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  1. Disgust, Contamination, and Vaccine Refusal.Mark Navin - manuscript
    Vaccine refusers often seem motivated by disgust, and they invoke ideas of purity, contamination and sanctity. Unfortunately, the emotion of disgust and its companion ideas are not directly responsive to the probabilistic and statistical evidence of research science. It follows that increased efforts to promulgate the results of vaccine science are not likely to contribute to increased rates of vaccination among persons who refuse vaccines because of the ‘ethics of sanctity’. Furthermore, the fact that disgust-based vaccine refusal is not monolithic (...)
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  2. Suffering as Transformative Experience.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - forthcoming - In David Bain, Michael S. Brady & Jennifer Corns (eds.), The Philosophy of Suffering. Routledge.
    In this chapter we suggest that many experiences of suffering can be further illuminated as forms of transformative experience, using the term coined by L.A. Paul. Such suffering experiences arise from the vulnerability, dependence, and affliction intrinsic to the human condition. Such features can create a variety of positively, negatively, and ambivalently valanced forms of epistemically and personally transformative experiences, as we detail here. We argue that the productive element of suffering experiences can be articulated as transformative, although suffering experiences (...)
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  3. Pathocentric Epistemic Injustice and Conceptions of Health.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - forthcoming - In Benjamin Sherman & Stacey Goguen (eds.), Overcoming Epistemic Injustice: Social and Psychological Perspectives. New York: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 00-00.
    In this paper, we argue that certain theoretical conceptions of health, particularly those described as ‘biomedical’ or ‘naturalistic’, are viciously epistemically unjust. Drawing on some recent work in vice epistemology, we identity three ways that abstract objects (such as theoretical conceptions, doctrines, or stances) can be legitimately described as epistemically vicious. If this is right, then robust reform of individuals, social systems, and institutions would not be enough to secure epistemic justice: we must reform the deeper conceptions of health that (...)
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  4. How to Understand the Body with the Body. Phenomenological Contribution to Overcoming the Limits of Mechanistic Paradigm in Physiotherapy.Petr Kříž & Jan Halák - forthcoming - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science.
    [In Czech] This article aims to explain how Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological account of embodiment contributes to the theory and practice of physiotherapy. The mechanistic conception of the body, to which physiotherapy usually refers, assumes a universal model of its functioning and interprets its relationship to the environment causally. In fact, however, it does not allow a satisfactory explanation of the efficiency of the therapeutic methods used in practice. In contrast, Merleau-Ponty’s concept of motor intentionality points to the fact that the body (...)
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  5. How Should Physicians Manage Neuroprognosis with ECPR?Ian McCurry, Jason Han & Andrew Courtwright - forthcoming - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics.
    Rapidly advancing technologies in the field of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) have presented a new challenge in accurate neuroprognostication following cardiac arrest. Determination of brain state informs the prognostic picture and allows providers to begin effective communication regarding likelihood of meaningful neurological recovery as defined by patients or family members. The evolving role of sedation during ECPR and its impacts on ethical tension in decision-making is reviewed. Work surrounding the advancing field of neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest and hypothermia is summarized (...)
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  6. Naturalism, Disease, and Levels of Functional Description.Somogy Varga & David Miguel Gray - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy and Medicine.
    The paper engages Christopher Boorse’s (1975, 1976, 1977, 1987, 1997, 2014) Bio-Statistical Theory (BST). In its current form, BST runs into a significant challenge. For BST to account for its central tenet—that lower-level part-dysfunction is sufficient for higher-level pathology—it must provide criteria for how to decide which lower-level parts are the ones to be analyzed for health or pathology. As BST is a naturalistic theory, such choices must be based solely on naturalistic considerations. An argument will be provided to show (...)
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  7. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  8. Clinical Decisions Using AI Must Consider Patient Values.Jonathan Birch, Kathleen A. Creel, Abhinav K. Jha & Anya Plutynski - 2022 - Nature Medicine 28:229–232.
    Built-in decision thresholds for AI diagnostics are ethically problematic, as patients may differ in their attitudes about the risk of false-positive and false-negative results, which will require that clinicians assess patient values.
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  9. Holism and Reductionism in the Illness/Disease Debate.Marco Buzzoni, Luigi Tesio & Michael T. Stuart - 2022 - In Shyam Wuppuluri & Ian Stewart (eds.), From Electrons to Elephants and Elections. Springer. pp. 743-778.
    In the last decades it has become clear that medicine must find some way to combine its scientific and humanistic sides. In other words, an adequate notion of medicine requires an integrative position that mediates between the analytic-reductionist and the normative-holistic tendencies we find therein. This is especially important as these different styles of reasoning separate “illness” (something perceived and managed by the whole individual in concert with their environment) and “disease” (a “mechanical failure” of a biological element within the (...)
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  10. Possible directions of meaning in oncological disease: an experience of liminality, meaning making and existential planning.Stefano Benini - 2021 - ENCYCLOPAIDEIA 25 (59):57-70.
    The oncological disease experience is counted as a wound in the body and mind attributable to a traumatic experience that fragments and disorients the person’s biography. The neoplasia leaves marks and scars in both somatic and existential level. The illness experience suggests to patient to look for meaning that cannot be unheard. The literature associating the concept of liminality in oncological disease to understand the process of meaning making. The definition of new horizons of meaning, generated by crossing the limen, (...)
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  11. The Predicament of Patients.Havi Carel & Ian James Kidd - 2021 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 89:65-74.
    In this paper we propose that our understanding of pathocentric epistemic injustices can be enriched if they are theorised in terms of predicaments. These are the wider socially scaffolded structures of epistemic challenges, dangers, needs, and threats experienced by ill persons due to their particular emplacement within material, social, and epistemic structures. In previous work we have described certain aspects of these predicaments - pathocentric epistemic injustices, pathophobia, and so on. We argue that thinking predicamentally helps us integrate the various (...)
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  12. Kant on Melancholy: Philosophy as a Relief to the Disgust for Life.Serena Feloj - 2021 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (13):123-132.
    Melancholy occupies a privileged place in the Kantian taxonomy of temperaments since the pre- critical phase, but it is in the Nineties that it reveals its philosophical fecundity. Melancholy becomes, in fact, an interesting notion not so much because of its relationship with Kantian biography, nor because of its presence in the description of psychopathies, but because it lies, unique in this, on the borderline between pathology and sanity. Melancholy thus provides an opportunity to show the topicality of Kantian reflection (...)
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  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring as a Matter of Justice.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):345-370.
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic illness that requires intensive lifelong management of blood glucose concentrations by means of external insulin administration. There have been substantial developments in the ways of measuring glucose levels, which is crucial to T1D self-management. Recently, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has allowed people with T1D to keep track of their blood glucose levels in near real-time. These devices have alarms that warn users about potentially dangerous blood glucose trends, which can often be shared with (...)
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  14. The Place of the Experience of Illness in the Understanding of Disease: Medical Discourse and Subjectivity.Amanda Barros Pereira Palmeira & Rodrigo Barros Gewehr - 2021 - In Joaquim Braga & Mário Santiago de Carvalho (eds.), Philosophy of Care. New Approaches to Vulnerability, Otherness and Therapy. Advancing Global Bioethics, Vol. 16. Springer. pp. 333-346.
    Recent discussions about medical discourse seek to demonstrate the apparent and progressive oblivion of the subject as well as the notion of subjectivity in the development of modern medicine - in its foundations in clinical practice and basic theoretical framework. As a result, they show that medicine has evolved in the understanding of the disease, while still keeping the experience of suffering as a blind spot. The response is to carry out countless attempts to restore subjectivity in the therapeutic process (...)
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  15. Acerca de la Experiencia de la Enfermedad: Fenomenología, Corporalidad Y Habitualidad.Leila Martina Passerino - 2021 - Investigaciones Fenomenológicas 15:45.
    Merleau-Ponty se vale de casos patológicos para elaborar una teoría de la percepción que ubica a la corporalidad como expresión central. El artículo indaga y problematiza la experiencia de enfermedad a partir de la propuesta fenomenológica en torno al cuerpo vivido o fe-nomenal. Repensar esta vivencia, desde las antípodas a un abordaje biomédico que la circunscribe a un cuerpo objetivo, permite considerarla a la luz de una perspectiva filosófica como instancia crítica. La experiencia de enfermedad, inaugura una disrupción en el (...)
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  16. Medical Humor and its Role in the Process of Social Perception of the Disease.Helio Plapler & Fabiana Buitor Carelli - 2021 - Research and Humanities in Medical Education 8:18-24.
    According to evolutionary theory, humor is a psychological coping mechanism - a ploy that the human brain uses for conflict resolution. This study aims to investigate, through an autoethnographic approach based on one of the author's personal experience as a patient and as a doctor, and through theoretical elaboration, how humor can be understood, in its textual form, to improve the relationship between physicians, other healthcare personnel, and patients. Furthermore, it evaluates how humor can reduce the anguish produced by the (...)
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  17. Hermeneutics of the Patient's Discourse.Carlos Zamarrón Sanz - 2021 - Critical Hermeneutics 5 (S1).
    Illness episodes are events in the life of patients, which stand out in their narratives. Being ill is to be interpreted as ill. In this hermeneutical process, the analysing of the story is decisive. The objective of our study has been to analyse the clinical interviews of patients with respiratory diseases. Through qualitative methodology, codes related to the experience of the disease were created. Subsequently, the textual content linked to the codes was discussed considering the contemporary hermeneutical philosophy. Text coding (...)
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  18. Centrifugal and Centripetal Thinking About the Biopsychosocial Model in Psychiatry.Kathryn Tabb - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(M3)5-28.
    The biopsychosocial model, which was deeply influential on psychiatry following its introduction by George L. Engel in 1977, has recently made a comeback. Derek Bolton and Grant Gillett have argued that Engel’s original formulation offered a promising general framework for thinking about health and disease, but that this promise requires new empirical and philosophical tools in order to be realized. In particular, Bolton and Gillett offer an original analysis of the ontological relations between Engel’s biological, social, and psychological levels of (...)
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  19. The Status of Documents: Medical Files and Literary Genres-The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.Joost Haan & Frans-Willem Korsten - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4):419-421.
    Gaston Franssen’s essay touches on important medical and literary topics: the experience of patients with unexplained somatic complaints, the importance of giving their symptoms a name or diagnosis, the verbal representation of what bothers them, or the uncertainty all parties have to live with when an underlying cause of the symptoms is missing. A diagnosis or name such as chronic fatigue syndrome can be a relief for its sufferers, as is expressed by one of the patients in the article: “I (...)
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  20. Suffering and Transformative Experience.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - 2020 - In David Bain, Michael Brady & Jennifer Corns (eds.), The Philosophy of Suffering: Metaphysics, Value, and Normativity. London: Routledge. pp. 165-179.
    In this chapter we suggest that many experiences of suffering can be further illuminated as forms of transformative experience, using the term coined by L.A. Paul. Such suffering experiences arise from the vulnerability, dependence, and affliction intrinsic to the human condition. Such features can create a variety of positively, negatively, and ambivalently valanced forms of epistemically and personally transformative experiences, as we detail here. We argue that the productive element of suffering experiences can be articulated as transformative, although suffering experiences (...)
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  21. Thoughts on Pain. Friedrich Nietzsche and Human Suffering.Paolo Scolari - 2020 - Azafea: Revista de Filosofia 22:67-83.
    In Nietzsche the autobiographical theme of disease has at its core the philosophical problem of pain. While he reflects daily on the actual condition of the ill person, Nietzsche oscillates the man like a pendulum. He defines him as ‘the most melancholic and most happy animal who suffers so profoundly that he must invent laughter’, as ‘the ill animal’ but also ‘the most courageous and most used to pain’. Nietzsche seems to be entertained no end by playing around with these (...)
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  22. Did Descartes Die of Poisoning?Theodor Ebert - 2019 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (2):142-185.
    The paper discusses the circumstances of the fatal illness and the death of René Descartes in 1650 at the French embassy in Stockholm. It considers the hitherto available evidence, in particular the main medical documents: two letters, the first written in Dutch by Descartes’ servant, Henri Schluter, the second written in Latin by the Dutch doctor Johann van Wullen. English translations of these two documents are given respectively in Appendix 1 and Appendix 3 of this paper. Other documents, letters by (...)
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  23. KALP HASTALIKLARINDA TAMAMLAYICI ve ALTERNATİF TIP KULLANIMI.Tugba Gürel (ed.) - 2019 - Samsun, Türkiye: Farabi.
    Geleneksel tıptaki büyük ilerlemelere rağmen tamamlayıcı ve alternatif tıp (TAT) uygulamaları hala yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. TAT, geleneksel tıbbın bir parçası olarak görülmeyen, çeşitli tıbbi ve sağlık sistemlerini ve ürünlerini içeren uygulamalardır. Bu derlemede kalp hastalıklarında sıklıkla kullanılan TAT yöntemleri, hasta ve hastalık üzerine etkilerinden bahsedilecektir.
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  24. Pathophobia, Illness, and Vices.Ian James Kidd - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):286-306.
    I introduce the concept pathophobia, to capture the range of morally objectionable forms of treatment to which somatically ill persons are subjected. After distinguishing this concept from sanism and ableism, I argue that the moral wrongs of pathophobia are best analysed using a framework of vice ethics. To that end I describe five clusters of pathophobic vices and failings, illustrating each with examples from three influential illness narratives.
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  25. El cerebro de mi hermano. Narrar lo mórbido. [REVIEW]Biani Paola Sánchez López - 2019 - Opción ITAM 206.
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  26. Resisting the ‘Patient’ Body: A Phenomenological Account.Sarah Pini - 2019 - Journal of Embodied Research 2 (2).
    According to the biomedical model of medicine, the subject of the illness event is the pathology rather than the person diagnosed with the disease. In this view, a body-self becomes a ‘patient’ body-object that can be enrolled in a therapeutic protocol, investigated, assessed, and transformed. How can it be possible for cancer patients to make sense of the opposite dimensions of their body-self and their body-diseased-object? Could a creative embodied approach enable the coping with trauma tied to the experience of (...)
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  27. The dental anomaly: how and why dental caries and periodontitis are phenomenologically atypical.Dylan Rakhra - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-7.
    Despite their shared origins, medicine and dentistry are not always two sides of the same coin. There is a long history in medical philosophy of defining disease and various medical models have come into existence. Hitherto, little philosophical and phenomenological work has been done considering dental caries and periodontitis as examples of disease and illness. A philosophical methodology is employed to explore how we might define dental caries and periodontitis using classical medical models of disease – the naturalistic and normativist. (...)
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  28. No One Who Loves Anyone.Alison Reiheld - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (3):451-453.
    In this bioethical poem, the narrator reflects on the experience of their father's degenerative illness, and decisions that must be made about whether to continue life support technologies such as ventilation and nutrition/hydration. What is it that is owed to family and patient at the end of life? What must no one who loves anyone ever do to the one they love?
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  29. A Philosophical View on the Experience of Dignity and Autonomy Through the Phenomenology of Illness.Andrea Rodríguez-Prat & Xavier Escribano - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (3):279-298.
    In the context of the end of life, many authors point out how the experience of identity is crucial for the well-being of patients with advanced disease. They define this identity in terms of autonomy, control, or dependence, associating these concepts with the sense of personal dignity. From the perspective of the phenomenology of embodiment, Kay Toombs and other authors have investigated the ways disease can impact on the subjective world of patients and have stressed that a consideration of this (...)
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  30. Illness and Disease: An Empirical-Ethical Viewpoint.Anna-Henrikje Seidlein & Sabine Salloch - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):5.
    The concepts of disease, illness and sickness capture fundamentally different aspects of phenomena related to human ailments and healthcare. The philosophy and theory of medicine are making manifold efforts to capture the essence and normative implications of these concepts. In parallel, socio-empirical studies on patients’ understanding of their situation have yielded a comprehensive body of knowledge regarding subjective perspectives on health-related statuses. Although both scientific fields provide varied valuable insights, they have not been strongly linked to each other. Therefore, the (...)
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  31. Harms and Wrongs in Epistemic Practice.Simon Barker, Charlie Crerar & Trystan S. Goetze - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 84:1-21.
    This volume has its roots in two recent developments within mainstream analytic epistemology: a growing recognition over the past two or three decades of the active and social nature of our epistemic lives; and, more recently still, the increasing appreciation of the various ways in which the epistemic practices of individuals and societies can, and often do, go wrong. The theoretical analysis of these breakdowns in epistemic practice, along with the various harms and wrongs that follow as a consequence, constitutes (...)
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  32. The Potential of Argumentation Theory in Enhancing Patient-Centered Care in Breaking Bad News Encounters.Orit Karnieli-Miller & Galit Neufeld-Kroszynski - 2018 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 7 (2):120-137.
    Recent research on medical communication discusses the role of argumentation in building physician-patient consensus to enhance shared decision-making. This paper focuses on the potential of using argumentation to establish the preliminary step of shared understanding of the diagnosis. This understanding is important in helping patients accept the disease and in increasing their involvement in care. We conducted an in-depth analysis of an observation of a medical encounter, triangulated with interviews with all participants, to illustrate how the lack of clear information (...)
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  33. Healthcare Practice, Epistemic Injustice, and Naturalism.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 84:1-23.
    Ill persons suffer from a variety of epistemically-inflected harms and wrongs. Many of these are interpretable as specific forms of what we dub pathocentric epistemic injustices, these being ones that target and track ill persons. We sketch the general forms of pathocentric testimonial and hermeneutical injustice, each of which are pervasive within the experiences of ill persons during their encounters in healthcare contexts and the social world. What’s epistemically unjust might not be only agents, communities and institutions, but the theoretical (...)
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  34. Mimesis and Clinical Pictures: Thinking with Plato and Broekman Through the Production and Meaning of Images of Disease.Marjolein Oele - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):507-515.
    This paper contends, following Plato and Broekman, that seeing images as images is crucial to theorizing medicine and that considering clinical pictures as images of images is a much-needed epistemic complement to the domineering view that sees clinical pictures as mirrors of disease. This does not only offer epistemic, but also ethical benefits to individual patients, especially in those cases where patients suffer from chronic, debilitating, and terminal illnesses and where medicine provides no, or limited, answers in terms of treatment, (...)
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  35. Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement.Walter Veit - 2018 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):75-92.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful albeit unrealistic. However, recent scienti c breakthroughs in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally. In 2001, when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), enabled parents to select between multiple embryos, Julian Savulescu introduced the principle of procreative bene cence (PPB), stating that parents have the obligations to choose (...)
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  36. Narrative Aversion: Challenges for the Illness Narrative Advocate.Kathy Behrendt - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (1):50-69.
    Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed “aversion” to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to (...)
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  37. Communication Behaviors and Patient Autonomy in Hospital Care: A Qualitative Study.Zackary Berger - 2017 - Patient Education and Counseling 2017.
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how hospitalized patients share decisions with physicians. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of patient-doctor communication on an inpatient medicine service among 18 hospitalized patients and 9 physicians. A research assistant (RA) approached newly hospitalized patients and their physicians before morning rounds and obtained consent. The RA audio recorded morning rounds, and then separately interviewed both patient and physician. Coding was done using integrated analysis. RESULTS: Most patients were white (61%) and half were female. Most (...)
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  38. Illness as Transformative Experience.Havi Carel, Richard Pettigrew & Ian James Kidd - 2017 - The Lancet 388:1152-1153..
    We propose that certain forms of chronic illness can be transformative experiences, in the sense described by L.A. Paul.
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  39. Love in the Time of Antibiotic Resistance: How Altruism Might Be Our Best Hope.Dien Ho - 2017 - In Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Springer.
    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to our health. Our ability to destroy deadly bacteria by using antibiotics have not only improved our lives by curing infections, it also allows us to undertake otherwise dangerous treatments from chemotherapies to invasive surgeries. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, I argue, is a consequence of various iterations of prisoner’s dilemmas. To wit, each participant (from patients to nations) has rational self-interest to pursue a course of action that is suboptimal for all of us. (...)
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  40. Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use.Dien Ho (ed.) - 2017 - Springer.
    This anthology provides a collection of new essays on ethical and philosophical issues that concern the development, dispensing, and use of pharmaceuticals. It brings together critical ethical issues in pharmaceutics that have not been included in any collection (e.g., the ethics of patients as researchers). In addition, it includes philosophical issues that are not within the traditional domain of applied ethics. For example, a game-theoretic approach to combating the emergence of antibiotic-resistent pathogens by spreading altruism. A tripartite distinction provides an (...)
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  41. My Mother, My Story.Joanne Jacobson - 2017 - Journal of Medical Humanities 38 (1):5-11.
    This piece returns to the writer’s memoir essays about her mother’s chronic lung disease to examine the relationship between the act of caregiving and the act of writing. In arguing for important differences between the clinical, healing imperatives of narrative medicine and the primacy for the writer of self-reflection, personal need and career, the essay demonstrates how writing remains in many ways at odds with the obligations and the hopes of caregiving. At the same time, the essay argues that writing (...)
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  42. Phenomenology of Illness, Philosophy, and Life.Kidd Ian James - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 62:56-62.
    An essay review of Havi Carel, 'Phenomenology of Illness' (OUP 2015).
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  43. Exemplars, Ethics, and Illness Narratives.Ian Kidd - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):323-334.
    Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling—for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reason: an inferentialist style that generates the (...)
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  44. Epistemic Injustice in Medicine and Healthcare.Ian James Kidd & Havi Carel - 2017 - In Ian James Kidd, Gaile Pohlhaus & José Medina (eds.), The Routledge Handbook to Epistemic Injustice. New York: Routledge. pp. 336-346.
    We survey several ways in which the structures and norms of medicine and healthcare can generate epistemic injustice.
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  45. Biological Criteria of Disease: Four Ways of Going Wrong.John Matthewson & Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1 (4).
    We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four “ways of (...)
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  46. The Role of Phenomenology of Merleau- Ponty in Medicine.Somayeh Rafighi & Mohammad Asghari - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 11 (20):117-140.
    Today, phenomenology, with an emphasis on direct explanations with regard to the lived experience of people is interest of different areas. With emphasis on body, Merleau- Ponty's phenomenology is considered in medical science. In his phenomenology, Merleau- Ponty gives new definition of body and names it lived body. Lived body is against of mechanical body and is the central of subjectivity and being- in- the – world and included all of existential aspects of man. Such definition enable doctors to consider (...)
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  47. Aporia of Power: On the Crises, Science, and Internal Dynamics of the Mental Health Field.Sina Salessi - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):175-200.
    The myriad controversies embroiling the mental health field—heightened in the lead-up to the release of DSM-5 —merit a close analysis of the field and its epistemological underpinnings. By using DSM as a starting point, this paper develops to overview the entire mental health field. Beginning with a history of the field and its recent crises, the troubles of the past “external crisis” are compared to the contemporary “internal crisis.” In an effort to examine why crises have recurred, the internal dynamics (...)
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  48. Marcum, James A. : The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine: Bloomsbury Academic, London, 2017. 424 Pp, $172.00 , ISBN: 9781474233002. [REVIEW]Mary Walker - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (6):501-506.
  49. Diagnosis, Narrative Identity, and Asymptomatic Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):307-321.
    An increasing number of patients receive diagnoses of disease without having any symptoms. These include diseases detected through screening programs, as incidental findings from unrelated investigations, or via routine checks of various biological variables like blood pressure or cholesterol. In this article, we draw on narrative identity theory to examine how the process of making sense of being diagnosed with asymptomatic disease can trigger certain overlooked forms of harm for patients. We show that the experience of asymptomatic disease can involve (...)
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  50. Solidarity in Healthcare – the Challenge of Dementia.Aleksandra Małgorzata Głos - 2016 - Diametros 49:1-26.
    Dementia will soon be ranked as the world’s largest economy. At present, it ranges from the 16th to 18th place, with countries such as Indonesia, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Dementia is not only a financial challenge, but also a philosophical one. It provokes a paradigm shift in the traditional view of healthcare and expands the classic concepts of human personhood and autonomy. A promising response to these challenges is the idea of cooperative solidarity. Cooperative solidarity, contrary to its ‘humanitarian’ version, (...)
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