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  1. added 2022-07-03
    Henry Sidgwick on Freedom as the Formula for Justice.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This is a two page handout, briefly summarizing late nineteenth and early twentieth century philosopher Henry Sidgwick's objections to giving all citizens a right to as much equal freedom as possible. H.L.A. Hart, who uses the material in a notable paper, also figures.
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  2. added 2022-07-03
    Plato on the Weakness of Words: A Defence of the Digression of Ep. Vii.Erik Nis Ostemfeld - manuscript
    This is a defence of the authenticity of Plato’s Epistula vii against the recent onslaught by Frede and Burnyeat (2015). It focusses on what Ep. vii has to say about writing and the embedded philosophical Digression and evaluates this in the context of other mainly late dialogues. In the Cratylus, Socrates ends with resignation regarding the potential of language study as a source of truth. This is also the case in Ep. vii, where the four means of knowledge (names, definitions, (...)
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  3. added 2022-07-03
    Plato on the Weakness of Words.Erik Ostenfeld - manuscript
    This is a defence of the authenticity of Plato’s Epistula vii against the recent onslaught by Frede and Burnyeat (2015). It focusses on what Ep. vii has to say about writing and the embedded philosophical Digression and evaluates this in the context of other mainly late dialogues. In the Cratylus, Socrates ends with resignation regarding the potential of language study as a source of truth. This is also the case in Ep. vii, where the four means of knowledge (names, definitions, (...)
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  4. added 2022-07-03
    Aenesidemus: Title, Indication of Contents, Preface.Robb Dunphy - manuscript
    G.E. Schulze's Aenesidemus, despite its importance for the development of post-Kantian idealism, has not been fully translated into English. Now and then, when I have time, I will upload draft translations of parts of the text here, with the goal of, at some point, providing a complete translation. These drafts will be rough and I welcome feedback! -/- This document contains only the Title page, Schulze's indication of the contents of the work, and the preface.
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  5. added 2022-07-03
    From Love to Care: Arendt’s Amor Mundi in the Ethical Turn.Lucien Ferguson - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172210974.
    This article offers a novel account of a key concept in Hannah Arendt’s political thought: amor mundi. In political theory’s ethical turn, theorists have increasingly turned to amor mundi as a source of ethical guidance and inspiration for politics. However, in doing so, they have elided Arendt’s distinct understanding of care. This article recovers Arendt’s understanding of amor mundi as care for the world by reconstructing the central concerns of her dissertation, Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin, and tracing them to the (...)
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  6. added 2022-07-03
    Hegel's Ontology of Power: The Structure of Social Domination in Capitalism.Nahum Brown - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
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  7. added 2022-07-03
    Bernardo Segni volgarizzatore dell'Etica Nicomachea.Domenico Cufalo - 2022 - In Marta Kaliska & Diego Ardoino (eds.), Relazioni trans(n)azionali. L’italia(no) punto di partenza e approdo di lingue e culture diverse. Varsavia, Polonia: pp. 91-102.
    Around the middle of XVI th century, in the Florence of Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici, Bernardo Segni (Firenze, 1504–1558) translated and commented some Aristotelian works in the Florentine vernacular. His works represents a very important innovation in the panorama of Italian Aristotelianism, because they are the product of circles outside the university world and are the first attempt to translate in Italian the works of the great Greek philosopher. In this paper, I’ll examine some aspects of his works, (...)
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  8. added 2022-07-03
    Emotions That Foster Learning: Wonder and Shock in Proclus.Corentin Tresnie - unknown
    In his Commentaries, Proclus describes the ways in which a teacher can awaken the desire for knowledge and philosophy in a given soul, and help this soul to make cognitive and moral progress. He considers such an intervention to be a case of providence, analogous to both the action of divine Pronoia and the care of one’s personal daemon. As the soul being thus educated is still unaware of the merits of rational thought, the teacher needs to use the emotions (...)
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  9. added 2022-07-03
    Remarks on the Conceptions of Philosophical Method of Schelling, Hegel, and Krause.Peter Rohs - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (2).
    “The A2 is Light,” Schelling explains to us in the Presentation of My System of Philosophy. Is such a statement meaningful, so that its truth value can be asked? Is it an empirical statement, which can be tested and possibly confirmed through observations? Or is it a synthetic a priori judgment independent of observations? Such questions are not easy to answer, and they are related to the logical status of Schelling’s theory as a whole. That such questions became important stems (...)
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  10. added 2022-07-03
    The Actual and the Good.Katerina Deligiorgi - 2022 - In A. Honneth and J. Christ (ed.), Zweite Natur. Bd VI. Veröffentlichungen der Internationalen Hegel-Vereinigung vol. 30. Stuttgart, Germany: pp. 409-422.
    I argue that the idea of the good is best understood in terms of a rather unorthodox thesis concerning actuality, namely that what is actual -as opposed to what just is, either spatio-temporally or abstractly- is properly identified as actual if it embodies a value, the value of maximal determinateness.
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  11. added 2022-07-03
    Nietzsche's Metaethics, Or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Appropriation.Keegan Callerame - unknown
    Certain contemporary Nietzsche scholars claim to have discovered Nietzsche’s position on metaethics through a careful reading and interpretation of his texts. Whose account is most accurate? Unfortunately, Nietzsche’s texts underdetermine his views on metaethics; we lack the textual evidence to settle these debates decisively. Does this mean that the historical Nietzsche’s metaethical beliefs, ultimately inaccessable, are of little use to contemporary metaethical study? Or instead, must metaethicists interested in Nietzsche fundamentally change how Nietzsche’s works are to be understood? While I (...)
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  12. added 2022-07-03
    Xenophon, the Old Oligarch, and Alcibiades.William H. F. Altman - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):261-278.
    Modifying the conjecture of Wolfgang Helbig by means of the distinction between Xenophon and his various narrators introduced by Benjamin McCloskey, this paper uses the insights of Hartvig Frisch to show how drawing a distinction between the first-person speaker in pseudo-Xenophon’s Constitution of the Athenians and its author indicates that the former is Alcibiades and the latter is Xenophon himself.
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  13. added 2022-07-03
    Beyond Law and Poetry: On Two Recent Festschriften.Alex Priou - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):391-407.
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  14. added 2022-07-03
    The Best Life in Aristotle’s Politics.Keita Ishino - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):327-345.
    It is often emphasized that the Athenians viewed philosophy as essentially apolitical or anti-political. Placed in this context, Aristotle’s Politics 7.1–7.3 deserves special attention because here Aristotle presents his argument on the best life for ‘each human being and commonly for cities and human beings ’, which culminates in his conclusion that ‘the same life ’ is the best for them. This paper attempts to show that ‘the same life’ does not mean a life consisting of activity of the same (...)
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  15. added 2022-07-03
    La expiación fisiológica de Nietzsche en el arte actual.Joaquín Esteban Ortega - 2022 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 27 (2):35-51.
    El que para Nietzsche sea nuestro cuerpo el que interpreta, sobre el sustento pulsional de las fuerzas inconscientes, tiene la consecuencia de desdibujar la seguridad del privilegio constituyente y unificador de la conciencia. La fragmentación implícita en la fisiología hermenéutica es la que permite la afirmación de la vida en todas sus dimensiones. Entender las pulsiones como proyecciones interpretativas de la voluntad de poder supone la ratificación de la excelencia, pero, al mismo tiempo, el abismo de la parte maldita. Este (...)
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  16. added 2022-07-03
    Nietzsche's Scala Amoris: Nietzsche and Diotima on Eros and Philosophy.Paul R. Murphy - unknown
    Nietzsche’s conception of eros and its role in the development of philosophers is similar to the conception of those same topics espoused by Diotima in Plato’s Symposium. Nietzsche and Diotima agree that eros is an insatiable desire to possess the beautiful, that eros aims at immortality through reproduction, and that philosophy requires an ascent beyond sexual desire to “higher” forms of eros, which nevertheless are still modeled on heterosexual reproduction. Understanding these facets of Nietzsche’s view leads to an apparent contradiction (...)
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  17. added 2022-07-03
    Innocent Preferences in Hume's Morality.Shaharyar Masood - unknown
    Hume believes it is common and natural for people to have preferences for character traits similar to their own, but he remains silent on how to separate the innocent preferences from the blameworthy ones. This paper looks to Hume's morality to answer this question, ultimately arguing for two jointly sufficient criteria: 1) a preference is innocent so long as it doesn’t prevent one from adopting the general point of view and 2) a preference is innocent so long as it is (...)
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  18. added 2022-07-03
    The Double Life of Ibn Bajja: A Platonic Philosopher Among the Potentates of His Time.Alexander Orwin - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):368-390.
    Ibn Bajja both lavishly praises Plato, and quietly alters his teaching. He develops a novel version of the Platonic city, taken partly from Alfarabi, which completely excludes non-philosophers from it, arguing that the gap between purely intellectual philosophy and mostly corporeal politics is simply too great. This allows Ibn Bajja to escape many of the problems associated with the exposition and implementation of the city of the Republic and Political Regime, but raises a new difficulty, namely, the relationship of the (...)
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  19. added 2022-07-03
    Geordnete Gemeinschaft. Politische Autarkie Bei Aristoteles.Simon Varga - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):303-326.
    In Aristotelian understanding, political autarky does not imply individual isolation, but the order of all human relationships within the community. The final aim is not ‘not-needing-anybody-else-anymore’, the independent identity, but the collective-cooperative shaping and ordering of life in the immediate forms of community. This includes in a special way basic social-anthropological elements, economic activities, civic organization, social-ethical reflection and friendship. These core elements of Aristotle’s specific political autarky make it clear that man is not only a zōon politikon but also (...)
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  20. added 2022-07-03
    Resenha de Bellucci, Francesco. Charles S. Peirce. Selected Writings on Semiotics, 1894–1912, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2020. Https://Doi.Org/10.1515/9783110607390. [REVIEW]Cassiano Terra Rodrigues - 2022 - Cognitio 23 (1):e56721.
    Resenha de Bellucci, Francesco. Charles S. Peirce. Selected Writings on Semiotics, 1894–1912, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110607390.
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  21. added 2022-07-03
    On the Martial Arts Status of Mixed Martial Arts: 'There Are No Rules'.Sarah Malanowski & Nicholas Baima - 2022 - In Marc Ramsay Jason Holt (ed.), The Philosophy of Mixed Martial Arts: Squaring the Octagon. pp. 16-29.
    Many traditional martial artists assert that MMA is not a martial art, denying that the ‘martial skill’ of MMA constitutes a ‘martial art’, and citing the sportive and entertainment aspects of MMA competitions as antithetical to the spirit of martial arts, lacking the integrity, discipline, and tradition found in martial arts. Today, these criticisms are even more relevant in light of the fact that the typical MMA fighter no longer practices a single discipline but is versed in a variety of (...)
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  22. added 2022-07-03
    ARAGÜÉS, Rafael, Introducción a la Lógica de Hegel, Barcelona: Herder, 2020.Alejandro Rojas Jiménez - 2022 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 27 (2):170-171.
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  23. added 2022-07-03
    America's Philosopher: John Locke in American Intellectual Life.Claire Rydell Arcenas - 2022 - University of Chicago Press.
  24. added 2022-07-03
    Aristotle on the Concept of Shared Life, Written by Sara Brill.William B. Cochran - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):422-424.
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  25. added 2022-07-03
    God and Religion of the Enlightened Man According to Kant.Ryszard Panasiuk - unknown
    Having revealed an illusion of man’s cognitive efforts, Kant sealed the progress of enlightenment inscribed into a historical process, with a deep conviction that an ancient Greek prescription to “know thyself” was finally fulfilled. A man became aware of being equipped with a mind, and accordingly, with freedom as well as the ability to act morally, still remaining a finite natural being with limited cognitive skills. This critical self-knowledge of an enlightened man relieved him of his nonage to open his (...)
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  26. added 2022-07-03
    The Moralization of Nietzsche.Barry Farmer - unknown
    The inflammatory and elitist language Nietzsche uses in Beyond Good and Evil to describe the relationship between the ruling class and the underclass is often read as hyperbolic, and attempts are often made in the secondary literature to spare him the appearance of advocating gratuitous exploitation. This thesis challenges the assumption that Nietzsche is speaking hyperbolically in the passages in question. It argues in fact that the descriptive project Nietzsche undertakes in Beyond Good and Evil requires the prima facie radical (...)
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  27. added 2022-07-03
    Automation, Slavery, and Work in Aristotle’s Politics Book I.Ziyaad Bhorat - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):279-302.
    Engaging Aristotle’s broader corpus, this paper offers an exegesis of his counterfactual statement in the Politics regarding self-weaving shuttles and self-playing lyres. It argues that Aristotle imagines and offers his own theory of automation – if by automation we understand the conditions, limits, and consequences of substituting human work with artificial tools capable of acting themselves to complete the relevant task. Because such automated tools are impossible in Aristotle’s time, his political thought is never positively released from its foundational dependence (...)
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  28. added 2022-07-03
    Conspicuous by Their Presence: Brutus, Cassius, and Cato the Younger in the Writings of Tacitus.Thomas E. Strunk - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):346-367.
    Tacitus is an unlikely source for our study of Brutus, Cassius, and Cato, as they stand outside the chronological framework of Tacitus’ writings; nonetheless, they do appear a number of times throughout his works, and Tacitus portrays them with nuance and significance. As Brutus, Cassius, and Cato are rarely the precise focus for Tacitus, they are often referred to obliquely or in dialogue or speeches typically regarding treason and liberty. This paper will explore Tacitus’ depiction of Brutus, Cassius, and Cato (...)
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  29. added 2022-07-03
    Schopenhauer's Pessimism: The Trial of Existence.Nuriel Prigal - 2022 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 27 (2):73-93.
    I attempt to present a more holistic and more detailed account of Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophical premises and their implications. The discussion begins with Schopenhauer's claim that the world is representation and with the discovering of the Will. It continues by examining the implications of the Will, which leads to the argument against existence itself.
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  30. added 2022-07-03
    Infinite Monkeys: Nietzsche and the Cruel Optimism of Personal Immortality.Robert Johnson - unknown
    Nietzsche is a popular source of inspiration for transhumanist writers. Some, such as Sorgner and More, argue that Nietzsche ought to be considered a precursor of the movement. Transhumanism is a philosophy committed to the desirability of using technology to transform human beings, through significant alteration of their brains and bodies, into a new posthuman species. One of the defining characteristics of transhumanism is the desire for personal immortality. I argue that this feature of transhumanism is wholly incompatible with Nietzsche’s (...)
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  31. added 2022-07-03
    Considerations on Democracy in Rawls's A Theory of Justice.Ivan Mladenovic - 2022 - Prolegomena: Journal of Philosophy 21 (1):9-24.
  32. added 2022-07-03
    Greek Rhetoric of the 4th Century BC. The Elixir of Democracy and Individuality, Written by Evangelos Alexiou.Giulia Maltagliati - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):418-421.
  33. added 2022-07-03
    The Ecological Sustainability of Plato’s Republic.Susan Erck - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):213-236.
    The Republic’s political discussion begins with the construction of two contrasting cities: a ‘healthy’ city and a ‘city with a fever’; one defined by environmentally sustainable subsistence practices and the other by ‘luxurious’ over consumption that exceeds the carrying capacity of its land. Plato’s characters proceed to cure the inflamed city of its fever, resulting in the delineation of the ideal political constitution, the Kallipolis, which recovers the virtues of the original, healthy city in an altered form. This paper develops (...)
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  34. added 2022-07-03
    The Application of Metaphysical Principles to the Empirical World. A Brief Reconstruction of the Core of Kant’s Doctrine of Right.Ewa Wyrębska-Đermanović - unknown
    The rediscovery of Kant’s Doctrine of Right resulted in many attempts to apply Kant’s position to current affairs. This research often faces the problem of defining clear borders of what in Kant’s texts needs to be considered as rational core of his theory and what is merely a theoretically less significant consequence of particular political situation of 18th century. My claim is that in order to be able to adequately apply Kant’s ideas and concepts to the 21st century problems, the (...)
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  35. added 2022-07-03
    Between Specters of War and Vision of Peace: Dialogic Political Theory and the Challenges of Politics, Written by Gerald M. Mara.Avshalom M. Schwartz - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):409-413.
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  36. added 2022-07-03
    Spinoza and Buddhism: The Metaphysics of Non-Self.Shiyi Liao - unknown
    Both Spinoza and Buddhism raise objection to the existence of the self as independent. This work presents Spinoza’s and early Buddhism’s account of the non-self respectively, namely, that the self does not have independent existence. Starting from the non-self, I look into the metaphysical pictures outlined by Spinoza and Buddhism and argue that despite their agreement on the non-self, they differ in regard to their metaphysical views in general. In comparing and contrasting the two, I shall conclude that both fall (...)
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  37. added 2022-07-03
    Resolving a Metaphysical Contradiction Within Nietzsche.Calder Altman - unknown
    One of the greatest philosophers of the self is Friedrich Nietzsche. Though he has been widely influential, Nietzsche’s unique writing style and particular legacy pose a challenge about how to interpret his ideas. In this thesis I present novel ways of understanding two of Nietzsche’s most well-known and seemingly opposed concepts, those of the overman and eternal recurrence of the same. In order to do so I ground each idea in new metaphysical arguments that are found elsewhere in Nietzsche’s work. (...)
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  38. added 2022-07-03
    Further Reflections on Peirce’s Scotism.Michael Raposa - 2022 - Cognitio 23 (1):e58358.
    This article explores the various ways in which Charles Peirce adapted some of John Duns Scotus’s ideas for his own philosophical purposes. Extending beyond the much-explored territory defined by Peirce’s and Scotus’s common embrace of scholastic realism, the purpose here is to identify and explore a variety of ways in which Peirce’s thought may have been shaped by Scotus’s conclusions. Peirce’s Scotism can be discerned in the careful examination of a diversity of topics: the pragmatic consequences of a commitment to (...)
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  39. added 2022-07-03
    Philosophy, Poetry, and Power in Aristophanes’s Birds, Written by Daniel Holmes.John Lombardini - 2022 - Polis 39 (2):414-417.
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  40. added 2022-07-03
    Wittgenstein’s Disappearing Idealism.Garris Rogonyan - 2022 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 11 (1):229-247.
    The article examines some well-known attempts to consider Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations in the context of transcendental idealism. The main purpose of these attempts is to protect Wittgenstein’s later philosophy from the relativistic interpretation of such concepts a “language games” and “forms of life.” Thus, Bernard Williams, noting the ambiguity of the pronoun “we” in Philosophical Investigations, believes that such a “we” has a transcendental rather than empirical character. This approach allows Williams to argue that there is no meaningful alternative (...)
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  41. added 2022-07-03
    ARAGÜÉS, Juan Manuel: Ochenta sombras de Marx, Nietzsche y Freud. Diccionario de filósofos y filósofas en la senda de la sospecha, Madrid: Plaza y Valdés, 2021.Ana Isabel Hernández - 2022 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 27 (2):167-170.
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  42. added 2022-07-03
    'Why Be Moral?’: How to Take the Question Seriously (and Why) From a Kantian Perspective',.Katerina Deligiorgi - 2021 - In Ansgar Lyssy Christopher Yeomans (ed.), Kant on Morality, Humanity, and Legality: Practical Dimensions of Normativity. pp. 21-43.
    Appropriately specified, the question, 'why be moral?', addresses important and legitimate topics of a broadly meta-ethical nature. The aim of the paper is to use this question as a dialectical tool, in order to identify the core theoretical commitments of Kant'sethics. Becausewell-foundedworrieshavebeenraised about the question itself, I consider these first. The purpose of this preliminary discussion is to determine the sort of question we are dealing with and to introduce the main topics for discussion.
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  43. added 2022-07-03
    Liberal Education and the Best Regime: Aristotle’s Freedom of the Soul.Kenneth Andrew Andres Leonardo - unknown
    In Plato’s Republic, Socrates presents an image of human beings in a cave to portray the political situation. I contend a close reading of Aristotle’s extant Corpus Aristotelicum reveals a possible path to liberation from his version of the cave. For Aristotle, human beings are slaves if they are unable to follow the rule of the soul. Within the soul, the intellect is the ruling part. Following Simpson, I think it is plausible that all four surviving ethical works were written (...)
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  44. added 2022-07-03
    Children Of Genius: Affirmation Of Will In Schopenhauer's Aesthetics.Clare Mauney - unknown
    While Schopenhauer is well-known for his pessimistic outlook on life, I argue that not all aspects of his philosophical project support this outlook. Specifically, I argue that Schopenhauer’s aesthetic genius must necessarily affirm life through artistic creation. To show that this is the case, I contend that the aesthetic genius’ engagement with the world of representation precludes him from engaging in the denial of the will-to-live, and that his desire to communicate his knowledge of the world entails an affirmation of (...)
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  45. added 2022-07-03
    . 'Moral Natural Norms: A Kantian Perspective on Some Neo-Aristotelian Arguments'.Katerina Deligiorgi - 2019 - In Paul Giladi (ed.), Responses to Naturalism: Critical Perspectives From Idealism and Pragmatism. pp. 23-43.
    Aristotelian ethics has the resources to address a range of first as well as second order ethical questions precisely in those areas in which Kantian ethics is traditionally supposed to be weak. My aim in this chapter is to examine some of these questions, narrowing my remit to those concerning the nature of the good and the authority of norms. In particular, I want to motivate and sketch a non-naturalist Kantian response to the neo-Aristotelian challenge that targets specifically its meta-ethical (...)
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  46. added 2022-07-03
    Nietzsche's Art of Interpretation: The Role of the Epigraph in GM III.Ryan McCoy - unknown
    Prior to the third essay of his Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche affixes a fragment from Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The purpose of the fragment seems explicit in the Genealogy’s preface where Nietzsche tells us that the essay is a commentary on an aphorism. However, the relationship of the fragment to the third essay is unclear. In response, several commentators have offered a solution: namely, to disregard the fragment from Zarathustra and to read the first section of the third essay as the (...)
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  47. added 2022-07-03
    How to Feel a Judgement: The Case of the Kantian Sublime.Katerina Deligiorgi - 2018 - In Kelly Sorensen & Diane Williamson (eds.), Kant and the Faculty of Feeling. Cambridge, UK: pp. 166-183.
    I examine the place of the sublime within the Kantian architectonic, I examine why the topic matters for Kant and what its accommodation within the architectonic tells us about his conception of system. I present my argument in the form of answers to the following questions: “What is the sublime?” “What is the sublime about?” “Why does the sublime matter?”.
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  48. added 2022-07-03
    Schopenhauer on Aesthetic Experience.Robert McKinley - unknown
    Arthur Schopenhauer defends the view that aesthetic experience is disinterested and objective. Traditionally, this view is taken to mean that aesthetic experience involves the suspension of all affective states and a passive attitude toward the object of contemplation. However, A. E. Denham argues that Schopenhauer’s view is more complex than traditionally thought. In particular, she claims that he sees aesthetic experience as involving passionate and active engagement with the object of contemplation. In this paper, I argue that a close reading (...)
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  49. added 2022-07-03
    Machine Automation and the Critique of Abstract Labor in Hegel's Mature Social Theory.Matthew J. Delhey - unknown
    This thesis examines Hegel’s critique of abstract labor in the Philosophy of Right and the sections on objective spirit in the Encyclopaedia. Against both Frederick Neuhouser’s and Marxist interpretations, I argue that abstract labor, for Hegel, characterizes the specific kind of mechanical labor undertaken in the nineteenth-century factory. Such repetitive labor, Hegel claims, leads to the deadening of the worker through the deforming of her ethical subjectivity, a social pathology he hopes will be resolved by machine automation. By developing two (...)
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  50. added 2022-07-03
    Aristotle's Appeal to Nature and the Internal Point of View.M. Dan Kemp - unknown
    Aristotle believes that certain pursuits are objectively choice worthy regardless of our attitudes towards them. Moreover, in order to have the correct beliefs about which actions are choice worthy, they must have acquired the right dispositions during their upbringing. Bernard Williams argues that Aristotle’s theory of moral education undermines belief in objective values. In response to Williams, Julia Annas argues that Aristotle does not ground ethics in the external point of view, but rather in the desires and commitments that people (...)
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