han Geurdes - manuscript
    As is well known, Einstein was dissatisfied with the foundation of quantum theory and sought to find a basis for it that would have satisfied his need for a causal explanation. In this paper this abandoned idea is investigated. It is found that it is mathematically not dead at all. More in particular: a quantum mechanical U(1) gauge invariant Dirac equation can be derived from Einstein's gravity field equations. We ask ourselves what it means for physics, the history of physics (...)
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  6. The Legitimate Route to the Scientific Truth - The Gondor Principle.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    We leave in a beautiful and uniform world, a world where everything probable is possible. Since the epic theory of relativity many scientists have embarked in a pursuit of astonishing theoretical fantasies, abandoning the prudent and logical path to scientific inquiry. The theory is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. However, it is not (...)
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  7. Teleomechanism Redux? The Conceptual Hybridity of Living Machines in Early Modern Natural Philosophy.Charles T. Wolfe - manuscript
    We have been accustomed at least since Kant and mainstream history of philosophy to distinguish between the ‘mechanical’ and the ‘teleological’; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature exemplified by Newton and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings ultimately expressed in the concept of ‘organism’ – a purposive entity, or at least an entity possessed of functions. The beauty of this distinction is that it seems to make intuitive sense and to map onto historical and conceptual constellations in (...)
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  8. Bohr's Atomic Model and Paraconsistent Logic.Pandora Hadzidaki -
    Bohr’s atomic model is one of the better known examples of empirically successful, albeit inconsistent, theoretical schemes in the history of physics. For this reason, many philosophers use this model to illustrate their position for the occurrence and the function of inconsistency in science. In this paper, I proceed to a critical comparison of the structure and the aims of Bohr’s research program – the starting point of which was the formulation of his model – with some of its contemporary (...)
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  9. Review of Franklin *What Makes a Good Experiment?*. [REVIEW] Adam_Morton - forthcoming - Metascience 102.
    I praise Franklin's full descriptions of important and exemplary experiments, and wish that he had said more about why they are exemplary.
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  10. OF WEIGHTING AND COUNTING: STATISTICS AND ONTOLOGY IN THE OLD QUANTUM THEORY.Massimiliano Badino - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of the History of Interpretations and Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford, Regno Unito:
  11. The Role of Imagination in Ernst Mach’s Philosophy of Science: A Biologico-Economical View.Char Brecevic - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
  12. In Pursuit of the Non-Trivial.Colin R. Caret - forthcoming - Episteme:1-16.
    This paper is about the underlying logical principles of scientific theories. In particular, it concerns ex contradictione quodlibet the principle that anything follows from a contradiction. ECQ is valid according to classical logic, but invalid according to paraconsistent logics. Some advocates of paraconsistency claim that there are ‘real’ inconsistent theories that do not erupt with completely indiscriminate, absurd commitments. They take this as evidence in favor of paraconsistency. Michael calls this the non-triviality strategy. He argues that this strategy fails in (...)
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  13. From a Boson to the Standard Model Higgs: A Case Study in Confirmation and Model Dynamics.Cristin Chall, Martin King, Peter Mättig & Michael Stöltzner - forthcoming - Synthese:1-33.
    Our paper studies the anatomy of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider and its influence on the broader model landscape of particle physics. We investigate the phases of this discovery, which led to a crucial reconfiguration of the model landscape of elementary particle physics and eventually to a confirmation of the standard model. A keyword search of preprints covering the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of particle physics, along with an examination of physicists own understanding of (...)
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  14. Du Châtelet and Descartes on the Role of Hypothesis and Metaphysics in Science.Karen Detlefsen - forthcoming - In Eileen O'Neill & Marcy Lascano (eds.), Feminism and the History of Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    In this chapter, I examine similarities and divergences between Du Châtelet and Descartes on their endorsement of the use of hypotheses in science, using the work of Condillac to locate them in his scheme of systematizers. I conclude that, while Du Châtelet is still clearly a natural philosopher, as opposed to modern scientist, her conception of hypotheses is considerably more modern than is Descartes’, a difference that finds its roots in their divergence on the nature of first principles.
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  15. Dimensionality, Symmetry, and the Inverse Square Law (with Rex Ramsier), April 2020 (E-Print).Dimitria Gatzia - forthcoming - Notes and Records: Royal Society Journal of the History of Science.
    Kant suggested that Newton’s Inverse Square Law (ISL) determines the dimensions of space to be three. Much has been written in the philosophical literature about Kant’s suggestion, including specific arguments attempting to link the ISL to three-dimensionality. In this paper, we explore one such argument and demonstrate that it fails to support the link Kant purports to make between the ISL and the three-dimensionality of space. At best, the link that can be made is between the ISL and symmetry.
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  16. Physical systems, mathematical representation, and philosophical principles: the EPR paper and its influence.Guy Hetzroni - forthcoming - Iyyun.
    The paper portrays the influence of major philosophical ideas on the 1935 debates on quantum theory that reached their climax in the paper by Einstein, Podosky and Rosen, and describes the relevance of these ideas to the vast impact of the paper. I claim that the focus on realism in many common descriptions of the debate misses important aspects both of Einstein's and Bohr's thinking. I suggest an alternative understanding of Einstein's criticism of quantum mechanics as a manifestation of the (...)
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  17. Unificatory Power in the Old Quantum Theory: Informational Relevance of the Quantum Hypothesis.Molly Kao - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
  18. Representation and Explanation In Science in the Opinion of Galileo and Einstein.Fabio Minazzi - forthcoming - Epistemologia.
  19. Realism, Physical Meaningfulness, and Molecular Spectroscopy.Teru Miyake & George E. Smith - forthcoming - In Timothy D. Lyons & Peter Vickers (eds.), Contemporary Scientific Realism: The Challenge from the History of Science. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 159-182.
  20. Homocentric Astronomy and the Animation of the Heavens: Girolamo Fracastoro Beyond Scholastic Psycho-Dynamics.Pietro Daniel Omodeo - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  21. Newtonian Mechanics and its Philosophical Significance.Ryan Samaroo - forthcoming - In Eleanor Knox & A. Wilson (eds.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Physics. London, UK: Routledge.
    Newtonian mechanics is more than just an empirically successful theory of matter in motion: it is an account of what knowledge of the physical world should look like. But what is this account? What is distinctive about it? To answer these questions, I begin by introducing the laws of motion, the relations among them, and the spatio-temporal framework that is implicit in them. Then I turn to the question of their methodological character. This has been the locus of philosophical discussion (...)
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  22. The Case of the Missing Satellites.Katia Wilson - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    In the late 1990s, computational technology had advanced sufficiently that astrophysicists were able to construct reasonably high resolution computer simulations of the Local Group of galaxies. These simulations indicated there should be around 250 small satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way and Andromeda. In the real Local Group, however, only around 40 satellites had been observed, and only twenty or so more have been discovered since then. Despite this discrepancy in numbers, claims have been made in recent years that the (...)
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  23. Other Stars, Other Planets, and Other Life: A Primer That Goes Two-Thirds of the Way: Niall Deacon: Twenty Worlds: The Extraordinary Story of Planets Around Other Stars. London: Reaktion Books, 2020, 216 Pp, $22.50.Marc Champagne - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):153-156.
  24. Does von Neumann Entropy Correspond to Thermodynamic Entropy?Eugene Y. S. Chua - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (1):145-168.
    Conventional wisdom holds that the von Neumann entropy corresponds to thermodynamic entropy, but Hemmo and Shenker (2006) have recently argued against this view by attacking von Neumann's (1955) argument. I argue that Hemmo and Shenker's arguments fail due to several misunderstandings: about statistical-mechanical and thermodynamic domains of applicability, about the nature of mixed states, and about the role of approximations in physics. As a result, their arguments fail in all cases: in the single-particle case, the finite particles case, and the (...)
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  25. Quantifications of the Secondary Qualities, Heat and Cold, on the Earliest Scales of Thermoscopes.Albrecht Heeffer - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):562-593.
    While scaled thermoscopes were developed only at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the medical tradition had already started to quantify some secondary qualities towards the end of sixteenth century. However, degrees of heat and cold were only meaningful in connection with Galenic-Aristotelean ontology, consisting of elements, temperaments and degrees of the four humours. The first graduated thermoscopes transformed the prevailing conceptualizations of heat and cold. By delegating some specific senses of heat and cold to an external contrivance, together with (...)
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  26. Robert Serber. The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb. Introduction by Richard Rhodes. 176 Pp., Figs., Apps., Index. Oakland: University of California Press, 2020. $17.95 (E-Book); ISBN 9780520344174. Paperback Available. [REVIEW]Matthew Hersch - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):209-210.
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  27. Feyerabend’s Theoretical Pluralism: An Investigation of the Epistemic Value of False Theories.Wray K. Brad - 2021 - In Jamie Shaw & Karim Bschir (eds.), Interpreting Feyerabend: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press. pp. 72-88.
    I examine Feyerabend's defense for theoretical pluralism. I compare it to other influential defenses of pluralism, including Philip Kitcher's and Hasok Chang's. I argue that, unlike others, Feyerabend emphasizes importance of comparative evaluations when choosing between competing theories, and that such evaluations are enhanced by the development of multiple competing theories. I also argue that the development of numerous alternative theories enables scientists to make piecemeal changes when replacing one theory with another. I illustrate this by examining the impact of (...)
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  28. What Did Hooke Want From the Microscope? Magnification, Matter Theory and Mechanism.Ian Lawson - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):640-664.
    This article discusses Hooke’s microscopy in the context of the nature of his explanations of natural phenomena. It illustrates that while Hooke’s particular conception of microscopy certainly cohered with his general framework of mechanical philosophy, he thought of his microscope as an artisanal tool that could help him examine unknown natural machinery. It seems, however, that he never used magnifying lenses with the hope of confirming mechanism by glimpsing fundamental particles. Indeed, through a consideration of sources spanning from his 1665 (...)
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  29. Glen E. Rodgers. Traveling with the Atom: A Scientific Guide to Europe and Beyond. 551 Pp., App., Indexes. Croydon: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019. £29.99 (Paper); ISBN 9781788015288. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Alan Rocke - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):175-176.
  30. Magnifying Grains of Sand, Seeds, and Blades of Grass: Optical Effects in Robert Grosseteste’s De Iride (On the Rainbow).Rebekah C. White, Giles E. M. Gasper, Tom C. B. McLeish, Brian K. Tanner, Joshua S. Harvey, Sigbjørn O. Sønnesyn, Laura K. Young & Hannah E. Smithson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):93-107.
  31. Michael D. Gordin. Einstein in Bohemia. Vii + 343 Pp., Notes, Index. Princeton, N.J./Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2020. $29.95 (Cloth); ISBN 9780691177373. [REVIEW]M. Norton Wise - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):203-204.
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  32. So many suns, so many worlds, so many hypotheses: the history of the theories of formation of the Solar System and the progress of science.Danilo Albergaria - 2020 - Dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
    Theories on the Solar System formation have a long, centuries-old history. Starting with Descartes, going on to the works of Kant and Laplace, several natural philosophers and scientists have proposed theories that tried to explain the origin of the system from an initial primordial state moving forward to the features currently observed. In the second half of the 20th century the question began to be inquired by a growing specialized scientific community. A scientific consensus began to be formed in the (...)
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  33. Motion to the Center or Motion to the Whole? Plutarch’s Views on Gravity and Their Influence on Galileo.Frederik Bakker & Carla Rita Palmerino - 2020 - Isis 111 (2):217-238.
    While it is well known that Plutarch’s De facie in orbe lunae was a major source of inspiration for Galileo’s Sidereus nuncius, its influence on his Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, and especially on his views on gravity, has not been sufficiently explored. This essay offers the first systematic comparison of Plutarch’s and Galileo’s accounts of gravity by focusing on four themes: the thought experiment of a stone falling in a tunnel passing through the center of the (...)
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  34. Michael Brooks. The Quantum Astrologer’s Handbook: A History of the Renaissance Mathematics That Birthed Imaginary Numbers, Probability, and the New Physics of the Universe. 256 Pp. Melbourne/London: Scribe Publications, 2017. $26 (Cloth); ISBN 9781947534810. Paper and E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Howard G. Barth - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):874-875.
  35. Where is ‘Where is Everybody?’?: Milan M. Ćirković: The Great Silence: The Science and Philosophy of Fermi’s Paradox. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, Xxvii+395pp, $32.95 HB. [REVIEW]Yann Benétreau-Dupin - 2020 - Metascience 29 (1):67-70.
  36. Privileged-Perspective Realism in the Quantum Multiverse.Nora Berenstain - 2020 - In David Glick, George Darby & Anna Marmodoro (eds.), The Foundation of Reality: Fundamentality, Space, and Time. Oxford University Press.
    Privileged-perspective realism (PPR) is a version of metaphysical realism that takes certain irreducibly perspectival facts to be partly constitutive of reality. PPR asserts that there is a single metaphysically privileged standpoint from which these perspectival facts obtain. This chapter discusses several views that fall under the category of privileged-perspective realism. These include presentism, which is PPR about tensed facts, and non-multiverse interpretations of quantum mechanics, which the chapter argues, constitute PPR about world-indexed facts. Using the framework of the bird perspective (...)
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  37. Life, the Universe and Consciousness: An Introduction to the Theory of Universal Life.A. T. Bollands - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Bollands Publishing.
    We live in a world full of mysteries. How do our brains create consciousness? Which animals are conscious, and which are not? How can we have free-will in a deterministic universe? What are the fundamental Laws of Nature? What caused the Big Bang? How can we make sense of Quantum Mechanics? Why is the universe so finely-tuned for Life? And how did Life begin? Despite investigating such mysteries for decades or more, scientists and philosophers are no closer to finding clear (...)
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  38. How the Mind-World Problem Shaped the History of Science: A Historiographical Analysis of Edwin Arthur Burtt's The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science Part I.Konstantinos Chatzigeorgiou - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:121-132.
    This manuscript, divided into two parts, provides a contextual and historiographical analysis of Edwin Arthur Burtt's classic The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. My discussion corroborates the sparse technical literature on Burtt (Moriarty, 1994; Villemaire, 2002), positioning his work in the aftermath of American idealism and the rise of realist, pragmatist and naturalist alternatives. However, I depart from the existing interpretations both in content and focus. Disagreeing with Moriarty, I maintain that Burtt's Metaphysical Foundations is not an idealist work. (...)
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  39. ‘The Curious Ways to Observe Weight in Water’: Thomas Harriot and His Experiments on Specific Gravity.Stephen Clucas - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):302-327.
    This paper explores the experiments of the English mathematician Thomas Harriot on specific gravity in the years 1600-1605, as recorded in a series of manuscript notes in British Library Add. MS 6788. It examines the programme of reading undertaken by Harriot before these experiments, and describes a series of experiments conducted by him which compared the weight of a wide variety of substances in air and water. Harriot’s work is compared to that of his contemporary Marino Ghetaldi in Promotus Archimedis, (...)
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  40. Jean Perrin and the Philosophers’ Stories: The Role of Multiple Determination in Determining Avogadro’s Number.Klodian Coko - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):143-193.
    The French physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin is widely credited with providing the conclusive argument for atomism. The most well-known part of Perrin’s argument is his description of thirteen different procedures for determining Avogadro’s number (N)–the number of atoms, ions, and molecules contained in a gram-atom, gram-ion, and gram-mole of a substance, respectively. Because of its success in ending the atomism debates Perrin’s argument has been the focus of much philosophical interest. The various philosophers, however, have reached different conclusions, not only (...)
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  41. Uma Análise do Argumento a Favor do Princípio da Relatividade.Ricardo Tavares Da Silva - 2020 - In The Insides of Nature: Causality and Conceptions of Nature. Braga, Portugal: pp. 125-158.
    According to the principle of special relativity, the laws of nature are the same for systems at rest and for systems in uniform and rectilinear motion: for the formulation of the laws of nature, the body C and the body C´, which, relative to the former, is in uniform and rectilinear motion, are equivalent. Galileo, in the Dialogue on the Two Greatest Systems of the World, developed the following argument in favor of such a principle: two bodies C and C´, (...)
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  42. Jacques Rohault’s Mathematical Physics.Mihnea Dobre - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (2):414-439.
  43. Falsifiability and the Duhem Problem.Danny Frederick - 2020 - In Against the Philosophical Tide. Yeovil: Critias Publishing. pp. 15-19.
    It is often claimed that the Duhem problem shows that the notion of falsifiability is inapplicable to scientific theories. I explain why the claim is false.
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  44. Primary and Secondary Causation in Samuel Clarke’s and Isaac Newton’s Theories of Gravity.John Henry - 2020 - Isis 111 (3):542-561.
  45. Jacqueline Feke. Ptolemy’s Philosophy: Mathematics as a Way of Life. Xi + 234 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Princeton, N.J./Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2018. $39.50 (Cloth); ISBN 9780691179582. Paper and E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Matthieu Husson - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):866-867.
  46. Reflections on the Reception of Jean Perrin’s Experiments by His Contemporaries.Milena Ivanova - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):219-224.
  47. Jörg Resag. Feynman and His Physics: The Life and Science of an Extraordinary Man. (Springer Biographies.) Xii + 319 Pp., Figs., Bibl. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018. €32.69 (Cloth); ISBN 9783319968353. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Anja Skaar Jacobsen - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):899-900.
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  48. Experiments in the Making: Instruments and Forms of Quantification in Francis Bacon’s Historia Densi Et Rari.Dana Jalobeanu - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (4):360-387.
    The Historia densi et rari, published posthumously in 1658, is probably Francis Bacon’s most complex natural and experimental history. It contains observations and experimental reports, quantitative estimates and tables, and theoretical and methodological considerations, in a structure which has never been fully investigated. I provide here a fresh reading of this text from the perspective of scientific practices. I claim that Historia densi et rari represents a quantitative and instrumental investigation assembled with the help of Bacon’s philosophy of experiment as (...)
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  49. From Successful Measurement to the Birth of a Law: Disentangling Coordination in Ohm's Scientific Practice.Michele Luchetti - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:119-131.
    In this paper, I argue for a distinction between two scales of coordination in scientific inquiry, through which I reassess Georg Simon Ohm’s work on conductivity and resistance. Firstly, I propose to distinguish between measurement coordination, which refers to the specific problem of how to justify the attribution of values to a quantity by using a certain measurement procedure, and general coordination, which refers to the broader issue of justifying the representation of an empirical regularity by means of abstract mathematical (...)
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  50. Stability in Cosmology, From Einstein to Inflation.C. D. McCoy - 2020 - In Claus Beisbart, Tilman Sauer & Christian Wüthrich (eds.), Thinking About Space and Time. Cham: Birkhäuser. pp. 71-89.
    I investigate the role of stability in cosmology through two episodes from the recent history of cosmology: Einstein’s static universe and Eddington’s demonstration of its instability, and the flatness problem of the hot big bang model and its claimed solution by inflationary theory. These episodes illustrate differing reactions to instability in cosmological models, both positive ones and negative ones. To provide some context to these reactions, I also situate them in relation to perspectives on stability from dynamical systems theory and (...)
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