About this topic

When I see an object, its givenness is always somewhat “empty” and indeterminate: not all of it is in plain view like the front side, and even what is in plain view is not given in complete detail. However, it is always part of my visual experience of the object that I am implicitly or explicitly aware of ways in which I could bring further aspects of it into plain view, and avail myself of further aspects and details. This more or less tacit awareness is the horizonality of visual experience. Husserl distinguishes inner and outer horizons of the perceptual object, the former being the anticipated perspectival changes of the object relative to the perceiver, the latter, its anticipated ways of interacting with other objects. The notion of horizonality can be extrapolated from the case of visual experience, to discuss other, relevantly analogous kinds of experiences. Husserl uses the notion broadly, for various levels and kinds of experience. 

Key works Welton 2003 offers a kind of Heideggerian reading of Husserlian phenomenology, according to which Husserl’s main contribution consists in the characterization of the world, viz., as a horizon, a background of sense, correlative with our ways of engaging with our environments. Walton 2003 examines the various senses of horizonedness in Husserl and Gurwitsch, centering on the Husserlian notion of “latency” as the origin of horizonedness, the functioning of the world-horizon, and the interrelatedness of horizons, forming a cumulative totality. Based mainly on Husserl’s late manuscripts on time consciousness, Walton 2010 gives an account how, in the stratified build-up of objects and the world, “horizonality appears as an undifferentiated totality, a relief of noticeability, an articulated background, and an ontological style.” Held 1998
Introductions Zahavi 2003, Ch. 3, Woodruff Smith 2006, Ch. 6
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57 found
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  1. added 2019-02-17
    Aesthetic Horizons: A Phenomenologically Motivated Critique of Zuidervaart.Eric Chelstrom - 2016 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 3 (1):1-14.
    One of the more ambitious and yet fruitful attempts in recent years to untangle general questions about the nature of aesthetic phenomena and their socially constituted nature rests in Lambert Zuidervaart’s critical hermeneutical theory of artistic truth. In this paper, I explore one part of Zuidervaart’s project, namely his conception of “aesthetic validity as a horizon of imaginative cogency.” I seek to develop Zuidervaart’s conception by bringing his thesis into dialogue with phenomenological analyses of “horizon” and the collective intentional approach (...)
  2. added 2018-04-16
    Horizontal Intentionality and Transcendental Intersubjectivity.Dan Zahavi - 1997 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 59 (2):304-321.
    Through an investigation of Husserl's concept of horizontal intentionality, the article basically argues that the horizon is intrinsically intersubjective, and that it entails an implicit reference to the intentions of possible Others. Against this background it is argued that our perceptual experience of an embodied Other, our factual encounter with the Other, is not the most basic and fundamental type of intersubjectivity. On the contrary, it presupposes a type of intersubjectivity which belongs a priori to the structure of constituting subjectivity.
  3. added 2017-11-19
    A Critique of the Husserlian and Heideggerian Concepts of Earth: Toward a Transcendental Earth That Accords with the Experience of Life.Andrew Tyler Johnson - 2014 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 45 (3):220-238.
    This paper presents an exposition and critical appraisal of the concepts of earth that appear almost simultaneously in essays by Husserl and Heidegger in the mid 1930s. I argue that while both of these earths are noteworthy insofar as they suggest, each in its own way, the isolation of a non-worldly dimension of disclosure, nevertheless, neither Husserl nor Heidegger succeeds in fully emancipating the earth from the logic of the world. In Husserl's case, the earth is implicated in a fourfold (...)
  4. added 2017-09-17
    Review of Tanja Staehler: Hegel, Husserl and the Phenomenology of Historical Worlds. [REVIEW]Marco Crosa - 2017 - Phenomenological Reviews.
    Hegel, Husserl and the Phenomenology of Historical Worlds by Tanja Staehler is an effort of integration between the phenomenological thinking of two of the most influential philosophers in the contemporary tradition: G.W.F. Hegel and Edmund Husserl. The author main intention is the radicalisation of Hegel's phenomenology by the overcoming of a prescribed teleology with a more open and horizonally constituted historical development.
  5. added 2017-07-17
    Motivation and Horizon: Phenomenal Intentionality in Husserl.Philip J. Walsh - 2017 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 94 (3):410-435.
    This paper argues for a Husserlian account of phenomenal intentionality. Experience is intentional insofar as it presents a mind-independent, objective world. Its doing so is a matter of the way it hangs together, its having a certain structure. But in order for the intentionality in question to be properly understood as phenomenal intentionality, this structure must inhere in experience as a phenomenal feature. Husserl’s concept of horizon designates this intentionality-bestowing experiential structure, while his concept of motivation designates the unique phenomenal (...)
  6. added 2017-04-07
    Haecceitas as Value and as Moral Horizon: A Scotist Contribution to the Project of a Phenomenological Ethics.William E. Tullius - 2013 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (3):459-480.
    This paper seeks to provide a phenomenological articulation of the Scotist notion of haecceitas, interpreting Scotus’s principle of individuation at once as an ontological as well as a moral principle. Growing out of certain suggestions made by James Hart in his Who One Is, this interpretation is meant to provide the phenomenological ethics of both Edmund Husserl and Max Scheler with a useful theoretical tool in the Scotist notion of haecceitas interpreted as a horizon of value in order more fully (...)
  7. added 2017-03-02
    Indexicality as a Phenomenological Problem.Saulius Geniusas - 2012 - Symposium 16 (2):171-190.
    The following investigation raises the question of indexicality’s phenomenological sense by tracing the development of this problem in Husserl’s phenomenology, starting with its emergence in the first of the Logical Investigations. In contrast to the standard approach, which confines the problem of indexicality to its treatment in the Logical Investigations, I argue against Husserl’s early solution, claiming that, from a specifically phenomenological perspective, the so-called “replaceability thesis” is unwarranted. I further show that Husserl himself unequivocally rejected his early solution in (...)
  8. added 2017-03-02
    Expérience et horizon chez Husserl: Contextualité et synthèse à partir du concept de « représentation vide ».Fausto Fraisopi - 2009 - Studia Phaenomenologica 9:455-475.
    The work on the sixth Logical Investigation presents, to Husserl and moreover to transcendental phenomenology a new set of problems, questions and theoretical issues, which are deeply related to the concept of intuitive fulfilment. Here, the relation between core and halo, developed in 1908, must be integrated with the concept of horizon as a fundamental stucture of perception and every other kind of experience. The experience also became a contextual experience, essentially related and determined from a contextual situationality. More generally, (...)
  9. added 2017-03-02
    Knowledge on the Horizon: A Phenomenological Inquiry Into the “Framing” of Rodney King.Ian Gerrie - 2007 - Human Studies 29 (3):295-315.
    Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production. I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates what is present in perceptual awareness. Making (...)
  10. added 2016-11-14
    The Origins of the Horizon in Husserl's Phenomenology.Saulius Geniusas - 2012 - Springer.
  11. added 2016-10-30
    The Process of Sense-Formation and Fixed Sense-Structures: * Key Intuitions in the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Marc Richir.Georgy I. Chernavin - 2016 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 54 (1):48-61.
    The article analyzes some key motives of both classical German phenomenology and contemporary French phenomenology. The theme of sense-formation, a recurring thread throughout Husserl's entire body of work, serves as a discussion starting point.A special emphasis is put on one of Husserl's posthumously published texts from 1933, in which he distinguishes between the open process of sense-formation [Sinnbildung] and the closed sense-structures [Sinngebilde]. The “phenomenon” to which phenomenological philosophy refers here is not a “pre-given thing” yet, but rather the horizon (...)
  12. added 2016-10-30
    Some Reflections on Psychologism, Reductionism, and Related Issues Leading Towards an Epistemological Dualism of Reason and Experience.Guido Peeters - 1990 - KU Leuven, Laboratorium voor Experimentele Sociale Psychologie.
    Discussing ideas from Husserl's 'Vom Ursprung der Geometrie' and the author's research on human information processing, it is suggested that there may be two relatively independent modes of knowledge. They are tentatively referred to as 'experience' and 'reason'. They constitute an epistemological dualism that may enable to avoid certain circularities in the foundation of knowledge and that may provide an avenue towards the integration of scientific and preschientific (phenomenological) knowledge. This duality involves two horizons advanced yet bu Husserl, but we (...)
  13. added 2016-10-27
    What Could Have Been Done (but Wasn’T). On the Counterfactual Status of Action in Alva Noë’s Theory of Perception.Gunnar Declerck - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (5):765-784.
    Alva Noë’s strategy to solve the puzzle of perceptual presence entirely relies on the principle of presence as access. Unaccessed or unattended parts or details of objects are perceptually present insofar as they are accessible, and they are accessible insofar as one possesses sensorimotor skills that can secure their access. In this paper, I consider several arguments that can be opposed to this claim and that are chiefly related to the modal status of action, i.e. the fact that the action (...)
  14. added 2015-08-20
    Nature and the "Primal Horizon".Roberto J. Walton - 1991 - Analecta Husserliana 34:97.
  15. added 2015-08-19
    The Concept of Horizon.H. Pietersma - 1972 - Analecta Husserliana 2:278.
  16. added 2015-08-16
    Piercing the Horizon.Rodolphe Gasché - 2007 - Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 17 (2):1-12.
  17. added 2015-08-15
    The Metaphor of the Horizon.Jean-Baptiste Dussert - 2009 - Proyecto Hermenéutica.
  18. added 2015-04-21
    Horizon And Identity in the Husserlian Phenomenology.Doru Sticlet - 2002 - Studia Philosophica 2.
    The Husserlian concept of horizon proves to be not so much as a fixed and well defined concept, but rather the problematic crossing point of a set of situations which cannot be entirely explained in terms of ideality, presence or identity. The horizon is the one which, rendering all these possible or manifest, forms their forgotten background, and keeps itself always co-present, like an inexhaustible resource for all these manifestations. Therefore, throughout analyzing these problematic situations , we try to shed (...)
  19. added 2015-04-20
    Genèse et transcendantalisation du concept d''horizon' chez Husserl.Fausto Fraisopi - 2008 - Phänomenologische Forschungen:43-70.
  20. added 2015-04-20
    Husserl's Concept of Horizon: An Attempt at Reappraisal.Tze-wan Kwan - 1990 - Analecta Husserliana 31:361.
  21. added 2015-04-20
    The Analytics of the "Dynamics of Horizons" in Husserl's "Analysen Zur Passiven Synthesis".Luigia Di Pinto - 1990 - Analecta Husserliana 29:301.
  22. added 2015-04-19
    How Do Categorial Representations Influence Everyday Intuition? On Husserl`s Early Attempt To Grasp The Horizontal Structure Of Consciousness.Deodath Zuh - 2008 - Studia Philosophica 1.
    Beginning with the book of Robert Sokolowski about Husserl’s concept of constitution the Philosophy of Arithmetic have been revisited as an important document of Husserl’s constitution-theory. It is not only an unripe sketch but a work that even formulates one of the most progressive thoughts of Husserl’s later philosophy. In my analysis this statement will also be true, if we concentrate on the second part of Husserl’s book and on the text that was meant to build the opening section of (...)
  23. added 2015-04-19
    Horizontes de la eficacia histórica y la comprensión en la fenomenología de Edmund Husserl.Roberto Walton - 2007 - Agora Philosophica 8:118-141.
    Este artículo trata sobre los horizontes de la eficacia histórica y la comprensión en la fenomenología de Husserl. El autor comienza considerando el marco que ofrece el análisis de Gadamer de los tres modos de llegar a un acuerdo con las tradiciones, es decir, la metodología generalizadora, la conciencia histórica singularizadora, y la exposición de la conciencia efectiva de la historia. A continuación pasa a describir cómo Husserl se basa en las ideas de Dilthey, y argumenta que el punto principal (...)
  24. added 2015-04-17
    Imperativo categórico y kairós en la ética de Husserl.Roberto Walton - 2003 - Tópicos 11:5-21.
    The aim of this paper is to analize both the side that points to a field of possibilities and the side that points to the moment of a particular action in Husserl's formulation of the categorical imperative: "Do at every moment the best that is attainable!" First, the author surveys the range of possibilities considered by Husserl in order to delineate the best course of action. This analysis leads to a twofold enlargement of the practical horizon. On the one hand (...)
  25. added 2015-02-22
    The Origins of the Horizon in Husserl’s Phenomenology by Saulius Geniusas. [REVIEW]Witold Płotka - 2013 - Studia Phaenomenologica 13:479-482.
  26. added 2015-02-22
    The Broader Horizon of Passivity in Husserl’s Phenomenology. Review Of: Victor Biceaga, The Concept of Passivity in Husserl’s Phenomenology. [REVIEW]George Vamesul - 2010 - Meta 2 (2):574-580.
  27. added 2015-02-22
    The Other Husserl: The Horizons of Transcendental Phenomenology. [REVIEW]John J. Drummond - 2003 - International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):241-242.
  28. added 2015-02-22
    The World as Horizon: Husserl's Constitutional Theory of the Objective World.Theodore Ernest Klein - 1967 - Dissertation, Rice University
  29. added 2015-02-17
    Perception and Context: A Contextual Theory of Perception Based Upon Husserl's Theory of Horizons and James's Theory of Fringes.Christopher John Broniak - 1997 - Dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago
    Several classical philosophical theories of perception presuppose that the meaning of a perceptual object is solely its explicit cognitive content. By contrast, Edmund Husserl and William James offer unique frameworks for constructing a far more satisfactory account of perceptual meaning. Husserl provides a theory of perceptual horizons. His theory of horizonal consciousness grew in large measure from the intellectual promptings of William James. In his description of the stream of thought, James introduces the notion of fringes of objects of consciousness. (...)
  30. added 2015-02-14
    Dynamics of Consciousness: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and Dynamical Systems Theory.Jeffrey Kazuo Yoshimi - 2001 - Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    Husserlian phenomenology and connectionist neuroscience make a surprisingly tight fit. In both fields one finds talk of possible states: on the one hand, sets of possible conscious-states , on the other hand, sets of possible brain-states . The two approaches are integrated using dynamical systems theory, which provides mathematical and geometrical tools for studying the motion of complex systems. ;Husserl describes the world of everyday life as a set of possible conscious experiences. He uses this conception of the world to (...)
  31. added 2014-08-01
    Artworld as Horizon: A Phenomenological Analysis of Unaided Ready-Mades.Regina-Nino Kurg - 2014 - Studies on Art and Architecture (Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi) 23 (1/2):200-212.
    The article explores the possibility of defining unaided ready-mades as objects of art. It starts from the assumption that Edmund Husserl’s notion of horizon and Arthur Danto’s notion of artworld have similar meanings. Accordingly, it argues that unaided ready-mades are objects of art that appear with unique cultural horizons called artworlds. The aim is to show that the artworld is an external co-determining horizon that is sufficient for determining unaided ready-mades to be artworks.
  32. added 2014-06-21
    Affectively Driven Perception: Toward a Non-Representational Phenomenology.Matt Bower - 2014 - Husserl Studies 30 (3):225-245.
    While classical phenomenology, as represented by Edmund Husserl’s work, resists certain forms of representationalism about perception, I argue that in its theory of horizons, it posits representations in the sense of content-bearing vehicles. As part of a phenomenological theory, this means that on the Husserlian view such representations are part of the phenomenal character of perceptual experience. I believe that, although the intuitions supporting this idea are correct, it is a mistake to maintain that there are such representations defining the (...)
  33. added 2014-04-23
    Husserl’s Motivation and Method for Phenomenological Reconstruction.Matt Bower - 2014 - Continental Philosophy Review 47 (2):135-152.
    In this paper I piece present an account of Husserl’s approach to the phenomenological reconstruction of consciousness’ immemorial past, a problem, I suggest, that is quite pertinent for defenders of Lockean psychological continuity views of personal identity. To begin, I sketch the background of the problem facing the very project of a genetic phenomenology, within which the reconstructive analysis is situated. While the young Husserl took genetic matters to be irrelevant to the main task of phenomenology, he would later come (...)
  34. added 2014-04-02
    Saulius Geniusas: The Origins of the Horizon in Husserl’s Phenomenology. [REVIEW]Luis Román Rabanaque - 2014 - Husserl Studies 30 (2):187-194.
    Saulius Geniusas’ work on the origins of the horizon is arguably the first book that specifically addresses this fundamental, yet frequently neglected, issue in Husserl’s phenomenology. It attempts to fill this gap in philosophical inquiry by highlighting the elementary fact of the irreducible horizonal givenness of both world and subjectivity, and he does so by taking as a clue the question of the horizon’s origins. The horizon’s unique feature consists in being a “peculiar figure of intentionality” whose problematic “unfolds as (...)
  35. added 2014-04-02
    Donn Welton, The Other Husserl: The Horizons of Transcendental Phenomenology. [REVIEW]Henry Pietersma - 2002 - Philosophy in Review 22 (5):381-383.
  36. added 2014-04-02
    Welton, D., The Other Husserl: The Horizons of Transcedental Phenomenology. [REVIEW]John Scanlon - 2002 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 33 (1):131-138.
  37. added 2014-04-02
    The Scope of Husserl's Notion of Horizon.S. Stephen Hilmy - 1981 - Modern Schoolman 59 (1):21-48.
  38. added 2014-03-30
    World-Experience, World-Representation, and the World as an Idea.Roberto J. Walton - 1997 - Husserl Studies 14 (1):1-20.
    Husserl proceeds to show how a world-representation emerges from our world-experience, and how an idea of the world plays a role in the expansion of world-representations. He also draws our attention to the appropriation of other world-representations in a process of adjustment and compensation leading to intersubjective world-representations, and offers an analysis of the status of world-representations within transcendental phenomenology. In this article I will underline the relevance of Husserl’s concept of horizonedness to the characterization of the three levels of (...)
  39. added 2014-03-23
    On the Manifold Senses of Horizonedness. The Theories of E. Husserl and A. Gurwitsch.Roberto J. Walton - 2003 - Husserl Studies 19 (1):1-24.
    The article deals with the lines along which manifold senses of horizonedness emerge and their reference to potentiality as a starting-point. The first section examines Gurwitsch's analyses of field-potentialities and margin-potentialities in the light of distinctions drawn by Husserl in terms of latency and patency. It is contended that Husserl's concept of latency encompasses both modes of potentiality. The second section shows how the world- horizon functions as a background- horizon and alternation- horizon conceived of as the two fundamental modes (...)
  40. added 2014-03-19
    Knowledge on the Horizon: A Phenomenological Inquiry Into the “Framing” of Rodney King.Ian Gerrie - 2006 - Human Studies 29 (3):295-315.
    Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production (e.g., social, cultural, historical, political). I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates what is (...)
  41. added 2014-03-12
    Holism and Horizon: Husserl and McDowell on Non-Conceptual Content.Michael D. Barber - 2008 - Husserl Studies 24 (2):79-97.
    John McDowell rejects the idea that non-conceptual content can rationally justify empirical claims—a task for which it is ill-fitted by its non-conceptual nature. This paper considers three possible objections to his views: he cannot distinguish empty conception from the perceptual experience of an object; perceptual discrimination outstrips the capacity of concepts to keep pace; and experience of the empirical world is more extensive than the conceptual focusing within it. While endorsing McDowell’s rejection of what he means by non-conceptual content, and (...)
  42. added 2014-03-06
    Questions de co-intentionnalité : Expérience et structure d'horizon.Fausto Fraisopi - 2010 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 6 (8):46-63.
    Le dedans intentionnel (das intentionnale Innen) est en même temps le dehors (Aussen). (E. Husserl, Intentionnalité et être-au-monde, Hua. XV, p. 549-556 (§ 8), tr. fr. in D. Janicaud (éd.), L?intentionnalité en question entre phénoménologie et recherches cognitives, Paris, Vrin, p. 145.) En introduisant l?enracinement de l?expérience (et surtout de la logique) dans « le sol universel du monde », Husserl affirme, de façon très claire, dans Expérience et jugement , que « toute saisie d?objet singulier et toute activité ultérieure (...)
  43. added 2014-03-04
    The Dorsal Stream and the Visual Horizon.Michael Madary - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (4):423-438.
    Today many philosophers of mind accept that the two cortical streams of visual processing in humans can be distinguished in terms of conscious experience. The ventral stream is thought to produce representations that may become conscious, and the dorsal stream is thought to handle unconscious vision for action. Despite a vast literature on the topic of the two streams, there is currently no account of the way in which the relevant empirical evidence could fit with basic Husserlian phenomenology of vision. (...)
  44. added 2014-02-08
    The Horizon of the Self: Husserl on Indexicals.Denis Fisette - 1998 - In Dan Zahavi (ed.), Self-Awareness, Temporality, and Alterity. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 119-135.
    One of the questions raised by the conference’s topic, in particular the relationship between the self and the other, a matter much discussed since Merleau-Ponty’s death, is the question of husserlian phenomenology’s cartesianism. Some believe that despite his reservations towards cartesianism, Husserl never disavowed his commitment to the Cartesian program of a first philosophy.
  45. added 2013-12-01
    Indexicalité et horizon chez Husserl.Alain Gallerand - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (1):129-163.
    Because the meaning of indexical expressions fluctuates, they have long been enigmatic for the theory of signification in phenomenology. In Husserlsymbolicintentional horizonproper concept” provide answers. Without the new phenomenological value of the theory of concept and intentionality, it is impossible to understand the linguistic operation of indexicality.
  46. added 2013-12-01
    El "viraje" en los "beiträge" de M. Heidegger y en los manuscritos C de E. Husserl.Roberto J. Walton - 2012 - Investigaciones Fenomenológicas 9:89-115.
    El artículo considera en primer lugar el papel asignado por Heidegger, en su análisis del viraje , al acontecimiento-apropiación como el punto medio entre el ser y el Dasein. En el carácter abismal de la oscilación entre el llamado del primero y la pertenencia del segundo reside la unidad originaria del tiempo-espacio que deja emerger ambos momentos hacia su separación. Esto permite a su vez el despliegue de un tiempo derivado y un orden para la medición. En segundo lugar, se (...)
  47. added 2013-11-26
    Evidencia y verdad. Un problema en la fenomenología de E. Husserl.Pilar Fernández Beites - 1993 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 27:195-216.
    This paper reflects on how the possibility of meaningful evidence is to be assumed in view that all our linguistic exercises take place in the context of a discursive horizon where we are situated. To do this, the paper starts distinguishing two phenomena: first, the possibility of meaningful evidence and second, the horizontal character that is inherent to the deployment of linguistic meaning. Furthermore, through a discussion with Husserl and Wittgenstein, the paper considers how those two phenomena are to be (...)
  48. added 2013-09-08
    World as Horizon.Donn Welton - 2003 - In The New Husserl: A Critical Reader. Indiana University Press.
  49. added 2013-09-08
    Horizont und Gewohnheit. Husserls Wissenschaft von der Lebenswelt.Klaus Held - 1998 - In Krise der Wissenschaften--Wissenschaft der Krisis? Im Gedenken an Husserls Krisis-Abhandlung (1935/1936-1996).
  50. added 2013-06-02
    Gadamer and the Fusion of Horizons.David Vessey - 2009 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (4):531-542.
    Hans-Georg Gadamer is often criticized for his account of the fusions of horizons as the ideal resolution of dialogue. I argue that in fact it is an excellent account of the successful resolution of dialogue, but only in light of a proper understanding of what Gadamer means by 'horizon' and how then horizons are fused. I do this by showing how Gadamer is drawing on the technical sense of 'horizon' found in Edmund Husserl's and Martin Heidegger's phenomenologies. In the process (...)
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