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  1. Thinking Twice About Virtue and Vice.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    [FREE PUBLISHED VERSION AT LINK BELOW]. This chapter provides an empirical defense of credit theories of knowing against Alfano’s the-ses of inferential cognitive situationism and of epistemic situationism. It also develops a Nar-row-Broad Spectrum of agency-ascriptions in reply to Olin and Doris’ ‘trade-off problem.’ In order to support the claim that credit theories can treat many cases of success through heuristic cognitive strategies as credit-conferring, the paper develops the compatibility between VE and dual-process theories (DPT) in cognitive psychology. A genuine (...)
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  2. Unadaptive Consciousness In Evolutionary Psychology.Ron C. de Weijze - manuscript
    The role of consciousness in evolutionary psychology, apart from postponing, rerouting, reinterpreting or ignoring stimuli, may simply be independently confirming, as in any science’s methodology.
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  3. Is Nativism in Psychology Reconcilable with the Parity Thesis in Biology?Slobodan Perovic & Ljiljana Radenovic - 2008
    The Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics regards non-genetic factors as merely constraints on the genetic variations that result in the characteristics of organisms. Even though the environment (including social interactions and culture) is as necessary as genes in terms of selection and inheritance, it does not contain the information that controls the development of the traits. S. Oyama’s account of the Parity Thesis, however, states that one cannot conceivably distinguish in a meaningful way between nature-based (i.e., gene-based) and nurture-based (...)
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  4. Writing the History of Postcolonial and Transcultural Psychiatry in Africa.Ana Antic - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512199370.
  5. The Return of the Political Freud? Some Notes on the New Historiography of Psychoanalysis. [REVIEW]Shaul Bar-Haim - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269511878769.
  6. History of Behavioral Neurology.Sergio Barberis & Cory Wright - forthcoming - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology.
    This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of behavioral neurology, dividing it roughly into six eras. In the ancient and classical eras, emphasis is placed on two transitions: firstly, from descriptions of head trauma and attempted neurosurgical treatments to the exploratory dissections during the Hellenistic period and the replacement of cardiocentrism; and secondly, to the more systematic investigations of Galenus and the rise of pneumatic ventricular theory. In the medieval through post-Renaissance eras, the scholastic consolidation of knowledge and (...)
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  7. A Neglected Chapter in the History of Philosophy of Mathematical Thought Experiments: Insights From Jean Piaget’s Reception of Edmond Goblot.Marco Buzzoni - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
  8. Johann Friedrich Herbart on Mind.Christoph Landerer & Wolfgang Huemer - forthcoming - In Sandra Lapointe (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge.
  9. Psychoanalysis and the Antinomies of an Archaeologist: Andrea Carandini, the Ruins of Rome, and the Writing of History.Tom McCaskie - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512098059.
    Freud’s fascination with the ruins of ancient Rome was an element in the formation and development of psychology. This article concerns the intersection of psychoanalysis with archaeology and history in the study of that city. Its substantive content is an analysis of the life and career of Andrea Carandini, the best-known Roman archaeologist of the past 40 years. He has said and written much about his changing views of himself and about what he is trying to do in his approach (...)
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  10. Hermann Lotzes Philosophie der Psychologie.Nikolay Milkov - forthcoming - In Hermann Lotze, Medizinische Psychologie oder Physiologie der Seele. Heidelberg:
    Die Psychologie hat sich im zweiten Viertel des 19. Jahrhunderts langsam zu einer autonomen Disziplin entwickelt. Im Unterschied zu den anderen Figuren in dieser Entwicklung, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Ernst Heinrich Weber und Gustav Theodor Fechner, hat Lotze in seiner Medicinische Psychologie (1852) von Anfang an die neue Disziplin, die Psychologie, konsequent in enger Verbindung mit der Philosophie entwickelt. Damit hat er die Hoffnung gebremst, die Psychologie völlig experimentellen Untersuchungen zu überlassen, die um diese Zeit schon viele gepflegt haben. Lotze scheute (...)
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  11. Social Evolution, Progress and Teleology in Spencer's Synthetic Philosophy and Freudian Psychoanalysis.L. Nascimento - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences.
    This article aims to compare notions of progress and evolution in the social theories of Freud and Spencer. It argues 1) that the two authors had similarly complex theories that contained mixed elements of positivism and teleology; 2) In its positivist elements, both authors made use of unified natural laws and, in its teleological aspect, they made use of notions of final cause in that progress and the evolution of civilization was understood as a linear path of progressive development with (...)
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  12. A ‘Commonsense’ Psychoanalysis: Listening to the Psychosocial Dreamer in Interwar Glasgow Psychiatry.Sarah Phelan - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512092603.
    This article historicises a dream analytic intervention launched in the 1930s by Scottish psychiatrist and future professor of psychological medicine at the University of Glasgow, Thomas Ferguson Rodger. Intimate therapeutic meetings with five male patients are preserved within the so-called ‘dream books’, six manuscript notebooks from Rodger’s earlier career. Investigating one such case history in parallel with lecture material, this article elucidates the origins of Rodger’s adapted, rapport-centred psychotherapy, offered in his post-war National Health Service, Glasgow-based department. Oriented in a (...)
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  13. The Past of Predicting the Future: A Review of the Multidisciplinary History of Affective Forecasting.Maya A. Pilin - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512097633.
    Affective forecasting refers to the ability to predict future emotions, a skill that is essential to making decisions on a daily basis. Studies of the concept have determined that individuals are often inaccurate in making such affective forecasts. However, the mechanisms of these errors are not yet clear. In order to better understand why affective forecasting errors occur, this article seeks to trace the theoretical roots of this theory with a focus on its multidisciplinary history. The roots of affective forecasting (...)
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  14. Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - forthcoming - In Maria E. Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  15. Types, Norms, and Normalisation: Hormone Research and Treatments in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, C. 1900–50.Chiara Beccalossi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):113-137.
    Displacing the physiological model that had held sway in 19th-century medical thinking, early 20th-century hormone research promoted an understanding of the body and sexual desires in which variations in sex characteristics and non-reproductive sexual behaviours such as homosexuality were attributed to anomalies in the internal secretions produced by the testes or the ovaries. Biotypology, a new brand of medical science conceived and led by the Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende, employed hormone research to study human types and hormone treatments to normalise (...)
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  16. Normality: A Collection of Essays.Peter Cryle & Elizabeth Stephens - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):3-8.
    This article introduces a collection of articles written in response to a recently published intellectual and cultural history of normality by Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens. It points to the fact that this special issue considerably extends and enriches the topical range of the book. The articles that follow discuss, in order, schooling in France at the time of the Revolution, phrenology in Europe and the US from 1840 to 1940, relations between commercial practice and scientific craniometry in 19th-century Britain (...)
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  17. Cold War Pavlov: Homosexual Aversion Therapy in the 1960s.Kate Davison - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):89-119.
    Homosexual aversion therapy enjoyed two brief but intense periods of clinical experimentation: between 1950 and 1962 in Czechoslovakia, and between 1962 and 1975 in the British Commonwealth. The specific context of its emergence was the geopolitical polarization of the Cold War and a parallel polarization within psychological medicine between Pavlovian and Freudian paradigms. In 1949, the Pavlovian paradigm became the guiding doctrine in the Communist bloc, characterized by a psychophysiological or materialist understanding of mental illness. It was taken up by (...)
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  18. Félida, Doubled Personality, and the ‘Normal State’ in Late 19th-Century French Psychology.Kim M. Hajek - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):66-89.
    The case of Félida X and her ‘doubled personality’ served in the last quarter of the 19th century as a proving ground for a distinctively French form of psychology that bore the stamp of physiology, including the comparative term normal state. Debates around Félida’s case provided the occasion for reflection about how that term and its opposites could take their places in the emerging discursive field of psychopathology. This article centres its analysis on Eugène Azam’s 1876–77 study of Félida, and (...)
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  19. Daniela Finzi; Herman Westerink (Editors). Dora, Hysteria, and Gender: Reconsidering Freud’s Case Study. (Figures of the Unconscious, 16.) 152 Pp., Notes. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2018. €29.50 (Paper); ISBN 9789461662613. [REVIEW]Shruti Kapila - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):201-202.
  20. Kinsey and the Psychoanalysts: Cross-Disciplinary Knowledge Production in Post-War US Sex Research.Katie Sutton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (1):120-147.
    The historical forces of war and migration impacted heavily on the disciplinary locations, practitioners, and structures of sexology and psychoanalysis that had developed in the first decades of the 20th century. By the late 1940s, the US was fast becoming the world centre of each of these prominent fields within the modern human sciences. During these years, the work of Alfred C. Kinsey and his team became synonymous with a distinctly North American brand of empirical sex research. This article offers (...)
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  21. Proving Nothing and Illustrating Much: The Case of Michael Balint.Shaul Bar-Haim - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (3-4):47-65.
    John Forrester’s book Thinking in Cases does not provide one ultimate definition of what it means to ‘think in cases’, but rather several alternatives: a ‘style of reasoning’, ‘paradigms’ or ‘exemplars’, and ‘language games’, to mention only a few. But for Forrester, the stories behind each of the figures who suggested these different models for thinking are as important as the models themselves. In other words, the question for Forrester is not only what ‘thinking in cases’ is, but also who (...)
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  22. On Kuhn’s Case, and Piaget's: A Critical Two-Sited Hauntology.Jeremy Trevelyan Burman - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (3-4):129-159.
    Picking up on John Forrester’s disclosure that he felt ‘haunted’ by the suspicion that Thomas Kuhn’s interests had become his own, this essay complexifies our understanding of both of their legacies by presenting two sites for that haunting. The first is located by engaging Forrester’s argument that the connection between Kuhn and psychoanalysis was direct. However, recent archival discoveries suggest that that is incorrect. Instead, Kuhn’s influence in this regard was Jean Piaget. And it is Piaget’s thinking that was influenced (...)
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  23. Descriptive Psychology: Brentano and Dilthey.Guillaume Fréchette - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):290-307.
  24. Within a Single Lifetime: Recent Writings on Autism.Gregory Hollin - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (5):167-178.
  25. Consciousness Reduced: The Role of the ‘Idiot’ in Early Evolutionary Psychology.Simon Jarrett - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (5):110-137.
    A conception of the idiotic mind was used to substantiate late 19th-century theories of mental evolution. A new school of animal/comparative psychologists attempted from the 1870s to demonstrate that evolution was a mental as well as a physical process. This intellectual enterprise necessitated the closure, or narrowing, of the ‘consciousness gap’ between human and animal species. A concept of a quasi-non-conscious human mind, set against conscious intention and ability in higher animals, provided an explanatory framework for the human–animal continuum and (...)
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  26. Psychological Mechanisms.Ulrich Koch & Kelso Cratsley - 2020 - In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.
  27. Editor’s Note.Lydia Patton - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):225-225.
    HOPOS is proud to support this special issue, “Descriptive Psychology and Völkerpsychologie—in the Contexts of Historicism, Relativism, and Naturalism.” The issue emerges from a workshop at the University of Vienna in 2017. It is edited by Christian Damböck, Uljana Feest, and Martin Kusch.
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  28. Allan V. Horwitz. PTSD: A Short History. (Johns Hopkins Biographies of Disease.) Xv + 238 Pp., Notes, Index. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018. $28.95 (Paper); ISBN 9781421426396. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Hans Pols - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):910-911.
  29. Our Science Must Establish Itself.Stefan Reiners - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):234-253.
  30. Owen Whooley. On the Heels of Ignorance: Psychiatry and the Politics of Not Knowing. Xiii + 296 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2019. $30 (Paper); ISBN 9780226616384. Cloth and E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Jonathan Sadowsky - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):861-862.
  31. Thinking in Multitudes: Questionnaires and Composite Cases in Early American Psychology.Jacy L. Young - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (3-4):160-174.
    In the late 19th century, the questionnaire was one means of taking the case study into the multitudes. This article engages with Forrester’s idea of thinking in cases as a means of interrogating questionnaire-based research in early American psychology. Questionnaire research was explicitly framed by psychologists as a practice involving both natural historical and statistical forms of scientific reasoning. At the same time, questionnaire projects failed to successfully enact the latter aspiration in terms of synthesizing masses of collected data into (...)
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  32. Psychopathologies of Time: Defining Mental Illness in Early 20th-Century Psychiatry.Allegra R. P. Fryxell - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (2):3-31.
    This article examines the role of time as a methodological tool and pathological focus of clinical psychiatry and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. Contextualizing ‘psychopathologies of time’ developed by practitioners in Europe and North America with reference to the temporal theories implicit in Freudian psychoanalysis and Henri Bergson’s philosophy of durée, it illuminates how depression, schizophrenia, and other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behaviours and aphasia were understood to be symptomatic of an altered or disturbed ‘time-sense’. (...)
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  33. Is the Eye Like What It Sees? A Critique of Aristotle on Sensing by Assimilation.Mohan Matthen - 2019 - Vivarium 57 (3-4):268-292.
    Aristotle held that perception consists in the reception of external sensory qualities (or sensible forms) in the sensorium. This idea is repeated in many forms in contemporary philosophy, including, with regard to vision, in the idea (still not firmly rejected) that the retinal image consists of points of colour. In fact, this is false. Colour is a quality that is constructed by the visual system, and though it is possible to be a realist about colour, it is completely misleading to (...)
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  34. Cognition, Activity, and Content.Chris Drain - 2018 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 55 (3):106-121.
    According to Leontiev’s “activity approach,” the external world is not something available to be “worked over” according to a subject’s inner or “ideal” representations; at stake instead is the emergence of an “idealized” objective world that relates to a subject’s activity both internally and externally construed. In keeping with a Marxian account of anthropogenesis, Leontiev links the emergence of “ideality” with social activity itself, incorporating it within the general movement between the poles of ‘inner’ cognition and ‘external’ action. In this (...)
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  35. Helmholtz and Philosophy: Science, Perception, and Metaphysics, with Variations on Some Fichtean Themes.Gary Hatfield - 2018 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 6 (3).
    This article considers Helmholtz’s relation to philosophy, including Fichte’s philosophy. Recent interpreters find Fichtean influence on Helmholtz, especially concerning the role of voluntary movement in distinguishing subject from object, or “I” from “not-I.” After examining Helmholtz’s statements about Fichte, the article describes Fichte’s ego-doctrine and asks whether Helmholtz could accept it into his sensory psychology. He could not accept Fichte’s core position, that an intrinsically active I intellectually intuits its own activity and posits the not-I as limiting and determining that (...)
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  36. Symptoms, Signs, and Risk Factors: Epidemiological Reasoning in Coronary Heart Disease and Depression Management.Mikko Jauho & Ilpo Helén - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (1):56-73.
    In current mental health care psychiatric conditions are defined as compilations of symptoms. These symptom-based disease categories have been severely criticised as contingent and boundless, facilitating the rise to epidemic proportions of such conditions as depression. In this article we look beyond symptoms and stress the role of epidemiology in explaining the current situation. By analysing the parallel development of cardiovascular disease and depression management in Finland, we argue, firstly, that current mental health care shares with the medicine of chronic (...)
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  37. Freud Under the Acropolis: The Challenging Journey of Psychoanalysis in 20th-Century Greece.Danae Karydaki - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (4):13-37.
    Psychoanalysis was introduced to Greece in 1915 by the progressive educator Manolis Triantafyllidis and was further elaborated by Marie Bonaparte, Freud’s friend and member of the Greek royal family, and her psychoanalytic group in the aftermath of the Second World War. However, the accumulated traumas of the Nazi occupation, the Greek Civil War, the post-Civil-War tension between the Left and the Right, the military junta and the social and political conditions of post-war Greece led this project and all attempts to (...)
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  38. Soviet Psychiatry and the Origins of the Sluggish Schizophrenia Concept, 1912–1936.Benjamin Zajicek - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (2):88-105.
    This article seeks to understand the origins of the Soviet concept of ‘sluggish schizophrenia’, a diagnostic category that was used to imprison political dissidents in the post-WWII era. It focuses on the 1920s and 1930s, a period when Soviet psychiatrists attempted to find ways to diagnose schizophrenia at its earliest stages. The new Soviet state supported these efforts, funding new institutions where clinicians encountered types of patients they had not previously studied. Conceptual disagreements arose about what symptoms could be used (...)
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  39. L’attention chez Descartes: aspect mental et aspect physiologique.Hatfield Gary - 2017 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 171 (1):7-25.
    In philosophical writings from Descartes’ time, the topic of attention attracted notice but not systematic treatment. In Descartes’s own writings, attention was not given the kind of extended analysis that he devoted to the theory of the senses, or the passions, or to the intellect and will. Nonetheless, phenomena of attention arose in relation to these other topics and were discussed in terms of mental operations and, where appropriate, relations to bodily organs. Although not producing a systematic account, Descartes frequently (...)
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  40. Psychotherapy in Historical Perspective.Sarah Marks - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (2):3-16.
    This article will briefly explore some of the ways in which the past has been used as a means to talk about psychotherapy as a practice and as a profession, its impact on individuals and society, and the ethical debates at stake. It will show how, despite the multiple and competing claims about psychotherapy’s history and its meanings, historians themselves have, to a large degree, not attended to the intellectual and cultural development of many therapeutic approaches. This absence has the (...)
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  41. Lessons and New Directions for Extended Cognition From Social and Personality Psychology.Joshua August Skorburg - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (4):458-480.
    This paper aims to expand the range of empirical work relevant to the extended cognition debates. First, I trace the historical development of the person-situation debate in social and personality psychology and the extended cognition debate in the philosophy of mind. Next, I highlight some instructive similarities between the two and consider possible objections to my comparison. I then argue that the resolution of the person-situation debate in terms of interactionism lends support for an analogously interactionist conception of extended cognition. (...)
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  42. Sigmund Freud and Alejandro Lipschütz: Psychoanalysis and Biology Between Europe and Chile.Silvana Vetö & Marcelo Sánchez - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (1):7-31.
    This article deals with the relationship between the creator of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, and the Latvian-born Chilean professor of physiology – and endocrinologist and anthropologist – Alejandro Lipschütz. Up till now, the historiography of psychoanalysis in Chile has ignored the existence of this relationship, that is to say, the fact that there exists an interesting exchange of correspondence as well as references to Lipschütz in some important works published by Freud and in Freud’s correspondence with the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi. (...)
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  43. Revisiting Freud and Kohut on Narcissism.Kelso Cratsley - 2016 - Theory & Psychology 26 (3):333-359.
    Narcissism continues to be an important topic of research, with a great deal of ongoing empirical work in social and personality psychology. But there are theoretical issues that have received less attention recently, including those that relate to the foundational theories of the psychoanalytic tradition. As the first step in a larger project of reevaluation, this article offers a critical review of Freud and Heinz Kohut’s theories of narcissism. Centered on a theoretical reconstruction, it clarifies several significant – and often (...)
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  44. Mechanisms in Psychology: Ripping Nature at its Seams.Catherine Stinson - 2016 - Synthese 193 (5).
    Recent extensions of mechanistic explanation into psychology suggest that cognitive models are only explanatory insofar as they map neatly onto, and serve as scaffolding for more detailed neural models. Filling in those neural details is what these accounts take the integration of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to mean, and they take this process to be seamless. Critics of this view have given up on cognitive models possibly explaining mechanistically in the course of arguing for cognitive models having explanatory value independent (...)
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  45. Screening the Psychological Laboratory: Hugo Münsterberg, Psychotechnics, and the Cinema, 1892–1916.Jeremy Blatter - 2015 - Science in Context 28 (1):53-76.
    According to Hugo Münsterberg, the direct application of experimental psychology to the practical problems of education, law, industry, and art belonged by definition to the domain of psychotechnics. Whether in the form of pedagogical prescription, interrogation technique, hiring practice, or aesthetic principle, the psychotechnical method implied bringing the psychological laboratory to bear on everyday life. There were, however, significant pitfalls to leaving behind the putative purity of the early psychological laboratory in pursuit of technological utility. In the Vocation Bureau, for (...)
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  46. Associationism Without Associative Links: Thomas Brown and the Associationist Project.Mike Dacey - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:31-40.
    There are two roles that association played in 18th–19th century associationism. The first dominates modern understanding of the history of the concept: association is a causal link posited to explain why ideas come in the sequence they do. The second has been ignored: association is merely regularity in the trains of thought, and the target of explanation. The view of association as regularity arose in several forms throughout the tradition, but Thomas Brown (1778–1820) makes the distinction explicit. He argues that (...)
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  47. Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Experimental Psychology.Patrick R. Frierson - 2015 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (2):240-268.
    Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of the (...)
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  48. Natural Geometry in Descartes and Kepler.Gary Hatfield - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (1):117-148.
    According to Kepler and Descartes, the geometry of the triangle formed by the two eyes when focused on a single point affords perception of the distance to that point. Kepler characterized the processes involved as associative learning. Descartes described the processes as a “ natural geometry.” Many interpreters have Descartes holding that perceivers calculate the distance to the focal point using angle-side-angle, calculations that are reduced to unnoticed mental habits in adult vision. This article offers a purely psychophysiological interpretation of (...)
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  49. Perception in Philosophy and Psychology in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries.Gary Hatfield - 2015 - In Mohan Matthen (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 100–117.
    The chapter begins with a sketch of the empirical, theoretical, and philosophical background to nineteenth-century theories of perception, focusing on visual perception. It then considers German sensory physiology and psychology in the nineteenth century and its reception. This section gives special attention to: assumptions about nerve–sensation relations; spatial perception; the question of whether there is a two-dimensional representation in visual experience; psychophysics; size constancy; and theories of colour perception. The chapter then offers a brief look at the interaction between perceptual (...)
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  50. Objectifying the Phenomenal in Experimental Psychology: Titchener and Beyond.Gary Hatfield - 2015 - Philosophia Scientiae 19 (3):73-94.
    This paper examines the origins and legacy of Titchener’s notion of stimulus error in the experimental study of sensory experience. It places Titchener’s introspective methods into the intellectual world of early experimental psychology. It follows the subsequent development of perceptual experimentation primarily in the American literature, with notice to British and German studies as needed. Subsequent investigators transformed the specific notion of a “stimulus error” into experimental questions in which subjects’ attitudes toward their perceptual tasks became independent variables to be (...)
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