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From Saint Augustine to the early classical liberals, toleration is as discussed by theorists as it was for the changing world.  In this subcategory, we have discussions of both.

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1172 found
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1 — 50 / 1172
  1. Michael Walzer, On Toleration.D. Archard - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
  2. Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and State: A Lesson From Post-Revolutionary France.Bernard Bourdin - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology: Psychology, Emotions and Freedom.
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  3. John Locke, Lettera sulla tolleranza: Una nuova traduzione della "Letter Concerning Toleration" di John Locke, accompagnata da un testo introduttivo.Brunella Casalini - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
  4. Metrology and Monitoring of Environment (in Romanian).Lorentz Jantschi - forthcoming - Scientia.
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  5. Saggio sulla tolleranza.John Locke & Brunella Casalini - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
    Una nuova traduzione di "An Essay Concerning Toleration" di John Locke.
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  6. Peace Without Conciliation: The Irrelevance of "Toleration" in Judaism.Adin Steinsaltz - forthcoming - Common Knowledge 11 (1):41-47.
  7. Gothia and Romania'.J. M. Wallace-Hadrhx - forthcoming - Bulletin of the John Rylands Library.
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  8. Toleration and Some Related Concepts in Kant.Andrew Bain & Paul Formosa - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):167-192.
    In this article we examine Kant’s understanding of toleration by including a study of all instances in which he directly uses the language of toleration and related concepts. We use this study to resolve several key areas of interpretative dispute concerning Kant’s views on toleration. We argue that Kant offers a nuanced and largely unappreciated approach to thinking about toleration, and related concepts, across three normative spheres: the political, the interpersonal and the personal. We examine shortcomings in earlier interpretations and (...)
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  9. Locke, Natural Law and Civil Peace: Reply to Tate.Paul Bou-Habib - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (1):1474885116650422.
    In this comment, I reply to two objections John Tate raises against my discussion of the trajectory of Locke's ideas on toleration Tate maintains that I misunderstand the role of natural law and civil peace in Locke's thought. I defend my interpretation of the role of natural law and show that Tate is mistaken in his claim that Locke's concern to preserve civil peace conflicted with his separate concern to protect individual rights.
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  10. Theological Themes in Ricardo’s Papers and Correspondence.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2017 - European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 24 (4):784-808.
    I review evidence from published and unpublished sources on Ricardo’s theological ideas. The main focuses of interest are the existence of a natural morality independent of religious confessions, morality as the essence of religion, useless of theological speculation, justification of toleration for everybody, including atheists, and the miscarriage of any attempt at a philosophical theodicy. The paper explores also the connection between Ricardo’s interest for theodicy and his views on the scope and method of political economy and suggests that his (...)
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  11. The Politics of Religious Freedom: Liberalism and Toleration in Muslim-Majority States.Jon Mahoney - 2017 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 43 (6):551-570.
    The aim of this article is to consider the prospects of a liberal conception of religious freedom in some Muslim-majority states. Part I offers a brief sketch of three approaches to religious freedom that inform my view. Part II then presents a liberal framework for religious toleration that draws ideas from Rainer Forst’s Toleration in Conflict, as well as some perennial themes in classical liberal thought. I briefly examine three case studies in Part III: the Turkish Republic; the Arab Spring (...)
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  12. Natural Law, Judgement and Toleration in Locke.Timothy Stanton - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (1).
    Locke’s views on toleration and natural law have recently received a ‘reassessment’ at the hands of John William Tate. This article demonstrates some of the many and various ways in which Tate has mangled Locke’s positions and misconstrued the views of interpreters of Locke whose interpretations he finds uncongenial. It finds that there are no textual grounds for Tate’s claims and invites readers to reassess whether and how far they ought to be taken seriously.
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  13. The Transient Suppression of the Worst Devils of Our Nature—a Review of Steven Pinker’s ‘The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined’(2012).Michael Starks - 2017 - Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 3rd Ed 686p(2017).
    This is not a perfect book, but it is unique, and if you skim the first 400 or so pages, the last 300 (of some 700) are a pretty good attempt to apply what's known about behavior to social changes in violence and manners over time. The basic topic is: how does our genetics control and limit social change? Surprisingly he fails to describe the nature of kin selection (inclusive fitness) which explains much of animal and human social life. He (...)
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  14. Locke, Toleration and Natural Law: A Reassessment.John William Tate - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (1).
    There is an increasingly prevalent view among some contemporary Locke scholars that Locke's political philosophy is thoroughly subordinate to theological imperatives, centered on natural law. This article challenges this point of view by critically evaluating this interpretation of Locke as advanced by some of its leading proponents. This interpretation perceives natural law as the governing principle of Locke's political philosophy, and the primary source of transition and reconciliation within it. This article advances a very different reading of Locke's political philosophy, (...)
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  15. Modernization and Propaganda: Periodicals, Ecclesiastical Circulars and the Romanian Society in Transylvania During the Modern Period.Ioan Bolovan - 2016 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (44):137-152.
    Transylvania is well-known as a multi-ethnic and multi-denominational province. Before 1918, the Romanians in Transylvania had not had a state of their own in which they could enjoy all the rights and freedoms the other inhabitants of the province benefited from, even though Romanians had represented, throughout the centuries, two thirds of the province’s population. The aim of this paper is to argue that beyond their Christian mission, the Romanian Churches in Transylvania had specific characteristics resulting from the conditions in (...)
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  16. From Natural Law to Natural Rights? Protestant Dissent and Toleration in the Late Eighteenth Century.Martin Hugh Fitzpatrick - 2016 - History of European Ideas 42 (2).
    SummaryThe toleration gained by Protestant Dissenters, the Toleration Act of 1689, was far from comprehensive. It insisted that Dissenting authorities should subscribe to the doctrinal articles of the Church of England. It suspended anti-Dissent legislation rather than repealing it and the sacramental requirement for civil officials remained in place. The situation of Dissent under the law was ambiguous and, at least in theory, the freedom of worship gained under the act was incomplete. This article examines Dissenter attempts to clarify their (...)
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  17. Second Treatise of Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration.Mark Goldie (ed.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'Man being born...to perfect freedom...hath by nature a power...to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate.'Locke's Second Treatise of Government is one of the great classics of political philosophy, widely regarded as the foundational text of modern liberalism. In it Locke insists on majority rule, and regards no government as legitimate unless it has the consent of the people. He sets aside people's ethnicities, religions, and cultures and envisages political societies which command our assent because they meet (...)
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  18. Toleration and Understanding in Locke.Nicholas Jolley - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Nicholas Jolley argues that Locke's three greatest works - An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Two Treatises of Government, and Epistola de Tolerantia - are unified by a concern to promote the cause of religious toleration. Toleration and Understanding in Locke shows how Locke draws on the principles of his theory of knowledge to criticize religious persecution. The book also shows how the Two Treatises and Locke's later letters for toleration adopt the same contractualist approach to political theory. Throughout, attention is (...)
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  19. The Coherence of Bayle’s Theory of Toleration.Jean-Luc Solère - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (1):21-46.
    pierre bayle’s treatise on tolerance is a landmark in the birth of the modern mind. Written shortly before Locke’s Letter on Toleration, it advocates full toleration of all religious beliefs, not by reduction to the lowest common denominator, but rather because of the moral evilness of persecutions and forced conversions.However, many commentators believe that there is a flaw in Bayle’s theory: the so-called “conscientious persecutor aporia.”1 In order to show the wickedness of persecution, Bayle holds up conscience as an apparently (...)
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  20. Liberty, Toleration and Equality: John Locke, Jonas Proast and the Letters Concerning Toleration.John Tate - 2016 - Routledge.
    The seventeenth century English philosopher, John Locke, is widely recognized as one of the seminal sources of the modern liberal tradition. _Liberty, Toleration and Equality_ examines the development of Locke’s ideal of toleration, from its beginnings, to the culmination of this development in Locke’s fifteen year debate with his great antagonist, the Anglican clergyman, Jonas Proast. Locke, like Proast, was a sincere Christian, but unlike Proast, Locke was able to develop, over time, a perspective on toleration which allowed him to (...)
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  21. A “Vagabond Mind”: Montaigne’s Essais as Political Theory. [REVIEW]Doug Thompson - 2016 - Political Theory 44 (5):707-718.
  22. Locke’s Tracts and the Anarchy of the Religious Conscience.Paul Bou-Habib - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):3-18.
    This article reconstructs the main arguments in John Locke’s first political writings, the highly rhetorical, and often obscure, Two Tracts on Government . The Tracts support the government’s right to impose religious ceremonies on its people, an astonishing fact given Locke’s famous defense of toleration in his later works. The reconstruction of the Tracts developed here allows us to see that rather than a pessimistic view of the prospects for peace under religious diversity, what mainly animates the young Locke is (...)
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  23. Reading Emerson in Neoliberal Times.Mark E. Button - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (3):312-333.
    Nineteenth-century American political thinkers like Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman advocated for and sought to exemplify a life of self-direction and critical self-reflection, or personal autonomy, as a means of contesting entrenched routines of democratic-capitalist normalization and as a way of resisting a host of institutional disciplinary pressures. Today, the ideal of personal autonomy within a diverse liberal society is branded by many as a form of “comprehensive” disciplinary normalization in its own right. In this essay I offer a reconsideration of (...)
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  24. A New Approach to the Letter to D’Alembert.Israel Alexandria Costa - 2015 - Trans/Form/Ação 38 (s1):81-92.
    RESUMO:A réplica rousseauniana a d’Alembert, autor do verbete Genebra da Enciclopédia, foi batizada como Carta sobre os espetáculos, em respeito ao tema nela tratado após os dez primeiros parágrafos, os quais abordam explicitamente o tema da intolerância religiosa. Contudo, o presente artigo apresenta, sob a perspectiva de uma moral da tolerância que não se resume às questões religiosas, a defesa de que a Carta a d’Alembert é uma integral e avançada Carta sobre a Tolerância, por contemplar, além do discurso iluminista (...)
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  25. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Spinoza on Politics.Daniel Frank & Jason Waller - 2015 - Routledge.
    Baruch Spinoza is one of the most influential and controversial political philosophers of the early modern period. Though best-known for his contributions to metaphysics, Spinoza’s _Theological-Political Treatise_ and his unfinished _Political Treatise_ were widely debated and helped to shape the political writings of philosophers as diverse as Rousseau, Kant, Marx, Nietzsche, and even Locke. In addition to its enormous historical importance, Spinoza’s political philosophy is also strikingly contemporary in its advocacy of toleration of unpopular religious and political views and his (...)
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  26. Toleration Out of Conflicts. Review Article of Reiner Forst’s ‘Toleration in Conflicts’.Elisabetta Galeotti - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (2):246-255.
    Rainer Forst's Toleration in Conflict is a significant contribution to the important topic of toleration. Its critical survey of various arguments for and around toleration is thorough and rigorous. However, although Forst's argument for the respect concept of toleration is persuasive, the claim that this is a tolerant theory of toleration located at a higher level than other arguments is perhaps less so.
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  27. Relational Autonomy, Personhood, and African Traditions.Polycarp Ikuenobe - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (4):1005-1029.
    The commonplace view of autonomy involves the ability of individuals to be self-governing and self-legislating, and to make freely and reflectively deliberate choices and decisions. This idea of autonomy — that persons are metaphysically free, that is, that they have free will and may use reason to choose how they shall act — is considered to be a defining feature of a responsible person. There is a commonplace view that autonomy is intrinsically good such that overriding it cannot be justified.1 (...)
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  28. Toleration, Religion and Accommodation.Peter Jones - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):542-563.
    Issues of religious toleration might be thought dead and advocacy of religious toleration a pointless exercise in preaching to the converted, at least in most contemporary European societies. This paper challenges that view. It does so principally by focusing on issues of religious accommodation as these arise in contemporary multi-faith societies. Drawing on the cases of exemption, Article 9 of the ECHR, and law governing indirect religious discrimination, it argues that issues and instances of accommodation are issues and instances of (...)
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  29. Pierre Bayles Verteidigung des irrenden Gewissens und das Paradox der Toleranz.Peter Königs - 2015 - Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 101 (1):16-31.
    Bayle is famous for his defence of religious toleration. In this paper, I will call into question his main argument for toleration, his defence of the erring conscience. While it is often maintained that the argument is self-defeating, my claim will be more fundamental: His defence of the erring conscience does not even qualify as an argument for toleration in the first place, at least not for toleration as it is commonly understood. The argument has been misconceived by both Bayle (...)
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  30. Virtue and Irony in American Democracy: Revisiting Dewey and Niebuhr.Daniel A. Morris - 2015 - Lexington Books.
    Virtue and Irony in American Democracy: Revisiting Dewey and Niebuhr offers original, accessible democratic-virtue readings of Dewey and Niebuhr, showing implications for political responses to economic inequality on the basis of the virtues they imply. It includes an innovative critique of the Dewey/Niebuhr debate, arguing that these two prominent theorists of democracy failed to exhibit an important form of tolerance in their engagement with each other.
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  31. 10. Hobbes, Toleration, and the Inner Life.Alan Ryan - 2015 - In The Making of Modern Liberalism. Princeton University Press. pp. 204-219.
  32. Continuing the Conversation About Comparative Ethics.Abdulaziz Sachedina - 2015 - Journal of Religious Ethics 43 (3):543-556.
    This essay clarifies my stance on the distinctive facets of Christianity as a sole paradigm for a liberal interpretation of Islam in the area of human rights. It attempts to demonstrate the limits of applying a comparative ethics methodology without a firm grounding in historical studies that reveal the contextual aspects of the debate whether any religion, including Islam, is incapable of providing cultural legitimacy to the secular Universal Declaration of Human Rights among Muslim traditionalists. In the absence of the (...)
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  33. Managerial Tolerance of Nepotism: The Effects of Individualism–Collectivism in a Latin American Context.Juan I. Sanchez & Guillermo Wated - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):45-57.
    This study proposes and tests a model that integrates culture, attitudes, subjective norms, and attributions into a theoretical framework that explains tolerance toward nepotism in a Latin American country. The participants were 202 Ecuadorian middle and upper managers. The results suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, and attributions significantly predict managerial intention to discipline those employees who favored a family member when hiring. Furthermore, subjective norms and internal attributions mediated the relationship between culture and intentions to discipline employees who engaged in (...)
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  34. Religious Practice in Contemporary Romanian Rural Space Book Review at the Volume Dinamica Fenomenului Religios Si Modernizarea Rurala. Autor Roxana Necula. Iasi, Romania: Editura Lumen, 2015. [REVIEW]Antonio Sandu - 2015 - Postmodern Openings 6 (1):203-208.
    Confidence in the church is, nowadays, extremely high opposed to trust in other institutions of the state, especially the political ones. A first explanation is that the church manages to manage best the feeling of trust as key element of individual coping towards the society at risk. Faith in post-existence as a straight world, governed by a benevolent deity deeply contrasts with the disappointment and frustration accumulated during the accelerated course of the process of development implied by the post-industrial society. (...)
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  35. Toleration and Democratic Membership.Torrey Shanks - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (4):451-472.
    This essay examines John Locke’s engagement with monsters as a question of toleration in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Recounting a monster’s birth as a case of uncertain identity, Locke endorses a provisional form of judgment. I compare this response with Michel de Montaigne’s treatment of monsters in his Essays in order to highlight a politics of imagination and reason relevant to political judgment and toleration. Montaigne alerts us to significant silences in Locke’s treatment of monsters that reveal unrecognized dimensions (...)
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  36. Though He Is One, He Bears All Those Diverse Names: A Comparative Analysis of Jayanta Bhaṭṭa’s Argument for Toleration.David Slakter - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (2):430-443.
    In the Āgamadambara (“Much Ado about Religion”), Jayanta Bhatta appears to be making a case for religious toleration and pluralism. This paper considers whether Jayanta has a concept like toleration in mind at all, or at least something that we today might understand to be toleration. If he is doing neither, our understanding of the nature of tolerance and its conceptual limits may be furthered by determining exactly what he is talking about and why it looks so much like tolerance.
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  37. A Companion to Locke.Matthew Stuart (ed.) - 2015 - Blackwell.
    This collection of 28 original essays examines the diverse scope of John Locke’s contributions as a celebrated philosopher, empiricist, and father of modern political theory. Explores the impact of Locke’s thought and writing across a range of fields including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of science, political theory, education, religion, and economics Delves into the most important Lockean topics, such as innate ideas, perception, natural kinds, free will, natural rights, religious toleration, and political liberalism Identifies the political, philosophical, and religious contexts in (...)
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  38. Voltaire - the First Human Rights Advocate of Europe.M. M. Utyashev - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russiaроссийский Гуманитарный Журналrossijskij Gumanitarnyj Žurnalrossijskij Gumanitaryj Zhurnalrossiiskii Gumanitarnyi Zhurnal 4 (3):169.
    The article deals with a unique even within the age of European Enlightenment humanist essence and human rights activity of the great French philosopher, writer, poet Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire. The author focuses his attention on a new aspect of the well-known thinker - the unselfish and persistent protection of victims of religious intolerance, obscurantism, judicial tyranny. According to the author, Voltaire’s advocacy was the result of his political and legal socialization. This idea is supported by the facts of Voltaire’s (...)
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  39. Political Legitimacy and Islam in the Ottoman Empire: Lessons Learned.Karen Barkey - 2014 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (4-5):469-477.
    This article explores the role of religion in Ottoman political legitimation. It shows that the Ottoman rulers were interested in a much more expansive, diverse form of political legitimation that included Islamic religious legitimation, but also used toleration and sultanic law to construct a more capacious form of political legitimation that included Muslim and non-Muslim populations of the empire.
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  40. Billy Colfer, Wexford Castles: Landscape, Context, Settlement. Cork: Cork University Press, 2013. Pp. 272; Color and Black-and-White Figures, Maps, and Plans. $65. ISBN: 9781859184936. [REVIEW]Terry Barry - 2014 - Speculum 89 (1):177-179.
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  41. Gandhi, Deep Religious Pluralism, and Multiculturalism.Nicholas F. Gier - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (2):319-339.
    I’ve advanced from tolerance to equal respect for all religions.1I’ve broadened my Hinduism by loving other religions as my own.2[Gandhi’s] doctrine of the equality of religions . . . did not move towards a single global religion, but enjoins us all to become better expressions of our own faith, being enriched in the process by influences from other faiths.3At first glance the religious philosophy of Mohandas K. Gandhi appears to be a version of the perennial philosophy, the main proponent of (...)
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  42. How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical?Margaret C. Jacob - 2014 - Diametros 40:99-114.
    The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it (...)
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  43. Rousseau E a Questão Do Direito Dos Judeus.José Benedito de Almeida Júnior - 2014 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 70 (4):833-850.
    Resumo Este trabalho tem por objetivo compreender um dos aspectos da concepção de tolerância religiosa na obra de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, neste caso especificamente, a situação do povo judeu na Europa. Para tanto, analisa especialmente as obras O Emílio ou da educação e a História do anti-semitismo, vol. III: De Voltaire a Wagner de Leon Poliakov. Na primeira parte analisa a postura de Rousseau que reivindicou o direito dos judeus terem seu território, suas escolas e universidades oferecendo, desta forma, suas razões (...)
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  44. Пропагандистське Забезпечення Вступу Та Перебування Червоної Армії На Території Румунії (Друга Половина 1944 - Початок 1945 Років). [REVIEW]Olesia Kutska - 2014 - Схід 2 (128):77-85.
    The features of forms and means of Soviet propaganda on Romanian military and civilian audience from the time of the Red army entry to the territory of Romania to the time of Bucharest liberation and during subsequent battle actions on the territory of Romania have been analyzed. The questions of proper support of moral and psychological condition of the Red army soldiers in the capitalist country, whose troops were included to the Hitler coalition, have been reviewed. The role of Romanian (...)
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  45. John Locke on Inference and Fallacy, A Re-Appraisal.Mark Garrett Longaker - 2014 - Informal Logic 34 (4):364-392.
    John Locke, long associated with the “standard” approach to fallacies and the “logical” approach to valid inference, had both logical and dialectical reasons for favoring certain proofs and denigrating others. While the logical approach to argumentation stands forth in Locke’s philosophical writings, a dialectical approach can be found in his contributions to public controversies regarding religion and toleration. Understanding Locke’s dialectical approach to argumentation not only makes his work more relevant to the contemporary discipline of informal logic, but this understanding (...)
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  46. “ ‘Let the Law Cut Through the Mountain’: Salomon Maimon, Moses Mendelssohn, and Mme. Truth”.Yitzhak Melamed - 2014 - In Lukas Muehlethaler (ed.), Höre die Wahrheit, wer sie auch spricht. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 70-76.
    Moses Maimonides was a rare kind of radical. Being a genuine Aristotelian, he recommended following the middle path and avoiding extremism. Yet, within the sphere of Jewish philosophy and thought, he created a school of philosophical radicalism, inspiring Rabbis and thinkers to be unwilling to compromise their integrity in searching for the truth, regardless of where their arguments might lead. Both Spinoza and Salomon Maimon inherited this commitment to uncompromising philosophical inquiry. But of course, such willingness to follow a philosophical (...)
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  47. Religion in a Secular State and State Religion in Practice: Assessing Religious Influence, Tolerance, and National Stability in Nigeria and Malaysia.Chuwunenye Clifford Njoku & Hamidin Abd Hamid - 2014 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 13 (39):203-235.
    Some recent state formations are offshoots of religious societies where the elite clothed the state with religious apparel. Diverse communities and their beliefs compel many modern nations to adopt a secular state ideology in order to avoid religious domination of time. Constitutionally, Islam is the official religion in Malaysia, while the state has maintained peaceful co-existence among its religious groups with an emphasis on religious tolerance and improved wealth distribution. Conversely, Nigeria, constitutionally a secular state with shared populations of mainly (...)
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  48. Making Religion Safe for Democracy: Transformation From Hobbes to Tocqueville.J. Judd Owen - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Does the toleration of liberal democratic society mean that religious faiths are left substantively intact, so long as they respect the rights of others? Or do liberal principles presuppose a deeper transformation of religion? Does life in democratic society itself transform religion? In Making Religion Safe for Democracy, J. Judd Owen explores these questions by tracing a neglected strand of Enlightenment political thought that presents a surprisingly unified reinterpretation of Christianity by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Thomas Jefferson. Owen then (...)
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  49. Against Religion, Wars and States. The Case for Enlightenment Atheism, Just War Pacifism and Liberal-democraticAnarchism by Andrew Fiala. [REVIEW]Krzysztof Pacewicz - 2014 - Dialogue and Universalism 24 (1):233-239.
  50. The Wizards of the Violet Flame. A Magical Mystery Tour of Romanian Politics.Doru Pop - 2014 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 13 (38):155-171.
    This study presents the manifestations of irrational practices in recent Romanian politics. Providing a short history of the mystical and the occult in Romanian politics, this research uses as a case study the alleged use of the occult “violet flame” in the presidential campaign of 2009. By showing how public religiousness and the daily mystical practices are changing, the author is describing the transformations of the national political communication under the pressure of the news media, which are becoming more and (...)
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