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Summary What is hope, from a philosophical point of view?  Can hope be characterized in terms of belief (or degrees of belief) plus some sort of desire or affect? If this kind of “belief-plus” analysis insufficient to characterize hope, what other conditions are required? Are there different kinds of hope – some that are susceptible to belief-plus analysis, and others that aren’t? For instance, could we regard the “idle hope” that I win the lottery as constituted by the belief that it’s possible plus the desire that it happen, but then develop more robust conceptions of the kinds of hope that actively engage deliberation and moral psychology (e.g. the hope that I recover from this terminal diagnosis, despite the long odds)? How does a particular view of hope (or one of its kinds) relate to traditional accounts of hope as a human virtue? Is hope a virtue? If some kind of hope is a virtue, is it a moral virtue, or an intellectual one, or some sort of hybrid?
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  1. The Art of Narrative Repair Through Bloch's Principle of Hope.Carolina Drake - manuscript
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  2. Hope Vs. Hopelessness.Harold W. Bernard - forthcoming - Humanitas.
    Reviews concepts of hope, despair, and depression. Hope is viewed as the belief and expectation that one has some control over life and the future, that unpleasant events are products of both personal perspective and fate, and that problems will be mastered or will fade.
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  3. Hope and the Myth of Success: Toward a Dialectics of Hope.Frank M. Buckley - forthcoming - Humanitas.
    Regards an orientation toward success (i.e., winning the approval of others) as an obstacle to hope. Moods and expectations unrelieved by hope can degenerate into a compulsive idea that life is a process of losing and dying without any compensatory gains. The prime source of deepened hope is to move toward the experience of presence with another. Acknowledging the dialectic nature of hope is itself also a source of hope. Affirming life and love enables one to face their opposites—death and (...)
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  4. The Focus Theory of Hope.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly.
    Most elpistologists (philosophers of hope) now agree that hope for a specific outcome involves more than just desire plus the presupposition that the outcome is possible. This paper argues that the additional element of hope is a disposition to focus on the desired outcome in a certain way. I first survey the debate about the nature of hope in the recent literature, offer objections to some important competing accounts, and describe and defend the view that hope involves a kind of (...)
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  5. Hope but Not Optimism: The Kantian Mind at the End of All Things.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Anna Ezekiel & Katerina Mihaylova (eds.), Hope and the Kantian Legacy: New Contributions to the History of Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury.
  6. Faithfully Taking Pascal’s Wager.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - The Monist.
    This paper examines the relationship between taking Pascal’s wager, faith, and hope. First, I argue that many who take Pascal’s wager have genuine faith that God exists. The person of faith and the wagerer have several things in common, including a commitment to God and positive cognitive and conative attitudes toward God’s existence. I also argue that if one’s credences in theism are too low to have faith, the wagerer can still hope that God exists, another commitment-justifying theological virtue. I (...)
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  7. Faith.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Faith is a trusting commitment to someone or something. Faith helps us meet our goals, keeps our relationships secure, and enables us to retain our commitments over time. Faith is thus a central part of a flourishing life. -/- This article is about the philosophy of faith. There are many philosophical questions about faith, such as: What is faith, and what are its main components or features? What are the different kinds of faith? What’s the relationship between faith and other (...)
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  8. The Primacy of Hope in Human Flourishing.Anne Jeffrey & Krista Mehari - forthcoming - The Monist.
    We advance an argument that the virtue of hope holds pride of place in development of psychological traits that promote one’s flourishing. We define hope, the virtue, as the disposition to envision future good possibilities for oneself and one’s community and to move towards those possibilities. Our argument is partly theoretical and partly empirical. On the theoretical side, we show that hope is not simply one virtue among many, but rather, hope is a necessary condition for the development of other (...)
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  9. Commitment, Hope, and Despondency.Charles A. Kiesler - forthcoming - Humanitas.
    Discusses the relationship between commitment (pledging or binding oneself to certain acts), hope (anticipating that positive events will occur), despondency (anticipating negative events), and fatalism (believing that there is nothing one can do to affect the future). Factors contributing to despondency in the US include an emphasis on self and emotionality that gives the illusion of increased intimacy but avoids real caring and commitment toward others; experiences of alienation and aloneness; the high crime rate; and a loss of trust in (...)
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  10. Hope as a Source of Grit.Catherine Rioux - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Psychologists and philosophers have argued that the capacity for perseverance or “grit” depends both on willpower and on a kind of epistemic resilience. But can a form of hopefulness in one’s future success also constitute a source of grit? I argue that substantial practical hopefulness, as a hope to bring about a desired outcome through exercises of one’s agency, can serve as a distinctive ground for the capacity for perseverance. Gritty agents’ “practical hope” centrally involves an attention-fuelled, risk-inclined weighting of (...)
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  11. From 'Suspicion' to 'Affirmation' : A Study of the Role of the Imagination and Prose Rhythm, Drawing Upon the Hermeneutical Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, in Which There May Be Movement From Suspicion to Affirmation of Reasonable Hope.Raymond T. Shorthouse - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
    The aim of this thesis is to show that a familiar hermeneutical movement from suspicion to affirmation of rational meaning, as a reader reflects on a narrative, is, in part, grounded in the narrative's rhythmic structure which mediates a sonorous condition of being appropriated by the reader. This hermeneutical process involves the reader in appropriating the temporal perspective which creates a 'space' for reflection in which a provisional conceptual unity is made possible, but subject to continuing movement from suspicion to (...)
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  12. Hope, Hopelessness, and Violence.Ezra Stotland - forthcoming - Humanitas.
    Suggests that the form of violence, its direction and purpose, and the conditions that start and end it, are determined mainly by the degree of hope or hopelessness giving rise to it. Violence is defined as an action whose intent is to harm another person. "Emotional violence" is an effort to reduce anxiety, which if successful arouses hope. "Instrumental violence" is directed at a specific goal in a more dispassionate manner. Societies should find moral equivalents to these 2 forms of (...)
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  13. Faith, Hope, and Justification.Elizabeth Jackson - 2022 - In Luis R. G. Oliveira & Paul Silva Jr (eds.), Propositional and Doxastic Justification. New York: Routledge. pp. 201–216.
    The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification is normally applied to belief. The goal of this paper is to apply the distinction to faith and hope. Before doing so, I discuss the nature of faith and hope, and how they contrast with belief—belief has no essential conative component, whereas faith and hope essentially involve the conative. I discuss implications this has for evaluating faith and hope, and apply this to the propositional/doxastic distinction. There are two key upshots. One, bringing in (...)
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  14. Apocalypse Without God: Apocalyptic Thought, Ideal Politics, and the Limits of Utopian Hope.Ben Jones - 2022 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Apocalypse, it seems, is everywhere. Preachers with vast followings proclaim the world's end and apocalyptic fears grip even the non-religious amid climate change, pandemics, and threats of nuclear war. But as these ideas pervade popular discourse, grasping their logic remains elusive. Ben Jones argues that we can gain insight into apocalyptic thought through secular thinkers. He starts with a puzzle: Why would secular thinkers draw on Christian apocalyptic beliefs--often dismissed as bizarre--to interpret politics? The apocalyptic tradition proves appealing in part (...)
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  15. The Culture Industry and Transformation of the Value of Hope.Selda Salman - 2022 - Kultura I Wartości 9 (32):69-78.
    In this paper I point to the degraded value of hope in the contemporary digital world and discuss the dangers of this transformation. Hope constitutes one of the basic drives that sustains vitality in the human species. Especially contemporary philosophers such as Hume, Kant, and Bloch, among others, consider hope from a philosophical perspective and despite their differences, they agree on the overall importance of hope as one of the fundamental motivations of humans towards a future life that makes striving (...)
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  16. Knowledge, Hope, and Fallibilism.Matthew A. Benton - 2021 - Synthese 198:1673-1689.
    Hope, in its propositional construction "I hope that p," is compatible with a stated chance for the speaker that not-p. On fallibilist construals of knowledge, knowledge is compatible with a chance of being wrong, such that one can know that p even though there is an epistemic chance for one that not-p. But self-ascriptions of propositional hope that p seem to be incompatible, in some sense, with self-ascriptions of knowing whether p. Data from conjoining hope self-ascription with outright assertions, with (...)
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  17. Liturgical Philosophy of Religion: An Untimely Manifesto on Sincerity, Acceptance, and Hope.Andrew Chignell - 2021 - In M. David Eckel, Allen Speight & Troy DuJardin (eds.), The Future of the Philosophy of Religion. Springer. pp. 73-94.
    This loosely-argued manifesto contains some suggestions regarding what the philosophy of religion might become in the 21st century. It was written for a brainstorming workshop over a decade ago, and some of the recommendations and predictions it contains have already been partly actualized (that’s why it is now a bit "untimely"). The goal is to sketch three aspects of a salutary “liturgical turn” in philosophy of religion. (Note: “liturgy” here refers very broadly to communal religious service and experience generally, not (...)
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  18. Hope and Human Longevity, an Actual Challenging Topic.Gabriel Hasmațuchi & Maria Sinaci - 2021 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 2 (65):337-346.
    This paper represents an attempt to correlate the concept of hope with the notion of human longevity and reflects the actual debates around the problem of life extension. Our analysis combines ideas from philosophy, sociology, bioethics, and religion to illustrate the problem of longevity in the context of biomedical and technological progress, and - at the same time - to show the (possible) consequences of prolonging life over the human body limits. Extending human life through emerging technologies is much closer (...)
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  19. Belief, Faith, and Hope: On the Rationality of Long-Term Commitment.Elizabeth Jackson - 2021 - Mind 130 (517):35–57.
    I examine three attitudes: belief, faith, and hope. I argue that all three attitudes play the same role in rationalizing action. First, I explain two models of rational action—the decision-theory model and the belief-desire model. Both models entail there are two components of rational action: an epistemic component and a conative component. Then, using this framework, I show how belief, faith, and hope that p can all make it rational to accept, or act as if, p. I conclude by showing (...)
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  20. Controlling Hope.Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale - 2021 - Ratio 34 (4):345-354.
    Ratio, Volume 34, Issue 4, Page 345-354, December 2021.
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  21. Hope: Conceptual and Normative Issues.Catherine Rioux - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (3).
    Hope is often seen as at once valuable and dangerous: it can fuel our motivation in the face of challenges, but can also distract us from reality and lead us to irrationality. How can we learn to “hope well,” and what does “hoping well” involve? Contemporary philosophers disagree on such normative questions about hope and also on how to define hope as a mental state. This article explores recent philosophical debates surrounding the concept of hope and the norms governing hope. (...)
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  22. Hope Under Oppression.Katie Stockdale - 2021 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book explores the nature, value, and role of hope in human life under conditions of oppression. Oppression is often a threat and damage to hope, yet many members of oppressed groups, including prominent activists pursuing a more just world, find hope valuable and even essential to their personal and political lives. This book offers a unique evaluative framework for hope that captures the intrinsic value of hope for many of us, the rationality and morality of hope, and ultimately how (...)
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  23. Hope, Solidarity, and Justice.Katie Stockdale - 2021 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 7 (2):1-23.
    This article defends an account of collective hope that arises through solidarity in the pursuit of justice. I begin by reviewing recent literature on the nature of hope. I then explore the relationship between hope and solidarity to demonstrate the ways in which solidarity can give rise to hope. I suggest that the hope born of solidarity is collective when it is shared by at least some others, when it is caused or strengthened by activity in a collective action setting, (...)
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  24. Hope and Despair at the Kantian Chicken Factory: Moral Arguments About Making a Difference.Andrew Chignell - 2020 - In Lucy Allais & John J. Callanan (eds.), Kant and Animals. Oxford University Press. pp. 213-238.
  25. Hope in Ancient Greek Philosophy.G. Scott Gravlee - 2020 - In Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope. Cham: pp. 3-23.
    This chapter aims to illuminate ways in which hope was significant in the philosophy of classical Greece. Although ancient Greek philosophies contain few dedicated and systematic expositions on the nature of hope, they nevertheless include important remarks relating hope to the good life, to reason and deliberation, and to psychological phenomena such as memory, imagination, fear, motivation, and pleasure. After an introductory discussion of Hesiod and Heraclitus, the chapter focuses on Plato and Aristotle. Consideration is given both to Plato’s direct (...)
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  26. Hope and Hopefulness.Jack M. C. Kwong - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (7):832-843.
    This paper proposes a new framework for thinking about hope, with certain unexpected consequences. Specifically, I argue that a shift in focus from locutions like “x hopes that” and “x is hoping that” to “x is hopeful that” and “x has hope that” can improve our understanding of hope. This approach, which emphasizes hopefulness as the central concept, turns out to be more revealing and fruitful in tackling some of the issues that philosophers have raised about hope, such as the (...)
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  27. The Intersection of Hopes and Dreams.Michael Milona - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (4):645-663.
    A familiar injunction is to follow your dreams. But what are these dreams? Despite their importance, philosophers have almost entirely ignored the topic. This paper fills this gap by advancing an account of the psychological makeup and the normative powers of dreams. To elucidate their psychology, I identify the salient features of dreams. I argue that these features are explained by the hypothesis that dreams are a species of hope. More specifically, the proposal is that dreams fit the standard model (...)
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  28. Discovering the Virtue of Hope.Michael Milona - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (3):740-754.
    This paper asks whether there is a moral virtue of hope, and if so, what it is. The enterprise is motivated by a historical asymmetry, namely that while Christian thinkers have long classed hope as a theological virtue, it has not traditionally been classed as a moral one. But this is puzzling, for hoping well is not confined to the sphere of religion; and consequently we might expect that if the theological virtue is structurally sound, there will be a secular, (...)
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  29. Philosophy of Hope.Michael Milona - 2020 - In Steven C. Van den Heuvel (ed.), Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope. Springer. pp. 99-116.
    The philosophy of hope centers on two interlocking sets of questions. The first concerns the nature of hope. Specific questions here include how to analyze hope, how hope motivates us, and whether there is only one type of hope. The second set concerns the value of hope. Key questions here include whether and when it is good to hope and whether there is a virtue of hope. Philosophers of hope tend to proceed from the first set of questions to the (...)
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  30. Is Hope a Moral Virtue?Nancy Snow - 2020 - In Claudia Blöser & Titus Stahl (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Hope. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 171-188.
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  31. Overcoming Despair: Open Soul, Hope in Dialogue.Zuzana Svobodová - 2020 - Caritas Et Veritas 10 (1):176-183.
    According to Gabriel Marcel, no task is more important and more complex than looking for ways of confronting and overcoming despair. Therefore, the search for the essence of hope is the objective of this paper. Reference is made to the theme of the open soul in Henri Bergson’s, Gabriel Marcel’s, and Jan Patočka’s works. Such a soul is not centred in itself; moreover, according to Marcel, hope and soul are intrinsically linked together. Hope opens people towards the future. The concept (...)
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  32. Peacebuilding in a Fractious World: On Hoping Against All Hope. Edited by Richard Penaskovic and Mustafa Şahin. Pp. X, 198, Eugene, OR, Pickwick Books, 2017, $25.00. [REVIEW]Peter Admirand - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (6):975-976.
  33. Epistemological Aspects of Hope.Matthew A. Benton - 2019 - In Claudia Blöser & Titus Stahl (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Hope. London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 135-151.
    Hope is an attitude with a distinctive epistemological dimension: it is incompatible with knowledge. This chapter examines hope as it relates to knowledge but also to probability and inductive considerations. Such epistemic constraints can make hope either impossible, or, when hope remains possible, they affect how one’s epistemic situation can make hope rational rather than irrational. Such issues are especially relevant to when hopefulness may permissibly figure in practical deliberation over a course of action. So I consider cases of second-order (...)
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  34. Philosophy and Religion, Hope and Rapture.Christopher Hamilton - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):115-134.
    I argue that religion knows rapture and philosophy doesn't.
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  35. Hope in Christianity.Anne Jeffrey - 2019 - In Titus Stahl & Claudia Blöser (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Hope. London: pp. 37-56.
    In this essay I aim to illuminate the nature of Christian hope by looking at the tradition’s answers to three philosophical questions and then comparing them to those of contemporary secular accounts. First, What are the possible objects of hope? Next, What are the psychological conditions a person must meet to have hope? Finally, What makes a hope rational and what makes it good for human life? I conclude by suggesting that the role of hope in bringing about social goods (...)
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  36. What is Hope?Jack M. C. Kwong - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):243-254.
    According to the standard account, to hope for an outcome is to desire it and to believe that its realization is possible, though not inevitable. This account, however, faces certain difficulties: It cannot explain how people can display differing strengths in hope; it cannot distinguish hope from despair; and it cannot explain substantial hopes. This paper proposes an account of hope that can meet these deficiencies. Briefly, it argues that in addition to possessing the relevant belief–desire structure as allowed in (...)
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  37. Finding Hope.Michael Milona - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (5):710-729.
    This paper defends a theory of hope according to which hopes are composed of a desire and a belief that the object of the desire is possible. Although belief plus desire theories of hope are now widely rejected, this is due to important oversights. One is a failure to recognize the relation that hope-constituting desires and beliefs must stand in to constitute a hope. A second is an oversimplification of the explanatory power of hope-constituting desires. The final portion of the (...)
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  38. Hope and Necessity.Sarah Pawlett-Jackson - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):49-73.
    In this paper I offer a comparative evaluation of two types of “fundamental hope”, drawn from the writing of Rebecca Solnit and Rowan Williams respectively. Arguments can be found in both, I argue, for the foundations of a dispositional existential hope. Examining and comparing the differences between these accounts, I focus on the consequences implied for hope’s freedom and stability. I focus specifically on how these two accounts differ in their claims about the relationship between hope and necessity. I argue (...)
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  39. Hope: The Janus-Faced Virtue.Michael Schrader & Michael P. Levine - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):11-30.
    In this essay we argue for the Janus-faced nature of hope. We show that attempts to sanitise the concept of hope either by separating it conceptually from other phenomena such as wishful thinking, or, more generally, by seeking to minimise the negative aspects of hope, do not help us to understand the nature of hope and its functions as regards religion. Drawing on functional accounts of religion from Clifford Geertz and Tamas Pataki, who both—in their different ways—see the function of (...)
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  40. Emotional Hope.Katie Stockdale - 2019 - In Claudia Blöser & Titus Stahl (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Hope. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 115-133.
    My aim in this chapter is not to offer yet another theory of hope, but to re-orient the discussion about the nature of hope to focus on hope’s place in our hearts: on how, exactly, hope makes us feel. Although philosophers writing on hope have certainly paid attention to hope’s affective dimensions, when affect is discussed, it is often assumed that hope is positively valenced. I argue that descriptions of the phenomenology of hope as positively valenced paint hope as brighter (...)
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  41. Hope.Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale - 2018 - 1000-Word Philosophy.
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  42. A Perceptual Theory of Hope.Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5.
    This paper addresses the question of what the attitude of hope consists in. We argue that shortcomings in recent theories of hope have methodological roots in that they proceed with little regard for the rich body of literature on the emotions. Taking insights from work in the philosophy of emotions, we argue that hope involves a kind of normative perception. We then develop a strategy for determining the content of this perception, arguing that hope is a perception of practical reasons. (...)
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  43. Hope(s) After Genocide.Margaret Urban Walker - 2018 - In Thomas Brudholm & Johannes Lang (eds.), Emotions and Mass Atrocity: Philosophical and Theoretical Explorations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 211-233.
  44. Hope.Claudia Bloeser & Titus Stahl - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  45. Knowledge, Discipline, System, Hope: The Fate of Metaphysics in the Doctrine of Method.Andrew Chignell - 2017 - In James O'Shea (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: A Critical Guide. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 259-279.
    In this chapter I highlight the apparent tensions between Kant’s very stringent critique of metaphysical speculation in the “Discipline of Pure Reason” chapter and his endorsement of Belief (Glaube) and hope (Hoffnung) regarding metaphysical theses in the subsequent “Canon of Pure Reason.” In the process I will examine his distinction between the theoretical and the practical bases for holding a “theoretical” conclusion (i.e. a conclusion about “what exists” rather than “what ought to be”) and argue that the position is subtle (...)
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  46. Hope, Knowledge, and Blindspots.Jordan Dodd - 2017 - Synthese 194 (2):531-543.
    Roy Sorensen introduced the concept of an epistemic blindspot in the 1980s. A proposition is an epistemic blindspot for some individual at some time if and only if that proposition is consistent but unknowable by that individual at that time. In the first half of this paper, I extend Sorensen work on blindspots by arguing that there exist blindspots that essentially involve hopes. In the second half, I show how such blindspots can contribute to and impair different pursuits of self-understanding. (...)
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  47. Ideal Theory After Auschwitz? The Practical Uses and Ideological Abuses of Political Theory as Reconciliation.Benjamin McKean - 2017 - Journal of Politics 79 (4):1177-1190.
    Contemporary debates about ideal and nonideal theory rest on an underlying consensus that the primary practical task of political theory is directing action. This overlooks other urgent practical work that theory can do, including showing how injustice can be made bearable and how resisting it can be meaningful. I illustrate this important possibility by revisiting the purpose for which John Rawls originally developed the concept of ideal theory: reconciling a democratic public to living in a flawed world that may otherwise (...)
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  48. Beyond Eschatology: Environmental Pessimism and the Future of Human Hoping.Willa Swenson-Lengyel - 2017 - Journal of Religious Ethics 45 (3):413-436.
    In much environmentally concerned literature, there is a burgeoning concern for the status and sustainability of human hope. Within Christian circles, this attention has often taken the form of eschatological reflection. While there is important warrant for attention to eschatology in Christian examinations of hope, I claim that to move so quickly from hope to eschatology is to confuse a species of Christian hope for a definition of hope itself; as such, it is important for theological ethicists to examine hope (...)
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  49. Optimizing Hope: A Response to Nolt.Trevor Hedberg - 2016 - In Andrew Brei (ed.), Ecology, Ethics, and Hope. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 65-82.
    John Nolt’s “Hope, Self-Transcendence, and Environmental Ethics” is a unique attempt to defend a partial biocentrism – the view that we should regard a significant portion of non-sentient life (as well as sentient life) as having direct moral standing. After defending a general duty to optimize human hope, Nolt argues that this duty requires us to become self-transcendent toward living things in nature. Self-transcendence refers to an intentional state of valuing the good of some object other than yourself as an (...)
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  50. Aquinas and the Virtues of Hope: Theological and Democratic.Michael Lamb - 2016 - Journal of Religious Ethics 44 (2):300-332.
    A prominent political historian has recently identified unwarranted optimism and unwarranted pessimism as democracy's “dual dangers.” While this historical analysis highlights the difficulties that accompany democratic hope, our prevailing conceptual vocabulary obscures the resources needed to address them. This essay attempts to recover these resources by excavating insights from Thomas Aquinas, who supplies one of the most systematic accounts of hope in the history of religious and political thought. By appropriating the conceptual structure of Thomas's theological virtue of hope, this (...)
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