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  1. A Live Wire : Machismo of a Distant Surface.Marvin E. Kirsh - manuscript
    The scientific study of socio-cultural phenomenon requires a translocation of topics elaborated from the social perspective of the individual to a rationally ordered rendition of processes suitable for comprehension from a scientific perspective. Scholarly curiosity seeded from exposure in the natural setting to economic, political, socio-cultural, evolutionary, processes dictates that study of the self, should be a science with a necessary place in the body of world literatures; yet it has proven difficult to find a perspective to contain discussions of (...)
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  2. Do Collective Persons Have Brains? When Methodological Individualism Meets Mechanistic Agency.Benoit Hardy-Vallée - manuscript
  3. Methodological Individualism.J. R. Lucas - manuscript
    A section I had written for my Principles of Politics, but decided not to use. I recently dug it out for an American friend. I publish it here, in case it is of use to anyone else.
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  4. Norming COVID‐19: The Urgency of a Non‐Humanist Holism.Jeffrey P. Bishop & Martin J. Fitzgerald - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  5. Cognitive Autonomy and Methodological Individualism.Francesco Di Iorio - forthcoming - Springer.
    ABOUT THIS BOOK: -/- – Links methodological individualism with the enactive paradigm of cognitive science -/- – Uses the theory of the mind as a complex self-organizing system to defend the interpretative approach of methodological individualism -/- – Criticizes the idea that the hermeneutical approach and scientific explanation are two alternative approaches, thus defending the unity of science -/- – Focuses on the non-atomistic variant of methodological individualism -/- OVERVIEW: -/- Unlike psychologistic paradigms, the non-atomistic variant of methodological individualism discussed (...)
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  6. Boudon: Agência, Estrutura E Individualismo Metodológico.Cynthia Lins Hamlin - forthcoming - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy (48).
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  7. Individual and Structural Interventions.Alex Madva - forthcoming - In Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva (eds.), An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind.
    What can we do—and what should we do—to fight against bias? This final chapter introduces empirically-tested interventions for combating implicit (and explicit) bias and promoting a fairer world, from small daily-life debiasing tricks to larger structural interventions. Along the way, this chapter raises a range of moral, political, and strategic questions about these interventions. This chapter further stresses the importance of admitting that we don’t have all the answers. We should be humble about how much we still don’t know and (...)
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  8. Symbiosis and the Humanitarian Marketplace: The Changing Political Economy of 'Mutual Benefit'.Carlos Palacios - forthcoming - Theory, Culture and Society:026327642110001.
    This article develops a diagnostic lens to make sense of the still baffling development of a ‘humanitarian marketplace’. Ambivalently hybrid initiatives such as volunteer tourism, corporate social responsibility or even fair trade do not strictly obey a distributive logic of market exchange, social reciprocity or philanthropic giving. They engender a type of ‘economy’ that must be apprehended in its own terms. The article argues that the large-scale collaborative effects of such a dispersed market can be theorized without resorting to the (...)
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  9. Where Are You Going, Metaphysics, and How Are You Getting There? - Grounding Theory as a Case Study.Gila Sher - forthcoming - In Quo Vadis, Metaphysics? Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter Studium.
    The viability of metaphysics as a field of knowledge has been challenged time and again. But in spite of the continuing tendency to dismiss metaphysics, there has been considerable progress in this field in the 20th- and 21st- centuries. One of the newest − though, in a sense, also oldest − frontiers of metaphysics is the grounding project. In this paper I raise a methodological challenge to the new grounding project and propose a constructive solution. Both the challenge and its (...)
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  10. Duality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Duality explains everything. Language unnecessary, and, actually, superfluous.
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  11. Introducing Implicit Bias: Why This Book Matters.Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva - 2020 - In Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva (eds.), An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind. New York, NY, USA: pp. 1-19.
    Written by a diverse range of scholars, this accessible introductory volume asks: What is implicit bias? How does implicit bias compromise our knowledge of others and social reality? How does implicit bias affect us, as individuals and participants in larger social and political institutions, and what can we do to combat biases? An interdisciplinary enterprise, the volume brings together the philosophical perspective of the humanities with the perspective of the social sciences to develop rich lines of inquiry. It is written (...)
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  12. Social Ontology, Normativity and Law.Rachael Mellin, Raimo Tuomela & Miguel Garcia-Godinez (eds.) - 2020 - Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    This volume contains the proceedings of the Social Ontology, Normativity, and Philosophy of Law conference, which took place on May 30–31, 2019 at the University of Glasgow. At the invitation of the Social Ontology Research Group, a panel of prominent scholars shed light on a range of key topics within social ontology, normativity, and philosophy of law from an interdisciplinary perspective.
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  13. Social Entities.Asya Passinsky - 2020 - In Michael J. Raven (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding. pp. 510-520.
    In recent years there has been an increased interest in applying the tools and methods of analytic metaphysics to the study of social phenomena. This essay examines how one such tool – the notion of metaphysical ground – may be used to elucidate some central notions, debates, and positions in the philosophy of race and gender, social ontology, and the philosophy of social science. Three main applications are examined: how the notion of social construction may be analyzed in ground-theoretic terms (...)
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  14. The irreducibility of collective obligations.Allard Tamminga & Frank Hindriks - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (4):1085-1109.
    Individualists claim that collective obligations are reducible to the individual obligations of the collective’s members. Collectivists deny this. We set out to discover who is right by way of a deontic logic of collective action that models collective actions, abilities, obligations, and their interrelations. On the basis of our formal analysis, we argue that when assessing the obligations of an individual agent, we need to distinguish individual obligations from member obligations. If a collective has a collective obligation to bring about (...)
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  15. The Search for a Future Global Human Rights Agenda.Peter Herrmann - 2019 - International Journal of Social Quality 9 (2):58-66.
    Human rights debates seem to be a little bit in a dead end: on the one hand, taken for granted is defined diffusion of human rights; on the other there seems to be in permanent confrontation two incompatible positions, each of them suggesting the other side is in breach of the rules. One is the position that emphasizes the societal dimension of rights; on the other camp, we find those striving for what may be seen as a civic liberty interpretation (...)
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  16. Integration, Community, and the Medical Model of Social Injustice.Alex Madva - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):211-232.
    I defend an empirically-oriented approach to the analysis and remediation of social injustice. My springboard for this argument is a debate—principally represented here between Tommie Shelby and Elizabeth Anderson, but with much deeper historical roots and many flowering branches—about whether racial-justice advocacy should prioritize integration (bringing different groups together) or community development (building wealth and political power within the black community). Although I incline toward something closer to Shelby’s “egalitarian pluralist” approach over Anderson’s single-minded emphasis on integration, many of Shelby’s (...)
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  17. Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue.Michiru Nagatsu & Attilia Ruzzene (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  18. Book Review: Zahle, Julie, Collin, FinnRethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate, Berlin: Springer, 2014. 255 Pp. $129 . ISBN: 978-3-319-05342-1. [REVIEW]Catherine Herfeld - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (2):247-261.
    Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate edited by Julie Zahle and Finn Collin is reviewed. Each of the contributions contained in the volume is summarized. The review concludes by assessing the volume’s usefulness for bringing clarity into the debate in the light of the editors’ self-set goal of rethinking the individualism-holism debate as one of the more important yet confused debates in philosophy of the social sciences.
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  19. Practice Theory and International Relations.Silviya Lechner & Mervyn Frost - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Are social practices actions, or institutional frameworks of interaction structured by common rules? How do social practices such as signing a cheque differ from international practices such as signing a peace treaty? Traversing the fields of international relations and philosophy, this book defends an institutionalist conception of practices as part of a general practice theory indebted to Oakeshott, Wittgenstein and Hegel. The proposed practice theory has two core aspects: practice internalism and normative descriptivism. In developing a philosophical analysis of social (...)
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  20. Relating Traditional and Academic Ecological Knowledge: Mechanistic and Holistic Epistemologies Across Cultures.David Ludwig & Luana Poliseli - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):43.
    Current debates about the integration of traditional and academic ecological knowledge struggle with a dilemma of division and assimilation. On the one hand, the emphasis on differences between traditional and academic perspectives has been criticized as creating an artificial divide that brands TEK as “non-scientific” and contributes to its marginalization. On the other hand, there has been increased concern about inadequate assimilation of Indigenous and other traditional perspectives into scientific practices that disregards the holistic nature and values of TEK. The (...)
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  21. The Analytical Micro–Macro Relationship in Social Science and Its Implications for the Individualism-Holism Debate.Gustav Ramström - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (5):474-500.
    This article argues that the tradition within the individualism-holism debate of importing arguments from the micro–macro discussion in other disciplines significantly has hampered our understanding of the “individual-social” relationship. While, for example, the “neural-mental” and “atomic-molecular” links represent empirical “gives rise to” relationships, in the social sciences the micro–macro link is a purely analytical “qualifies as” type of relationship. This disanalogy is important, since it has significant implications for the individualism-holism debate: it implies a phenomenally monist social ontology and it (...)
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  22. Towards a Revival of Analytical Philosophy of History. Around Paul A. Roth’s Vision of Historical Sciences.Krzysztof Brzechczyn (ed.) - 2017 - Brill-Rodopi.
    The purpose of _Towards a Revival of Analytical Philosophy of History: Around Paul A. Roth's Vision of Historical Sciences_ is to discuss the revival of analytical philosophy of history proposed by Paul A. Roth. The authors characterize the status of philosophy of history and discuss its ontological, epistemological and explanatory dimensions.
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  23. Aristotelian Distributive Justice: Holism or Egalitarianism. Di Wu - 2017 - Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology(Social Science Edition), 31 (6):60-64.
    Different understanding on Aristotelian distributive justice results in two main factions: holism and egalitarianism. Dennis McKerlie, one of the representatives of holism, criticized Martha Nussbaum's interpretation as an egalitarian. McKerlie argued that Nussbaum did not attach enough importance to the Proportional equality and Aristotelian Common good, as well as a deviation in the understanding of the concept of distribution. The defense of egalitarianism is that Aristotle's emphasis on the rational equality of citizens and the ontological presupposition of primal equality show (...)
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  24. Predictive Success and Non-Individualist Models in Social Science.Richard Lauer - 2017 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 47 (2):145-161.
    The predictive inadequacy of the social sciences is well documented, and philosophers have sought to diagnose it. This paper examines Brian Epstein’s recent diagnosis. He argues that the social sciences treat the social world as entirely composed of individual people. Instead, social scientists should recognize that material, non-individualistic entities determine the social world, as well. First, I argue that Epstein’s argument both begs the question against his opponents and is not sufficiently charitable. Second, I present doubts that his proposal will (...)
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  25. Why Anarchy Still Matters for International Relations: On Theories and Things.Silviya Lechner - 2017 - Journal of International Political Theory 13 (3):341-359.
    The category of anarchy is conventionally associated with the emergence of an autonomous discipline of International Relations. Recently, Donnelly has argued that anarchy has never been central to IR. His criticism targets not just concepts of anarchy but theories of anarchy and thereby expresses an anti-theory ethos tacitly accepted in the discipline. As a form of conceptual atomism, this ethos is hostile to structuralist and normative theories. This article aims to reinstate theoretical holism against conceptual atomism and to defend the (...)
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  26. From Plural to Institutional Agency: Collective Action II.Kirk Ludwig - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kirk Ludwig presents a philosophical account of institutional action, such as action by corporations and nation states. He argues that it can be fully understood in terms of the agency of individuals, and concepts derived from our understanding of individual action. He thus argues for a strong form of methodological individualism.
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  27. Is Multiple Realizability a Valid Argument Against Methodological Individualism?Branko Mitrović - 2017 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 47 (1):28-43.
    In recent decades, a number of authors have relied on the multiple realizability argument to reject methodological individualism. In this article, I argue that this strategy results in serious difficulties and makes it impossible to identify social entities and phenomena.
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  28. How Human Life Could Be Unintended but Meaningful: A Reply to Tartaglia.Brooke Alan Trisel - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 7 (1):160-179.
    The question “What is the meaning of life?” is longstanding and important, but has been shunned by philosophers for decades. Instead, contemporary philosophers have focused on other questions, such as “What gives meaning to the life of a person?” According to James Tartaglia, this research on “meaning in life” is shallow and pointless. He urges philosophers to redirect their attention back to the fundamental question about “meaning of life.” Tartaglia argues that humanity was not created for a purpose and, therefore, (...)
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  29. Applied Philosophy of Social Science: The Social Construction of Race.Isaac Wiegman & Ron Mallon - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Kimberley Brownlee & David Coady (eds.), A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell. pp. 441-454.
    A traditional social scientific divide concerns the centrality of the interpretation of local understandings as opposed to attending to relatively general factors in understanding human individual and group differences. We consider one of the most common social scientific variables, race, and ask how to conceive of its causal power. We suggest that any plausible attempt to model the causal effects of such constructed social roles will involve close interplay between interpretationist and more general elements. Thus, we offer a case study (...)
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  30. World 3 and Methodological Individualism in Popper’s Thought.Francesco Di Iorio - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (4):352-374.
    Popper’s theory of World 3 is often regarded as incongruent with his defense of methodological individualism. This article criticizes this widespread view. Methodological individualism is said to be at odds with three crucial assumptions of the theory of World 3: the impossibility of reducing World 3 to subjective mental states because it exists objectively, the view that the mental functions cannot be explained by assuming that individuals are isolated atoms, and the idea that World 3 has causal power and influences (...)
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  31. The Fragile Nature of the Social Mind: A Commentary on Alva Noë.Kyselo Miriam - 2016 - In Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer Windt (eds.), Open MIND. Cambridge: MIT. pp. 0-0.
    In this paper I argue that while Noë’s actionist approach offers an excellent elaboration of classical approaches to conceptual understanding, it risks underestimating the role of social interactions and relations. Noë’s approach entails a form of body-based individualism according to which understanding is something the mind does all by itself. I propose that we adopt a stronger perspective on the role of sociality and consider the human mind in terms of socially enacted autonomy. On this view, the mind depends constitutively (...)
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  32. Scholarship as a Vocation: Reflections on the Past and Future of Social Science.Zhasmina Tacheva - 2016 - Emerging Perspectives: School of Management Review 1 (1):5-19.
    This essay seeks to expose readers from the social sciences to current debates in their fields, beyond the discussions of induction and deduction one learns about in a typical research methods course. It provides glimpses of social science from its dawn in 17th century empiricism, through the rise of postpositivism and antipositivism, to the infamous “science wars” in the 1990s, and expresses a hope for a broader and more inclusive future. Specifically, the paper compares the traditional positivist method of scientific (...)
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  33. Human Extinction, Narrative Ending, and Meaning of Life.Brooke Alan Trisel - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 6 (1):1-22.
    Some people think that the inevitability of human extinction renders life meaningless. Joshua Seachris has argued that naturalism can be conceptualized as a meta-narrative and that it narrates across important questions of human life, including what is the meaning of life and how life will end. How a narrative ends is important, Seachris argues. In the absence of God, and with knowledge that human extinction is a certainty, is there any way that humanity could be meaningful and have a good (...)
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  34. Methodological Holism in the Social Sciences.Julie Zahle - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  35. The Integral Jan Smuts.Guy Pierre Du Plessis & Robert Weathers - 2015 - Paper Presented at The Fourth International Integral Theory Conference, CA: San Francisco, 19 July 2015.
    Integral Theory as developed by Ken Wilber and other contemporary Integral scholars acknowledge many antecedent foundational influences, and proto-Integral thinkers. Curiously, the philosopher-statesman Jan Smuts’ theory of Holism is seldom acknowledged, although it has significantly contributed, albeit often implicitly, to the development of Integral Theory. This paper and presentation has two central aims: To point out that Smuts can be counted amongst one of the great Integral thinkers of the 20th Century; that Smuts’ notion of Holism had a significant influence (...)
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  36. The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences.Brian Epstein - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    We live in a world of crowds and corporations, artworks and artifacts, legislatures and languages, money and markets. These are all social objects — they are made, at least in part, by people and by communities. But what exactly are these things? How are they made, and what is the role of people in making them? In The Ant Trap, Brian Epstein rewrites our understanding of the nature of the social world and the foundations of the social sciences. Epstein explains (...)
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  37. Methodological Individualism.Dániel Havrancsik - 2015 - Schutzian Research 7:65-87.
    The purpose of this paper is to show that the work of Alfred Schutz, mostly neglected by the current representatives of the social scientific movement of methodological individualism, can provide a foundation for an alternative methodological individualist programme, which instead of building on the presumed rationality of action, starts from the subjective consciousness of the actor, thus can overcome the objectivist bias characterizing most other variants. Following the Schutzian guidelines, this individualist approach can avoid the error of introducing elements incompatible (...)
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  38. Open Empirical and Methodological Issues in the Individualism-Holism Debate.Harold Kincaid - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1127-1138.
    I briefly argue that some issues in the individualism-holism debate have been fairly clearly settled and other issues still plagued by unclarity. The main argument of the paper is that there are a set of clear empirical issues around the holism-individualism debate that are central problems in current social science research. Those include questions about when we can be holist and how individualist we can be in social explanation.
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  39. Ubuntu and the Value of Self-Expression in the Mass Media.Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - Communicatio 41 (3):388-403.
    In this article I consider what the implications of ubuntu, interpreted as an African moral philosophy, are for self-expression as a value that the media could help to promote. In contrast to the natural hunches that self-expression is merely a kind of narcissism or makes sense for only individualist cultures to prize, I argue that an attractive construal of ubuntu entails that self-expression can play an important communitarian role. The mass media can be obligated to enable people to express themselves (...)
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  40. Unici proprio come tutti gli altri. Patologie dell'individualismo nell'epoca contemporanea.Eleonora Piromalli - 2015 - Società Degli Individui 53:9-21.
    Abstract: In questo saggio, dopo una rapida delineazione dei caratteri positivi dell’individualismo contemporaneo (I), descrivo due forme di pseudoindividualizzazione che si stanno imponendo nelle società sviluppate: il fenomeno dell’«autoinvenzione eterodiretta delle identità» (II) e quello degli «imprenditori di se stessi» (III). Entrambi i processi, dietro l’apparenza di una promozione delle possibilità di autodeterminazione e autorealizzazione degli individui, celano forme di omologazione e di eterodirezione. Attraverso l’analisi delle loro cause concludo che solo abbinandosi all’espansione di rapporti di reciproco riconoscimento l’individualismo potrà (...)
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  41. Are 'Coalitions of the Willing' Moral Agents?Stephanie Collins - 2014 - Ethics and International Affairs 28 (1):online only.
    In this reply to an article of Toni Erskine's, I argue that coalitions of the willing are moral agents. They can therefore bear responsibility in their own right.
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  42. What is Individualism in Social Ontology? Ontological Individualism Vs. Anchor Individualism.Brian Epstein - 2014 - In Finn Collin & Julie Zahle (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism/Holism Debate: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science.
    Individualists about social ontology hold that social facts are “built out of” facts about individuals. In this paper, I argue that there are two distinct kinds of individualism about social ontology, two different ways individual people might be the metaphysical “builders” of the social world. The familiar kind is ontological individualism. This is the thesis that social facts supervene on, or are exhaustively grounded by, facts about individual people. What I call anchor individualism is the alternative thesis that facts about (...)
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  43. Methodological Individualism in Ecology.James Justus - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):770-784.
    Methodological individualism has a long, successful, and controversial track record in the social sciences. Its record in ecology is much shorter but proving as successful and controversial with so-called individual-based models. Distinctions and debates about methodological individualism in social sciences clarify the commitments of this general, individualistic approach to modeling ecological phenomena and show that there is a lot recommending it. In particular, a representational priority on individual organisms yields a cogent albeit deflationary account of ecological emergence and helps reveal (...)
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  44. A Danse Macabre of Wants and Satisfactions: Hayek, Oakeshott, Liberty, and Cognition.Leslie Marsh - 2014 - In Austrian Economic Perspectives on Individualism and Society. Palgrave.
    Austrian social theory and associated social epistemology provides a well-needed corrective to the overly rationalistic tendencies of liberal social theory, namely the positing of abstract individualism and the inherent paradoxes of so-called social justice. This said, what is of concern is that some self-avowed Austrians seem to have taken a “hard” libertarian turn: that is, the market is viewed as the sole source or arbiter of moral, political and other values. They seem to be committed to a form of abstract (...)
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  45. Holism, Emergence and the Crucial Distinction.Julie Zahle - 2014 - In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. Springer. pp. 177-196.
    One issue of dispute between methodological individualists and methodological holists is whether holist explanations are dispensable in the sense that individualist explanations are able to do their explanatory job. Methodological individualists say they are, whereas methodological holists deny this. In the first part of the paper, I discuss Elder-Vass’ version of an influential argument in support of methodological holism, the argument from emergence. I argue that methodological individualists should reject it: The argument relies on a distinction between individualist and holist (...)
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  46. Introduction.Julie Zahle - 2014 - In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science. Springer. pp. 1-14.
    The introduction provides an overview of the ontological and the methodological individualism-holism debates. Moreover, these debates are briefly discussed in relation to two kindred disputes: The micro-macro and the agency-structure debates. Finally, the contributions to this book are briefly presented.
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  47. Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate.Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This collection of papers investigates the most recent debates about individualism and holism in the philosophy of social science. The debates revolve mainly around two issues: firstly, whether social phenomena exist sui generis and how they relate to individuals. This is the focus of discussions between ontological individualists and ontological holists. Secondly, to what extent social scientific explanations may and should, focus on individuals and social phenomena respectively. This issue is debated amongst methodological holists and methodological individualists. -/- In social (...)
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  48. One’s a Crowd? On Greenwood’s Delimitation of the Social.Marc Champagne - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (4):519-530.
    In an effort to carve a distinct place for social facts without lapsing into a holistic ontology, John Greenwood has sought to define social phenomena solely in terms of the attitudes held by the actor in question. I argue that his proposal allows for the possibility of a “lone collectivity” that is unpalatable in its own right and incompatible with the claim that sociology is autonomous from psychology. As such, I conclude that the relevant beliefs need to be held by (...)
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  49. Overcoming the Biases of Microfoundationalism: Social Mechanisms and Collective Agents.Tuukka Kaidesoja - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):301-322.
    The article makes four interrelated claims: (1) The mechanism approach to social explanation does not presuppose a commitment to the individual-level microfoundationalism. (2) The microfoundationalist requirement that explanatory social mechanisms should always consists of interacting individuals has given rise to problematic methodological biases in social research. (3) It is possible to specify a number of plausible candidates for social macro-mechanisms where interacting collective agents (e.g. formal organizations) form the core actors. (4) The distributed cognition perspective combined with organization studies could (...)
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  50. Generative Explanation and Individualism in Agent-Based Simulation.C. Marchionni & P. Ylikoski - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (3):323-340.
    Social scientists associate agent-based simulation (ABS) models with three ideas about explanation: they provide generative explanations, they are models of mechanisms, and they implement methodological individualism. In light of a philosophical account of explanation, we show that these ideas are not necessarily related and offer an account of the explanatory import of ABS models. We also argue that their bottom-up research strategy should be distinguished from methodological individualism.
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