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73 found
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  1. added 2020-02-12
    The Naked and the Undead: Evil and the Appeal of Horror.Hilary Radner - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):215-222.
  2. added 2019-12-01
    Barbarous Spectacle and General Massacre: A Defence of Gory Fictions.Ian Stoner - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Many people suspect it is morally wrong to watch the graphically violent horror films colloquially known as gorefests. A prominent argument vindicating this suspicion is the Argument from Reactive Attitudes (ARA). The ARA holds that we have a duty to maintain a well-functioning moral psychology, and watching gorefests violates that duty by threatening damage to our appropriate reactive attitudes. But I argue that the ARA is probably unsound. Depictions of suffering and death in other genres typically do no damage our (...)
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  3. added 2019-06-29
    Spierig Brothers' Jigsaw (2017) - Torture Porn Rebooted?Steve Jones - 2019 - In Simon Bacon (ed.), Horror: A Companion. Oxford, UK: Peter Lang. pp. 85-92.
    After a seven-year hiatus, the Saw franchise returned. Critics overwhelming disapproved of the franchise’s reinvigoration, and much of that dissention centred around a label that is synonymous with Saw: ‘torture porn’. Numerous critics pegged the original Saw (2004) as torture porn’s prototype. Accordingly, critics characterised Jigsaw’s release as heralding an unwelcome ‘torture porn comeback’. This chapter investigates the legitimacy of this concern in order to determine what ‘torture porn’ is and means in the Jigsaw era.
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  4. added 2019-06-06
    The Virtue of Horror Films: A Response to Di Muzio.S. Evan Kreider - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):149-157.
    In “The Immorality of Horror Films”, Gianluca Di Muzio argues that it is immoral to produce, distribute, or watch so-called “slasher” or “gorefest” films. Though I am sympathetic, I don’t believe that his arguments warrant his conclusion. In this paper, I will respond to Di Muzio. In particular, I will focus on what I take to be his core argument, which is based on the idea that these films discourage morally appropriate reactions to human suffering. Then I will examine two (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    Monsters and the Paradox of Horror.Mark Vorobej - 1997 - Dialogue 36 (2):219-246.
    L'horreur en art vise à effrayer, bouleverser, dégoûter et terroriser. Puisque nous ne sommes pas normalement attirés par de ielles expériences, pourquoi quiconque s'exposerait-il délibérément a la fiction d'horreur? Noel Carroll soutient que le caractère constant du phénomène de l'horreur en art tient à certains plaisirs d'ordre cognitif, qui résultent de la satisfaction de notre curiosité naturelle à l'ègard des monstres. Je soutiens, quant è moi, que la solution cognitive de Carroll auparadoxe de l'horreur est profondément erronée, étant donné la (...)
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  6. added 2019-05-24
    An Aesthetic of Horror Film Music.Ka Chung Lorraine Yeung - 2019 - Film and Philosophy 23:159-178.
    In this paper I develop an aesthetic of horror film music based on the film sound theorist Kevin Donnelly's "direct access thesis". This states that horror film scores have the power to provide "direct accesses" to the bodies of an audience; they "produce bodily sensations, excite (mainly negative) emotions and insert in the audience "frames of mind and attitudes...much like a direct injection". I first argue that two dominant theories in the field, namely, the culturalist theory of film music and (...)
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  7. added 2018-06-04
    The Nature of Horror Reconsidered.Lorraine Yeung - 2018 - International Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2):125-138.
    There is a growing interest in the role of non-cognitive affective responses in the philosophical literature on fiction and emotion. This flurry of scholarly interest is partly a reaction to cognitivist accounts of fiction and emotion that have been found to be inadequate. The inadequacy is particularly salient when this approach is employed to account for narrative horror. Cognitivist conceptions of the emotion engendered by narrative horror prove to be too restrictive. Cognitivist accounts also fail to give the formal devices (...)
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  8. added 2017-03-06
    Cartesianism and Intersubjectivity in Paranormal Activity and the Philosophy of Mind.Steve Jones - 2017 - Film-Philosophy 21 (1):1-19.
    Over the last century within the philosophy of mind, the intersubjective model of self has gained traction as a viable alternative to the oft-criticised Cartesian solipsistic paradigm. These two models are presented as incompatible inasmuch as Cartesians perceive other minds as “a problem” for the self, while intersubjectivists insist that sociality is foundational to selfhood. This essay uses the Paranormal Activity series (2007–2015) to explore this philosophical debate. It is argued that these films simultaneously evoke Cartesian premises (via found-footage camerawork), (...)
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  9. added 2016-12-08
    The Naked and the Undead: Evil and the Appeal of Horror.Friday Jonathan - 2001 - British Journal of Aesthetics 41 (4):458-460.
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  10. added 2016-09-14
    "Monsters on the Brain: An Evolutionary Epistemology of Horror".Stephen Asma - 2014 - Social Research: An International Quarterly (N.4).
    The article discusses the evolutionary development of horror and fear in animals and humans, including in regard to cognition and physiological aspects of the brain. An overview of the social aspects of emotions, including the role that emotions play in interpersonal relations and the role that empathy plays in humans' ethics, is provided. An overview of the psychological aspects of monsters, including humans' simultaneous repulsion and interest in horror films that depict monsters, is also provided.
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  11. added 2016-02-22
    A View to a Kill: Perspectives on Faux-Snuff and Self.Steve Jones - 2016 - In Neil Jackson, Shaun Kimber, Johnny Walker & Thomas Watson (eds.), Snuff: Real Death and Screen Media. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 277-294.
    Scholarly debate over faux-snuff’s content has predominantly focused on realism and affect. This paper seeks to offer an alternative interpretation, examining what faux-snuff’s form reveals about self. Faux-snuff is typically presented from a first-person perspective (killer-cam), and as such is foundationally invested in the killer’s experiences as they record their murder spree. First then, I propose that the simulated-snuff form reifies self-experience in numerous ways. Faux-snuff’s characteristic formal attributes capture the self’s limited, fractured qualities, for example. Second, I contend that (...)
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  12. added 2015-09-05
    Zombies and Sexuality: Essays on Desire and the Living Dead.Steve Jones & Shaka McGlotten (eds.) - 2014 - McFarland.
    Since the early 2000s, zombies have increasingly swarmed the landscape of popular culture, with ever more diverse representations of the undead being imagined. A growing number of zombie narratives have introduced sexual themes, endowing the living dead with their own sexual identity. The unpleasant idea of the sexual zombie is itself provocative, triggering questions about the nature of desire, sex, sexuality, and the politics of our sexual behaviors. However, the notion of zombie sex has been largely unaddressed in scholarship. -/- (...)
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  13. added 2015-09-05
    Dying to Be Seen: Snuff-Fiction’s Problematic Fantasises of ‘Reality’.Steve Jones - 2011 - Scope 19:1-20.
    The mythic Snuff film has remained a persistent cinematic rumour since the mid-1970s. The discourses that surround Snuff are preoccupied by two factors: (a) the formal aesthetic, and (b) their alleged role as a kind of titillating pornography. Although critical narratives have been established to account for the subgenre, little has been done to unpick a recent wave of hardcore horror pseudo-Snuff texts, and the cultural climate they enter into. Exploring the August Underground trilogy (2001-2007) in particular, I investigate how (...)
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  14. added 2015-09-04
    Torture Born: Representing Pregnancy and Abortion in Contemporary Survival-Horror.Steve Jones - 2015 - Sexuality and Culture 19 (3):426-443.
    In proportion to the increased emphasis placed on abortion in partisan political debate since the early 2000s, there has been a noticeable upsurge in cultural representations of abortion. This article charts ways in which that increase manifests in contemporary survival-horror. This article contends that numerous contemporary survival-horror films foreground pregnancy. These representations of pregnancy reify the pressures that moralistic, partisan political campaigning places on individuals who consider terminating a pregnancy. These films contribute to public discourse by engaging with abortion as (...)
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  15. added 2015-09-04
    Pretty, Dead: Sociosexuality, Rationality and the Transition Into Zom-Being.Steve Jones - 2014 - In Steve Jones & Shaka McGlotten (eds.), Zombies and Sexuality: Essays on Desire and the Living Dead. McFarland. pp. 180-198.
    The undead have been evoked in philosophical hypotheses regarding consciousness, but such discussions often come across as abstract academic exercises, inapplicable to personal experience. Movie zombies illuminate these somewhat opaque philosophical debates via storytelling devices – narrative, characterization, dialogue and so forth – which approach experience and consciousness in an instinctively accessible manner. This chapter focuses on a particular strand of the subgenre: transition narratives, in which human protagonists gradually turn into zombies. Transition stories typically centralize social relationships; affiliations and (...)
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  16. added 2015-09-04
    Zombie Sex.Steve Jones & Shaka McGlotten - 2014 - In Steve Jones & Shaka McGlotten (eds.), Zombies and Sexuality: Essays on Desire and the Living Dead. McFarland. pp. 1-18.
    Since the early 2000s, zombies have become an increasingly significant presence in popular culture. Zombies are social monsters, epitomizing aspects of social horror. What is at once central and yet strangely absent from current debates about zombies is any detailed consideration of sex and sexuality. This oversight is startling, not least since sex is arguably the most intimate form of social engagement, and is a profound aspect of human social identity. What makes the omission even more remarkable is how appositely (...)
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  17. added 2015-09-04
    Twisted Pictures: Morality, Nihilism and Symbolic Suicide in the Saw Series.Steve Jones - 2013 - In James Aston & John Walliss (eds.), To See the Saw Movies: Essays on Torture Porn and Post-9/11 Horror. McFarland. pp. 105-122.
    Given that numerous critics have complained about Saw’s apparently confused sense of ethics, it is surprising that little attention has been paid to how morality operates in narrative itself. Coming from a Nietzschean perspective - specifically questioning whether the lead torturer Jigsaw is a passive or a radical nihilist - I seek to rectify that oversight. This philosophical reading of the series explores Jigsaw’s moral stance, which is complicated by his hypocrisy: I contend that this underpins critical complaints regarding the (...)
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  18. added 2015-09-04
    XXXombies: Economies of Desire and Disgust.Steve Jones - 2013
    Drawing on the well-established understanding of the zombie as metaphor for the deadening effects of consumer capitalism, this chapter seeks to account for three distinct changes that contextualise 21st century zombie fiction. The first is situational: the global economic crisis has amplified the anxieties that inspired Romero's critique of consumer capitalism in Dawn of the Dead (1978). The second is intellectual: as Chapman and Anderson (2011) note, there has been an “explosion of research on all aspects of disgust” in recent (...)
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  19. added 2015-09-04
    No Pain, No Gain: Strategic Repulsion and The Human Centipede.Steve Jones - 2013 - Cine-Excess E-Journal 1 (1).
    Tom Six’s The Human Centipede (First Sequence) (2009) and The Human Centipede II (Full Sequence) (2011) are based on a disturbing premise: people are abducted and stitched together mouth-to-anus. The consequent combinations of faeces and bloodshed, torture and degradation have been roundly vilified by the critical press. Additionally, the sequel was officially banned or heavily censored in numerous countries. This article argues that these reactive forms of suppression fail to engage with the films themselves, or the concepts (such as disgust (...)
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  20. added 2015-09-04
    Torture Porn: Popular Horror After Saw.Steve Jones - 2013 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Torture Porn is a term that has generated a great deal of controversy during the last decade, critics utilizing the term to dismiss contemporary popular horror cinema as obscene and morally depraved. Arguing primarily in defense of torture-themed horror films, this book seeks to offer a critical overview and examination of the Torture Porn phenomenon, discussing the generic contexts in which it is situated, scrutinizing press responses to the sub-genre, and offering narrative analyses of the sub-genre’s central films; including the (...)
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  21. added 2015-09-04
    The Lexicon of Offense: The Meanings of Torture, Porn, and ‘Torture Porn”.Steve Jones - 2012 - In Feona Attwood, Ian Hunter, Vincent Campbell & Sharon Lockyear (eds.), Controversial Images: Media Representations on the Edge. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 186-200.
    Torture porn has been vilified on grounds that are at best unconvincing and at worst incoherent. The subgenre’s remonstrators too often ignore the content of the films themselves, and fail to make sufficiently detailed connections between the subgenre and the cultural sphere. Reactions to torture porn rarely consider what values the films apparently contravene, and why, if the films are offensive, they are simultaneously so popular. The central derisive mechanism in operation is the ill-conceived combination of ‘torture’ and ‘porn’ itself. (...)
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  22. added 2015-09-04
    Gender Monstrosity: Deadgirl and the Sexual Politics of Zombie-Rape.Steve Jones - 2012 - Feminist Media Studies 13 (4):525-539.
    Deadgirl (2008) is based around a group of male teens discovering and claiming ownership of a bound female zombie, using her as a sex slave. This narrative premise raises numerous tensions that are particularly amplified by using a zombie as the film's central victim. The Deadgirl is sexually passive yet monstrous, reifying the horrors associated with the female body in patriarchal discourses. She is objectified on the basis of her gender, and this has led many reviewers to dismiss the film (...)
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  23. added 2015-09-04
    The Pure Moment of Murder: The Symbolic Function of Bodily Interactions in Horror Film.Steve Jones - 2011 - Projections 6 (2):96-114.
    Both the slasher movie and its more recent counterpart the "torture porn" film centralize graphic depictions of violence. This article inspects the nature of these portrayals by examining a motif commonly found in the cinema of homicide, dubbed here the "pure moment of murder": that is, the moment in which two characters’ bodies adjoin onscreen in an instance of graphic violence. By exploring a number of these incidents (and their various modes of representation) in American horror films ranging from Psycho (...)
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  24. added 2015-09-04
    Porn of the Dead: Necrophilia, Feminism, and Gendering the Undead.Steve Jones - 2011 - In Christopher Moreman & Cory Rushton (eds.), Zombies Are Us: Essays on the Humanity of the Walking Dead. McFarland. pp. 40-60.
    Erotic Nights of the Living Dead (1980) may have featured both animated corpses and hardcore sex scenes, but only recently have Re-Penetrator (2004) and Porn of the Dead (2006) managed to fully eroticise the living dead, allowing these creatures to engage in intercourse. In doing so, the usually a-subjective zombie is allotted a key facet of identity - sexuality. This development within the sub-genre needs accounting for outside of the contexts of porn studies, where it has only been briefly touched (...)
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  25. added 2015-09-04
    Death of the Image/The Image of Death: Temporality , Torture and Transience in Yuuri Sunohara and Masami Akita's Harakiri Cycle.Steve Jones - 2011 - Journal of Japanese and Korean Cinema 3 (1):163-177.
    Sunohara Yuuri and Akita Masami’s series of six seppuku films (1990) are solely constituted by images of fictionalized death, revolving around the prolonged self-torture of a lone figure committing harakiri. I contend that the protagonist’s auto-immolation mirrors a formal death, each frame ‘killing’ the moment it represents. My analysis aims to explore how the solipsistic nature of selfhood is appositely symbolized by the isolation of the on-screen figures and the insistence with which the six films repeat the same scenario of (...)
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  26. added 2015-09-04
    The Technologies of Isolation.Steve Jones - 2010 - Japanese Studies 30 (2):185-198.
    In this investigation of the Japanese film Kairo, I contemplate how the horrors present in the film relate to the issue of self, by examining a number of interlocking motifs. These include thematic foci on disease and technology which are more intimately and inwardly focused that the film's conclusion first appears to suggest. The true horror here, I argue, is ontological: centred on the self and its divorcing from the exterior world, especially founded in an increased use of and reliance (...)
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  27. added 2015-09-04
    Horrorporn/Pornhorror: The Problematic Communities and Contexts of Extreme Online Imagery.Steve Jones - 2010 - In Feona Attwood (ed.), Porn.com: Making Sense of Online Pornography. Peter Lang. pp. 123-137.
    This chapter explores the tentative line between erotic spectacle and horror; a judgement that is problematic given that is based on an axis of moral or ideological normality. The contexts of viewing impact on the status of ‘obscene’ images, both in terms of the communities that view them and their motivation for viewing; for sexual arousal, out of morbid curiosity or malevolence, or perhaps all three simultaneously. The reception of an obscene image is largely based upon the issue of viewer (...)
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  28. added 2015-09-04
    'Time is Wasting': Con/Sequence and S/Pace in the Saw Series.Steve Jones - 2010 - Horror Studies 1 (2):225-239.
    Horror film sequels have not received as much serious critical attention as they deserve – this is especially true of the Saw franchise, which has suffered a general dismissal under the derogatory banner ‘Torture Porn’. In this article I use detailed textual analysis of the Saw series to expound how film sequels employ and complicate expected temporal and spatial relations – in particular, I investigate how the Saw sequels tie space and time into their narrative, methodological and moral sensibilities. Far (...)
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  29. added 2015-09-04
    ""Hard Times and Rough Rides: The Legal and Ethical Impossibilities of Researching "'Shock"'Pornographies.Steve Jones & Sharif Mowlabocus - 2009 - Sexualities 12 (5):613--628.
    This article explores the various ethical and legal limitations faced by researchers studying extreme or ‘ shock’ pornographies, beginning with generic and disciplinary contexts, and focusing specifically upon the assumption that textual analysis unproblematically justifies certain pornographies, while legal contexts utilize a prohibitive gaze. Are our academic freedoms of speech endangered by legislations that restrict our access to non-mainstream images, forcing them further into taboo locales? If so, is the ideological normalization of sexuality inextricable from our research methodologies? Simultaneously, can (...)
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  30. added 2015-06-11
    A Simple Solution to the Paradox of Negative Emotion.Rafael De Clercq - 2013 - In Jerrold Levinson (ed.), Suffering Art Gladly: The Paradox of Negative Emotion in Art. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 111-122.
    This chapter offers a new solution to the paradox of negative emotion in art. Crucial to the defense of this new solution is the normative sense of predicates such as 'is moving', 'is touching', 'is powerful', and 'is gripping'. Roughly, the solution itself is that, in their normative sense, these predicates designate aesthetic properties that we enjoy and value experiencing, even tough, in the cases which generate the paradox, the enjoyment comes at a price.
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  31. added 2015-03-18
    The Horror of Liberty.Stuart Kendall - 2009 - In Andrew J. Mitchell & Jason Kemp Winfree (eds.), The Obsessions of Georges Bataille: Community and Communication. State University of New York Press.
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  32. added 2015-03-18
    A Horror Film That Never Ends.Andrew Sullivan - 2008 - The Chesterton Review 34 (1/2):339-341.
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  33. added 2015-03-18
    The Horror! The Horror! Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome After Vietnam.David C. Barrows - 1996 - Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 8 (1):1-15.
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  34. added 2015-03-18
    Aristotle’s Horror Vacui.John Thorp - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (2):149 - 166.
    At Physics IV,8, 216a26-7, Aristotle cracks a joke. It is one of the relatively few deliberate jokes in the corpus, and its occurrence here is not without significance. Aristotle in these chapters is arguing against those who believe in the existence of the void, or vacuum, or empty space; he says, ‘even if we consider it on its own merits the so-called vacuum will be found to be really vacuous.'To be sure, this is not a very funny joke; what is (...)
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  35. added 2014-11-07
    Scotland as a Site of Sacrifice.Marmysz John - 2014 - Film International 12 (2):6-17.
    Friedrich Nietzsche delineates three stages of sacrificial behavior. The first stage consists of the sacrifice of particular human beings to a god. The second stage involves the sacrifice of one’s own instincts to a god, and the third stage culminates in the sacrifice of God himself. This last stage describes the death of God and signals the “final cruelty” of our present times. Our age is the age of nihilism, the point in history during which humans “sacrifice God for the (...)
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  36. added 2014-10-04
    Explanations: Aesthetic and Scientific.Shen-yi Liao - 2014 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 75:127-149.
    Methodologically, philosophical aesthetics is undergoing an evolution that takes it closer to the sciences. Taking this methodological convergence as the starting point, I argue for a pragmatist and pluralist view of aesthetic explanations. To bring concreteness to discussion, I focus on vindicating genre explanations, which are explanations of aesthetic phenomena that centrally cite a work's genre classification. I show that theoretical resources that philosophers of science have developed with attention to actual scientific practice and the special sciences can be used (...)
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  37. added 2014-03-29
    Hot with Rapture and Cold with Fear": Grotesque, Sublime, and Postmodern Transformations in Patrick Süskind's Perfume.Susann Cokal - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 179.
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  38. added 2014-03-29
    Through a Mirror, Darkly: Art-Horror as a Medium for Moral Reflection.Philip Tallon - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 33.
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  39. added 2014-03-29
    The Philosophy of Horror.Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.) - 2010 - University Press of Kentucky.
    Inviting readers to ponder this genre's various manifestations since the late 1700s, this collection of probing essays allows fans and philosophy buffs alike to ...
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  40. added 2014-03-29
    Kitsch and Camp and Things That Go Bump in the Night; or, Sontag and Adorno at the (Horror) Movies.David MacGregor Johnston - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky.
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  41. added 2014-03-29
    Horror and the Idea of Everyday Life: On Skeptical Threats in Psycho and the Birds.Philip J. Nickel - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 14--32.
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  42. added 2014-03-29
    The Justification of Torture-Horror: Retribution and Sadism in Saw, Hostel, and the Devil's Rejects.Jeremy Morris - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 42.
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  43. added 2014-03-28
    Monstruos, Ánimas y Distopías: Cinefilia y Filosofía.Mauricio Ramos - 2011 - Fondo Editorial de Baja California.
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  44. added 2014-03-28
    Horror and Humor.Noel Carroll - 1999 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (2):145-160.
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  45. added 2014-03-22
    Horror Film and Psychoanalysis: Freud's Worst Nightmare.Steven Jay Schneider (ed.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
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  46. added 2014-03-18
    The Immorality of Horror Films.Gianluca Di Muzio - 2006 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (2):277-294.
    With the exception of pornography, the morality of popular forms of entertainment has not been studied extensively by philosophers. The present paper aims to start discussion on the moral status of horror films, whose popularity and success has grown steadily since the 1970s. In particular, the author focuses on so-called “slasher” or “gorefest” films, where the narration revolves around the graphic and realistic depiction of a series of murders. The paper’s main thesis is that it is immoral to produce, distribute, (...)
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  47. added 2014-03-17
    Music in Narrative Film. On Motion and Stasis : Photography, "Moving Pictures," Music / David Neumeyer, Laura Neumeyer ; the Topos of "Evil Medieval" in American Horror Film Music / James Deaville ; la Leggenda Del Pianista Sull'oceano : Narration, Music, and Cinema / Rosa Stella Cassotti ; Music in Aki Kaurismäki's Film the Match Factory Girl / Erkki Pekkilä ; It's a Little Bit Funny : Moulin Rouge's Sparkling Postmodern Critique.Susan Ingram - 2006 - In Erkki Pekkilä, David Neumeyer & Richard Littlefield (eds.), Music, Meaning and Media. University of Helsinki.
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  48. added 2014-03-07
    The Ghost is the Thing: Can Fiction Reveal Audience Belief?Aaron Smuts - 2010 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):219-239.
    Can fictions sometimes reveal important information about what beliefs audience members hold? I argue that a case can be made that emotional responses to some horror fictions can reveal that audiences harbor beliefs in the supernatural, beliefs that audience members might otherwise deny holding. To clarify the terms of the discussion, I begin with an overview of two leading theories of belief: the representational and dispositional accounts. I explore the role of belief in the production of emotional responses by posing (...)
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  49. added 2014-02-13
    Horror and Mood.Andrea Sauchelli - 2014 - American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (1):39-50.
    Horror is a popular genre or style in many different forms of art. In this essay I propose a definition of horror that is meant to capture our intuitions about the extension of this category over a variety of forms of art. In particular, I claim that horror is individuated by a specific atmosphere and mood, rather than by any singular entity in the horror representation.
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  50. added 2013-10-22
    Cognitive and Philosophical Approaches to Horror.Aaron Smuts - forthcoming - In Harry Benshoff (ed.), Blackwell Companion to the Horror Film. Blackwell.
    Four main issues have occupied center stage in the analytic-cognitivist work on horror: (1) What is horror? (2) What is the appeal of horror? (3) How does it frighten audiences? and, (4) is it irrational to be scared of horror fiction?
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