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Summary The topic of intersubjectivity, or other-awareness, is interesting in several respects: we want to know what it takes to experience the other as the other, and how the experience of the other may be needed for the development of self-awareness and to experience the objective world. For Husserl, a kind of proto-alterity is arguably there even at the level of pre-egological flow of time-consciousness, before I and the other have emerged as individual persons, accounting for the possibility of such higher forms of intersubjective experience. My experience of the other as a subject, rather than a mere object, is based on the empathy that I feel for the other, as part of experiencing of the other in terms of his/her embodiment. The experience of the other is, in turn, instrumental in shaping aspects of my self-awareness, as I begin to experience myself as an other for an other. This account of my experience of another person, is also applicable to “encounters” between different cultures, and to intercultural understanding. The constitution of material things also involves intersubjectivity: the thing that I see is necessarily experienced as being such that it would look a certain way to other perceivers.
Key works Contrary to the traditional reading of Husserl’s Fifth Cartesian Meditation, Carr 1973 argues that Husserl addresses the problem of how, not whether, the Other exists for the subject. Rather than positing the alter ego “outside” one’s experience, Husserl brings the alter ego into the sphere of one’s necessarily intersubjective experience of objects in the world. Gurwitsch 1979 argues that, pace Husserl, the Other does not need to be accessed by analogical reasoning based on bodily presence, but can be experienced as part of a shared meaningful context. Hutcheson 1979 reasons that the Husserlian project does not allow for a distinction between a solipsistic and an intersubjective phenomenology. The idea of an “other transcendental rational subject” is always presupposed, and there cannot be a solipsistic level or stage. Hutcheson 1982 asks, “Is Husserl’s fifth meditation an acceptable prelude to his analysis of phenomenology itself?” and answers this question in the negative, criticizing Husserl’s arguments. According to Mensch 1988, Husserl is able to make sense of the independent existence of one’s fellow subjects, viz., by appealing to a “primal subjectivity”, conceived as pre-individual ground, “neither one nor many”, of the relations between the individual and other subjects. Römpp 1991 offers detailed discussions of Husserl’s views of intersubjectivity, and develops a conception of transcendental idealist philosophy, on the basis of the Husserlian conception of intersubjectivity. Thompson 2001 accepts key aspects of Husserl’s account of intersubjectivity, while arguing that empathy is in various respects an important topic for an interdisciplinary study of consciousness. Responding to a “linguistic-pragmatic critique”, according to which Husserl’s phenomenology is unacceptably solipsistic, Zahavi 2001 defends the idea of a phenomenology of intersubjectivity. Abiding by the methodological constraints of Husserlian phenomenology, Chelstrom 2012 contends that there is reason to accept the ideas of collective intentionality and the plural subject.

Introductions Mensch 1988, Ch. 1, Moran 2005, Ch. 7, David 2006, Ch. 5, or Zahavi 2003, Ch. 3
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  1. Against Cartesian Mistrust: Cavell, Husserl and the Other Mind Sceptic.Lilian Alweiss - 2010 - Ratio 23 (3):241-259.
    This paper asks whether we should still be haunted by scepticism about other minds. It draws on the writings of Cavell and Husserl to show that there is some truth in the Cartesian premise that has given rise to scepticism about other minds, namely, that our self-awareness is of a fundamentally different type from our awareness of objects and other subjects. While this leads Cavell to argue that there is a truth to scepticism, it proves the opposite to Husserl, viz. (...)
  2. The Givenness of Self and Others in Husserl's Transcendental Phenomenology.Wayne K. Andrew - 1982 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 13 (1):85-100.
    Husserl's explication of "self" and "others" occurs within his founding science of pure possibilities or "bracketed" consciousness and experience. His analysis of self and others seeks, in part, to demonstrate that "personal" or "self-experience" is not the only possibility of immanent consciousness but that "other persons" are also given as possibilities. The possibility of others, though in a form of givenness different from that of self, provides a basis for inter-subjectivity. Thus, Husserl's phenomenological analysis can, if it does avoid solipsism (...)
  3. Sartre's Other and the Field of Consciousness: A 'Husserlian' Reading.Richard E. Aquila - 1998 - European Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):253-276.
  4. El solipsismo y las relaciones de intersubjetividad: Análisis fenomenológico de la experiencia del Otro.Pedro Juan Aristizábal Hoyos - 2012 - San Pablo: Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.
  5. Tra corporeità, spazialità e immaginazione: forme dell'empatia in Husserl.Daniela Baniera - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Padua
    Between corporeality, space and imagination: forms of empathy in Husserl.The research is focused on the husserlian empathy, meant as a central moment in the constitution of the phenomenological subjectivity, as a genetic path, where the husserlian subject reveals itself as a being structurally bound with the others, from the Leib's level to the Geist's one. In particular, starting from the analysis of the Texts of HUA XIII-XIV-XV Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität, the unpublished manuscripts on intersubjectivity (E groups) and, of course, (...)
  6. Somatic Apprehension and Imaginative Abstraction: Cairns's Criticisms of Schutz's Criticisms of Husserl's Fifth Meditation.Michael Barber - 2010 - Human Studies 33 (1):1-21.
    Dorion Cairns correctly interprets the preconstituted stratum of Edmund Husserl’s Fifth Cartesian Meditation to be the primordial ego and not the social world, as was thought by Alfred Schutz, who considered Husserl to be insufficiently attentive to the social world’s hold upon us. Following Cairns’s interpretation, which involves recovering and reconstructing strata that may never exist independently, one better understands how the transfer of sense animate organism involves automatic association, or somatic apprehension. This sense-transfer extends to any animate organism, not (...)
  7. Einfühlung und das Verstehen einer Person.Christian Beyer - 2013 - In Stefania Centrone (ed.), Versuche über Husserl. Meiner.
  8. Geistiger Verkehr et für wer immer Geltung: figures de l’intersubjectivité dans les Recherches logiques de Edmund Husserl.Bertrand Bouckaert - 1997 - Études Phénoménologiques 13 (25):77-104.
  9. A Priori Intersubjectivity and Empathy.Celia Cabrera - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (152):71-93.
    RESUMEN Considerando que los estudios sobre la intersubjetividad en Husserl deben ir más allá del camino cartesiano, D. Zahavi propone ir "más allá de la empatía" y profundizar en el concepto husserliano de "constitución". Para demostrar que la dimensión intersubjetiva no depende del encuentro con otro sujeto, sino que pertenece a priori a la subjetividad, este autor esclarece la dependencia de la intencionalidad de horizonte respecto de la intersubjetividad trascendental. Se analiza en qué sentido es posible establecer esta dependencia y (...)
  10. The Phenomenon of Ego-Splitting in Husserl’s Phenomenology of Pure Phantasy.Marco Cavallaro - 2017 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 48 (2):162-177.
    Husserl’s phenomenology of imagination embraces a cluster of different theories and approaches regarding the multi-faced phenomenon of imaginative experience. In this paper I consider one aspect that seems to be crucial to the understanding of a particular form of imagination that Husserl names pure phantasy. I argue that the phenomenon of Ego-splitting discloses the best way to elucidate the peculiarity of pure phantasy with respect to other forms of representative acts and to any simple form of act modification. First, I (...)
  11. Social Phenomenology: Husserl, Intersubjectivity and Collective Intentionality.Eric Chelstrom - 2012 - Lexington Books.
    Social Phenomenology offers an account of collective intentionality informed by the tradition of Husserlian phenomenology.
  12. Making Sense of the Other: Husserl, Carnap, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein.William Cornwell - 1998 - Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy (Conference Proceedings).
    Phenomenology and logical positivism both subscribed to an empirical-verifiability criterion of mental or linguistic meaning. The acceptance of this criterion confronted them with the same problem: how to understand the Other as a subject with his own experience, if the existence and nature of the Other's experiences cannot be verified. Husserl tackled this problem in the Cartesian Meditations, but he could not reconcile the verifiability criterion with understanding the Other's feelings and sensations. Carnap's solution was to embrace behaviorism and eliminate (...)
  13. Die Erfahrung des Anderen. Phänomenologie, Behaviorismus und Spiegelneuronen.Vincenzo Costa - 2008 - Husserl Studies 24 (3):231-241.
    The recent discovery of a mirror neuron system sets a challenge for a philosophy of experience such as phenomenology, because in humans and monkeys the mirror system seems to transform seen actions into an inner representation of these actions. This paper tries to outline the guidelines of a transcendental-phenomenological analysis of alterity, different from empirical research. The transcendental research must provide a criterion for interpreting the results of empirical science. On this basis the paper compares the phenomenological analysis of alterity (...)
  14. Primary Intersubjectivity: Empathy, Affective Reversibility, 'Self-Affection' and the Primordial 'We'.Anya Daly - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):227-241.
    The arguments advanced in this paper are the following. Firstly, that just as Trevarthen’s three subjective/intersubjective levels, primary, secondary, and tertiary, mapped out different modes of access, so too response is similarly structured, from direct primordial responsiveness, to that informed by shared pragmatic concerns and narrative contexts, to that which demands the distantiation afforded by representation. Secondly, I propose that empathy is an essential mode of intentionality, integral to the primary level of subjectivity/intersubjectivity, which is crucial to our survival as (...)
  15. From Ego to Alter Ego: Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and a Layered Approach to Intersubjectivity.Helena de Preester - 2008 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):133-142.
    This article presents two different phenomenological paths leading from ego to alter ego: a Husserlian and a Merleau-Pontian way of thinking. These two phenomenological paths serve to disentangle the conceptual–philosophical underpinning of the mirror neurons system hypothesis, in which both ways of thinking are entwined. A Merleau-Pontian re-reading of the mirror neurons system theory is proposed, in which the characteristics of mirror neurons are effectively used in the explanation of action understanding and imitation. This proposal uncovers the remaining necessary presupposition (...)
  16. The Husserlian Theory of Intersubjectivity as Alterology. Emergent Theories and Wisdom Traditions in the Light of Genetic Phenomenology.N. Depraz - 2007 - Filozofia 62:403-412.
    In this paper, I have twofold aim: First I wish to show to what extent the Husserlian Theory of Intersubjectivity can be relevant for contemporary empirical research and for ancestral wisdom traditions, both in their experiences and in their conceptual tools; and secondly I intended to rely on some empirical results and experiential mystical/practical reports in order to bring about some more refined phenomenological descriptions first provided by Husserl. The first aim will be the main concern here, while the second (...)
  17. Empathy and Second-Person Methodology.Natalie Depraz - 2012 - Continental Philosophy Review 45 (3):447-459.
    How the phenomenology of empathy in Husserl and beyond and the second-person approach of cognition are able to mutually enrich and constrain each other? Whereas the intersubjective empathy is limited to face-to-face inter-individual relational experiences or, when socially embedded, results a non-individualized understanding of others in general, the second person approach of cognition opens the way for a plural relational yet individualized understanding of the other. I would like to show in this paper how the integration of both phenomenological and (...)
  18. Husserl and the Coherence of the Other Minds Problem.Chauncey Downes - 1965 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 26 (2):253-259.
  19. Husserl's Theory of Intersubjectivity.Susi Ferrarello - 2012 - Cultura 9 (2):163-174.
    I am looking at a bird flying above my head and I barely see it; in the meantime I am talking to a friend of mine about my job. All these things: the bird, my friend, my job, even the ground beneath my feet, are outside of me. Yet, while I am living these objects, they are here, in my head. How can one explain this relationship,where something that is completely different from my being becomes a part of me? If (...)
  20. Husserl y Las Aporías de la Intersubjetividad.Stâle R. S. Finke - 1993 - Anuario Filosófico 26 (2):327-360.
    This article considers the treatment of intersubjectivity as the core of Husserl's transcendental phenomenology. From this standpoint it identifies the problematic of Husserl's theory of the "experience of the Other", which Husserl exposes in his commentaries on Descartes V Meditation. The paper draws a parallel between Husserl and Kant in order to clarify the Husserlian notions, and finally shows the difficulties of Husserl's approach due to his assumption of the premises of the "Subjektsphilosophie".
  21. On Husserl’s Early Logic of Intersubjectivity.Dino Galetti - unknown
    Our article seeks to demonstrate that Husserl’s approach to intersubjectivity in his First Investigation of 1901/1913 was rigorous rather than rash. To do so, it applies a combination of intentionality and whole-part logic that has been overlooked in Husserl study. It therefore starts from Husserl’s Prolegomena of 1901 to follow his normative phenomenology until it excludes knowledge of another’s consciousness, then unpacks how he does so by his “proofs” in his 1913 Third Investigation, to apply those results to his First (...)
  22. Phenomenological Contributions to a Theory of Social Cognition.Shaun Gallagher - 2005 - Husserl Studies 21 (2):95-110.
    Hidden away in the remote corners of one of the largest parts of Husserl's Kˆrper, if we can use that word to translate Corpus, there is ein Leib , an animate body of text that reverberates not only with some of Husserl's other little known texts, but also with some of the most recent discoveries in neuroscience. These texts suggest a theory of intersubjectivity, or what psychologists term social cognition. Let me start with a proviso: whether Husserl ever fully settled (...)
  23. Edmund Husserl’de ‘Başkasının Beni’ Sorunu ve İntersubjektivite Kavramı.Gülenç Kurtul - 2014 - Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):19-40.
    İnsan, kendi özvarlığını ancak toplumda gerçekleştirebilmektedir, bundan dolayı bütün gerçekliğini ancak başkalarıyla birlikte kazanan bir canlı varlıktır. Bu öz-nitelik birçok tartışmayı beraberinde getirmektedir. Tartışma konuları arasında en önemli problemlerden biri bir arada yaşama problemidir. Bu problemin felsefi açıdan soruşturulabilmesinin yollarından başlıca olanı başkasının ben’i meselesini ele almaktır. ‘Başkası’ sorunu temelde modern felsefe ile yükselen bir bilgi sorunudur. Bu sorun özellikle ‘başka zihinler’ ya da ‘başkasının beni’ sorunu olarak belirir: ‘Başkasının beni’ni nasıl bilebiliriz? Bu çerçevede yazının amacı, felsefi açıdan insanlar arası (...)
  24. Problem samouchwytności ciała – Husserl i Sartre.Katarzyna Gurczyńska-Sady - 2009 - Diametros 21:14-29.
    The topic of the article is the way in which a human being can grasp its own body. The confrontation between Husserl's and Sartre's philosophy about meeting Another is my way of showing the radical change in our understanding of the problem of how we know our own body. According to Husserl both our psyche and body are given to us immediately. The body of Another is given to us by means of our own body. The psyche of Another is (...)
  25. Empathy and Otherness.Kathleen Haney - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 4 (8):11-19.
    This reflection on the phenomenological analysis of empathy according to Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein suggests a basic structure for getting to know and retain other consciousness within a single unitary sphere of consciousness. Empathy provides the access to an other that does not absorb the other’s stream of consciousness. Rather, empathy is the possibility for the intersubjective intention of a shared world of space and time. Unless the I inculcates other consciousness within itself, the I cannot recognize itself as (...)
  26. Why is the Fifth Cartesian Meditation Necessary?Kathleen Haney - 1997 - Southwest Philosophy Review 13 (1):197-204.
  27. Intersubjectivity Revisited: Phenomenology and the Other.Kathleen M. Haney - 1994 - Ohio University Press.
  28. Husserl, Analogy and Other Minds-Response.Kathleen M. Haney - 1987 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 18 (3):290-292.
  29. Epoché, the Transcendental Ego, and Intersubjectivity in Husserl’s Phenomenology.Brian Harding - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:141-156.
    This essay is concerned with defending Husserl against the criticism that he is insuffi ciently attentive to intersubjectivity. It has two moments; the fi rst articulates what I take to be a general version of the critique and then turns to a discussion of a version derived from Wittgenstein’s private language argument and the ensuing debate regarding this critique between Suzanne Cunningham and Peter Hutcheson. This discussion concludes by noting a general agreement betweenthe two participants that Husserl’s ego is not (...)
  30. Must the Other Be Derived From the I? Towards the Reformulation of Husserl's 5th Cartesian Meditation.Robert M. Harlan - 1984 - Husserl Studies 1 (1):79-104.
    With the possible exception of the first volume of the Ideas, no single work published by Husserl has caused as much controversy among philosophers otherwise sympathetic to his philosophical endeavor as the 5th Cartesian Meditation. The controversy centers around the constitutive analysis of the sense "another subject," an analysis the elaborate detail of which seems out of place in the otherwise programmatic Cartesian Meditations. This analysis, which marks the first step in Husserl's account of consciousness of the other as another (...)
  31. The I and the Other: A Reformulation of Husserl's 5th Cartesian Meditation.Robert Michael Harlan - 1978 - Dissertation, New School for Social Research
  32. The Animal and the Infant: From Embodiment and Empathy to Generativity.Sara Heinämaa - 2014 - In Sara Heinämaa, Mirja Hartimo & Timo Miettinen (eds.), Phenomenology and the Transcendental. Routledge. pp. 129-146.
  33. “An Equivocal Couple Overwhelmed by Life”: A Phenomenological Analysis of Pregnancy.Sara Heinämaa - 2014 - Philosophia: A Journal of Feminist Continental Philosophy 4 (1):12-49.
  34. Réflexions sur la cinquième Méditation cartésienne de Husserl.Michel Henry - 1989 - In Samuel IJsseling (ed.), Husserl-Ausgabe Und Husserl-Forschung. pp. 107-123.
  35. Bemerkungen zum Problem der Selbst- und Fremderfahrung bei Husserl und Sartre.Hans-Ulrich Hoche - 1971 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 25 (2):172-186.
    The goal of the paper is to offer a model of self-awareness that fits the testimony of both good and bad responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), of which fluoxetine (Prozac; Lilly, Indianapolis, IN) is probably the most well known. After a review of troubling current uncertainties concerning how and for whom SSRIs are therapeutic, it is argued that SSRIs, as a rule, lessen the emotionality of SSRI subjects in favor of an increased cognitive and volitional orientation. Traditional empiricist (...)
  36. Zur Phänomenologie der Intersubjektivität. Kritische Betrachtungen zu Texten aus Husserls Nachlaß.Gisbert Hoffmann - 1975 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 29 (1):138-149.
  37. A Rejoinder to Haney's Response to Husserl, Analogy and Other Minds.Peter Hutcheson - 1987 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 18 (3):292.
  38. Husserl, Analogy and Other Minds.Peter Hutcheson - 1987 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 18 (3):285-289.
  39. The Primacy of Intersubjectivity.Peter Hutcheson - 1982 - Modern Schoolman 59 (4):281-287.
  40. Husserl's Fifth Meditation.Peter Hutcheson - 1982 - Man and World 15 (3):265-284.
  41. Husserl's Problem of Intersubjectivity.Peter Hutcheson - 1980 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 11 (2):144-162.
  42. Introduction: Intersubjectivity and Empathy.Rasmus Thybo Jensen & Dermot Moran - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):125-133.
  43. The Relevance of Nonsymbolic Cognition to Husserl's Fifth Meditation.Albert A. Johnstone - 1999 - Philosophy Today 43 (supplement):88-98.
  44. Die monade in husserls phänomenologie der intersubjektivität.Klaus Erich Kaehler - 1995 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 57 (4):692-709.
    Husserl's transcendental phenomenology is not a mere egology, but gets its concrete accomplishment only as a phenomenology of 'transcendental intersubjectivity'. However, the subjective centers of any transcendentality and thus of every constitution — even of intersubjectivity itself — have to be such unities as Leibniz' 'monads', that is, individually concrete subjects producing all their representations of one another completely out of themselves, respectively. Thus the problem arises, how the genuine transcendental status of each monadic subject in all its constitutive achievements (...)
  45. Understanding the Representational Mind. A Prerequisite for Intersubjectivity Proper.Iso Kern & Eduard Marbach - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):69-82.
    This paper argues that, from the perspective of phenomenological philosophy, the study of intersubjectivity is closely tied to questions of the representational mind. It focuses on developmental studies of children's understanding of the human mind, setting out some of the main findings and theoretical explanations. It then takes up Husserl's idea of looking at persons in the 'personal attitude'. Understanding motivational connections among a person's subjective experiences is an essential feature of this attitude. Proposing a unified theoretical interpretation of children's (...)
  46. Das Ich und der Andere. Intersubjektivität in der Philosophie Johann Gottlieb Fichtes und in der Phänomenologie Edmund Husserls.Jakub Kloc-Konkołowic - 2012 - Fichte-Studien 37:163-174.
  47. Die Aporien der Intersubjektivität. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Edmund Husserls Intersubjektivitätstheorie.Richard Kozlowski - 1993 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 55 (4):736-737.
  48. The Interactive Now: A Second-Person Approach to Time-Consciousness.Stephen Langfur - 2016 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 47 (2):156-182.
    Husserl offers insight into the constituting of the self-aware ego through time-consciousness. Yet his account does not satisfactorily explain how this ego can experience itself as presently acting. Furthermore, although he acknowledges that the Now is not a knife-edge present, he does not show what determines its duration. These shortfalls and others are overcome through a change of starting point. Citing empirical evidence, I take it as a basic given that when a caregiver frontally engages an infant of two months (...)
  49. Natalie Depraz: Transcendence Et Incarnation: Le Statut de l'Intersubectivite Comme Alterite a Soi Chez Husserl. [REVIEW]Leonard Lawlor - 2001 - Continental Philosophy Review 34 (1):103-111.
  50. Los dilemas del análisis de la intersubjetividad en las Cartesianische Meditationem de Edmund Husserl.Gustavo Leyva - 1999 - Franciscanum 41 (122-123):67-86.
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