About this topic
Summary Perception provides us with access to the actual world -- to things that actually exist and to states of affairs that actually occur.  In contrast, imagination provides us with access to merely possible worlds -- to things that do not actually exist and to states of affairs that do not actually occur.  Imagination is philosophically important for its role in many different domains of inquiry.  In aesthetics, imagination is invoked to explain our engagement with fiction, music, and the visual arts.  In modal epistemology, imagination is invoked to explain how we can justify our modal beliefs.  In philosophy of mind, imagination is invoked to explain our capacity for mindreading.  More generally, imagination is thought to connect with creativity and thus to play a role not only in artistic creation but also in scientific and mathematical discovery. 
Key works Kind 2016 contains over 30 articles covering topics related to both historical and contemporary treatment of imagination.  White 1990 provides a survey of historical treatments of the imagination.  Walton 1990 and Currie 1990 are the seminal texts for the use of imagination in our engagement with fiction.  Several useful recent collections include Nichols 2006 (focusing on pretense, possibility, and fiction), Gendler & Hawthorne 2002 (focusing on modal epistemology), and Kieran & Lopes 2003 (focusing on literature and the visual arts).  Block 1981 is a slightly older collection that focuses on mental imagery.  For a discussion of the nature of imagination, see Kind 2001.
Introductions Useful encyclopedia articles include Gendler 2011 and Kind 2005.
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  1. Fictional Empathy, Imagination, and Knowledge of Value.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - forthcoming - In Magnus Englander & Susi Ferrarello (eds.), Ethics and Empathy.
    This paper maintains that empathy with fictional characters, aka fictional empathy, is morally valuable insofar as it can provide the empathizer with knowledge of values. More precisely, the paper argues that fictional empathy enables the empathizer to become imaginatively acquainted with the other’s values, even if these values are very different from one’s own. After motivating the topic in the introduction (section 1), the paper presents some thoughts about the epistemology of value and empathy, establishing a distinction between direct and (...)
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  2. Imagination and Revision.Giuseppina D'Oro & Jonas Ahlskog - forthcoming - In C. M. van den Akker (ed.), The Routledge Companion to History and Theory. Routledge. pp. 215-232.
    In this contribution we explore revisionists and anti-revisionists conceptions of the historical imagination. The focus will be on how these conceptions of the historical imagination determine how one ought to answer the question of whether or not it is in principle possible to know the past in its own terms rather than from the perspective of the present. The contrast that we are seeking to draw is that between a conception of the historical imagination which is revisionist in the sense (...)
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  3. Imagination and Harmony in Leibniz's Philosophy of Language.Lucia Oliveri - 2016 - Dissertation,
  4. Correction to: Arnon Levy, Peter Godfrey‑Smith (Eds.): The Scientific Imagination: Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives.Michael T. Stuart - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-1.
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  5. Imaginative Animals. Leibniz's Logic of Imagination.Lucia Oliveri - 2021 - Stoccarda, Germania: Steiner Verlag.
    Through the reconstruction of Leibniz's theory of the degrees of knowledge, this e-book investigates and explores the intrinsic relationship of imagination with space and time. The inquiry into this relationship defines the logic of imagination that characterizes both human and non-human animals, albeit differently, making them two different species of imaginative animals. -/- Lucia Oliveri explains how the emergence of language in human animals goes hand in hand with the emergence of thought and a different form of rationality constituted by (...)
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  6. Finitude and the Precritical Imagination: Heidegger's Confrontation with Idealism in Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics and its Bearing on His Philosophy of Art.James Phillips - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  7. How to Keep Up Good Appearances: Desire, Imagination, and the Good.Uku Tooming - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    It is not uncommon to think that having a desire involves taking its object to be good in some sense. This idea has been developed in two directions: either toward a view that understands the positive evaluation in terms of a judgment or belief or a view according to which the relevant evaluation is perception-like. In this article, I defend a novel proposal that takes the positive evaluation of the object of desire to be a kind of imagining.
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  8. Imagination and the Experience of Moral Objectivity.Jennifer A. Church - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    Different notions of objectivity support different notions of what is required for a moral value or obligation to be experienced as objective. If the objectivity of a property requires that it can exist even when we fail to notice its existence, then experiencing a property as objective will require that we imagine it appearing in some way that is not presently available to us. Explaining what that imagining involves is the central task of this paper. Defending the epistemic value of (...)
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  9. Dream and the Aesthetics of Existence: Revisiting “Foucault’s Ethical Imagination”.Edward McGushin - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    For the later Foucault, as for the early Foucault, the dream represents a privileged disclosure of the ethics of the self, and the relation to truth. What, then, is the function of the dream in the...
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  10. Embodied Imagination and Metaphor Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Zuzanna Rucinska, Shaun Gallagher & Thomas Fondelli - 2021 - Healthcare 9 (9):200.
    This paper discusses different frameworks for understanding imagination and metaphor in the context of research on the imaginative skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In contrast to a standard linguistic framework, it advances an embodied and enactive account of imagination and metaphor. The paper describes a case study from a systemic therapeutic session with a child with ASD that makes use of metaphors. It concludes by outlining some theoretical insights into the imaginative skills of children with ASD that (...)
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  11. Hume on the Imagination.Fabian Dorsch - 2018 - Disputatio 7 (8).
    This article overviews Hume’s thoughts on the nature and the role of imagining, with an almost exclusive focus on the first book of his Treatise of Human Nature. Over the course of this text, Hume draws and discusses three important distinctions among our conscious mental episodes : between impressions and ideas ; between ideas of the memory and ideas of the imagination; and, among the ideas of the imagination, between ideas of the judgement and ideas of the fancy. I discuss (...)
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  12. Imagination, Maternal Desire and Embryology in Thomas Fienus.Hiro Hirai - 2017 - In Cynthia Klestinec & Gideon Manning (eds.), Professors, Physicians and Practices in the History of Medicine: Essays in Honor of Nancy Siraisi. Springer Verlag.
    A pregnant woman encounters a wolf in the woods. She is so scared that her strong emotion of fear imprints the wolf’s morphological traces on the fetus in her womb. Another pregnant woman craves strawberries or cherries so intensely that she leaves certain marks or impressions of these fruits on the fetus. The belief that the power of maternal emotions such as desire and fear can imprint certain marks, signs or signatures on the fetus was widespread in the early modern (...)
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  13. A Qualified Defence of Rationalism: On the Role of the Analogical Imagination in Spinoza.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):243-249.
    ABSTRACT This commentary defends an interpretation of Spinoza that preserves some key elements of traditional rationalism, in which reason does have an independent path to the truth. While it agrees with Lloyd’s general view, in which reason, imagination, and emotion are more closely tied than the Cartesian scheme, in which reason is distinct from the world of bodies, the paper disagrees with her central claim that reason is constituted by the imagination. It argues that the imagination is effective to the (...)
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  14. The Devil Behind the Eyes: Melancholy, Imagination, and Ghosts in Post-Reformation Switzerland.Eveline Szarka - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (6):901-917.
    ABSTRACT The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century fuelled heated debates about the nature and perception of spirits appearing to people. According to Protestant theology, apparitions of spirits were not souls of the dead but either diabolical illusions, natural phenomena, or ‘mere fantasies’ of a deluded mind. Swiss church minister Louis Lavater emphasized that particularly melancholic people were prone to devilish deceits and thus inclined to imagine ghosts and other spirits. This paper traces the close connection between early modern concepts (...)
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  15. Philosophy, Art, and the Imagination: Essays on the Work of John Sallis.James Risser (ed.) - 2022 - Brill.
    This volume of essays on the philosopher John Sallis assesses his wide ranging and genuinely original contribution to philosophy. Along with the response to the essays by Sallis, these essays indicate directions for the future of philosophy.
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  16. Distance, Contiguity and Imagination in Mandeville's Account of Passions.Joaquim Braga - 2020 - I Castelli di Yale 1 (VII):89-110.
    More than a matter confined to Mandevillean thought, the discourse on the relationship between imagination and sensibility is a significant theoretical framework of eighteenth-century philosophical thought. Sensibility and imagination appear in Bernard Mandeville's The Fable of the Bees as antithetical concepts, because they are fully articulated according to a natural and deterministic criterion of the expression of passions. Such a materialist understanding of the passions places a premium upon the proximity of stimulus and accordingly problematizes the responsive role of imagination. (...)
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  17. Tuning of Productive Imagination Through Patterned Practices.Ela Praznik - 2021 - Constructivist Foundations 16 (3):318-320.
    Through an enactive perspective, the concept of productive imagination can be rethought as acquired sensorimotor skills. I propose that the genesis and tuning of productive imagination through ….
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  18. Chiara Bottici. Imaginal Politics. Images Beyond Imagination and the Imaginary. New York, Columbia University Press, 2014, Pp. 272.Anna Romani - 2014 - Testo and Senso 15.
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  19. Towards the Autopoiesis of Imagination.Andreas Bäcker - 2021 - Gestalt Theory 43 (2):167-178.
    Already in the romantic it has been assumed, that there is an existential interrelation between nature, human being and mind. According to this idea, there is a narrow interrelation of creation between literature, science, dream and reality, which should be expressed in a progressive universal poetry. Gestalt theory and the concept of autopoiesis, developed by Maturana and Varela, could be regarded as a scientific enhancement of this approach and are united in that sense. By analyses of dreams, it becomes evident, (...)
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  20. The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Imagination, Volume 1.Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mads Walther-Hansen & Martin Knakkergaard (eds.) - 2019 - Oxford Handbooks.
    Whether social, cultural, or individual, the act of imagination always derives from a pre-existing context. For example, we can conjure an alien's scream from previously heard wildlife recordings or mentally rehearse a piece of music while waiting for a train. This process is no less true forthe role of imagination in sonic events and artifacts. Many existing works on sonic imagination tend to discuss musical imagination through terms like compositional creativity or performance technique. In this two-volume Handbook, contributors address this (...)
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  21. Imagination, Multimodality, and Sound.Joaquim Braga - 2019 - In Mark Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mads Walther-Hansen & Martin Knakkergaard (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Imagination, Volume 1. Nova Iorque, NY, Estados Unidos:
    Joaquim Braga deals with the role of sound in multimodal environments and multimodal surfaces. He argues that imagination not only bridges sensory dimensions that are absent from perception but also is central to “the relationship of presence,” that is, the connection between presently perceived sensory input. This involves assessing both the individuating dimension and the relational disposition of sound, which allows sound—through the activation of imagination—to develop sensory relations. Central to his discussion of the function and contribution of sound in (...)
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  22. Rahel Villinger: Kant und die Imagination der Tiere. Konstanz: Konstanz University Press, 2018. 226 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-8353-9115-4.Kant und die Imagination der Tiere. [REVIEW]Reinhard Hiltscher - 2021 - Kant-Studien 112 (3):472-476.
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  23. The Art of Disciplined Imagination: Prediction, Scenarios, and Other Speculative Infrastructures.Theo Reeves-Evison - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 47 (4):719-748.
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  24. Non-structural version of the variational method - the explanatory weakness of Gestalt, the limits of imagination and rejection of the Other.Vlastimil Zuska - 2019 - Espes. The Slovak Journal of Aesthetics 10 (1):28-32.
    The article attempts to critically reconsider some of the central motives of Tomáš Kulka’s aesthetics, especially his use of the term Gestalt and his concept of versions and alterations. In addition to his own objections, the author focuses on criticism of the above-mentioned parts of Kulka’s theory from the perspective of Czech structuralism and phenomenology.
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  25. White Imagination in Search of a Canon.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2021 - The Pluralist 16 (2):39-58.
    Tommy J. Curry’s Another white Man’s Burden presents a rigorous intellectual history of Josiah Royce’s essays on race. Curry explains the several arguments that Royce made on this topic between 1900 and 1908, and he situates these within Royce’s social philosophy and some contemporaneous literatures on racism. The result is a comprehensive theory of cultural assimilation informed by an idealist metaphysics. Royce, namely, disdained segregation and rejected biological accounts of racial difference. But Royce scholars have wrongly taken these observations, Curry (...)
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  26. Madness in the Organic Order of Space. Kant and the Imagination.Marco Costantini - 2021 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (13):97-113.
    In this paper, I first examine the classification of mental derangements contained in Kant’s Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, in order to highlight the role played by imagination in their pathogenesis. Later, on the basis of this examination, I reflect on the origins of critical philosophy, which can be seen as an attempt to construct a control device for the imagination structured as a systematic, organic space.
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  27. Finitude and the Precritical Imagination: Heidegger's Confrontation with Idealism in Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics and its Bearing on His Philosophy of Art.James Phillips - forthcoming - Wiley: The Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  28. A World Without Imagination? Consequences of Aphantasia for an Existential Account of Self.Mélissa Fox-Muraton - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (3):414-428.
    ABSTRACT Aphantasia is a spectrum disorder, affecting the ability of otherwise healthy individuals to form voluntary or conscious mental images, and in some cases also any form of sensory representation. Although only discovered in 2010, it is now estimated that 2–3% of the population may have aphantasia – otherwise termed, the absence of a ‘mind’s eye,’ that aspect of conscious experience which so many people take for granted as part of their general way of experiencing the world. Aphantasia, although it (...)
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  29. Kierkegaard on Imagination: Possibility, Hope, and the Imitation of Christ.Hjördis Becker-Lindenthal - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (3):484-499.
    ABSTRACT What happens to the imagination in the process of overturning despair and becoming an authentic self? Using the mystic concept of Entbildung as heuristics, the article re-examines the relation of the imagination and the will in Kierkegaard. Analysing the rarely compared texts Practice in Christianity and the first of the Ethical-Religious Essay, and paying close attention to the semantics of the image, the article argues that grace and imagination cooperate in the process of Entbildung, restoring the self’s receptivity for (...)
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  30. Kissing the Image: An Allegory of Imagination in ‘The Seducer’s Diary’.Frances Maughan-Brown - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (3):528-542.
    ABSTRACT ‘The Seducer’s Diary’ is not a nostalgic account of a Romantic seducer-figure, and it does not represent the ‘ethical’ rejection of such Romanticism. Instead, it portrays the violence involved just as much in conventional bourgeois marriage as in works of erotic fantasy, and it reveals the necessary failure of both these projects. Although the suffering they may cause is real enough, they never manage to achieve the mastery they seek to impose. At the same time, this radical cultural critique (...)
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  31. Introduction: Imagination in Kierkegaard and Beyond.Wojciech T. Kaftanski - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (3):405-413.
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  32. Imagination and Remembrance: What Role Should Historical Epidemiology Play in a World Bewitched by Mathematical Modelling of COVID-19 and Other Epidemics?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & George S. Heriot - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.
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  33. Reason, Imagination, and Mechanism in Descartes' Theory of Perception.Thomas Vinci - 2005 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 2. Oxford University Press.
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  34. A Kantian Theory of the Sensory Processing Subtype of ASD [Autism Spectrum Disorder].Susan V. H. Castro - 2019 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 6 (1):1-15.
    Immanuel Kant’s theory of imagination is a surprisingly fruitful nexus of explanation for the prima facie disparate characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially the sub-spectrum best characterized by the Sensory Integration (SI) and Intense World (IW) theories of ASD. According to the psychological theories that underpin these approaches to autism, upstream effects of sensory processing atypicalities explain a cascade of downstream effects that have been characterized in the diagnostic triad, e.g., poor sensory integration contributes to weak central coherence, which (...)
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  35. 解讀及評價: Rolf Peter Horstmann《康德之想像力》. [REVIEW]Tak-lap Yeung & 楊德立 - 2020 - 國立臺灣大學哲學論評 60:169-182.
    Rolf-Peter Horstmann近作《康德之想像力》(Kant's Power of Imagination),是針對「想像力」在康德學統下備受忽視的情況而作。這部102頁的著作,仔細分析了《純粹理性批判》和《判斷力批判》中與想像力相關的內容,意圖從內部理順康德的想像力理論,並論證想像 力在建構認知對象過程裡的獨特貢獻。他提出了「建構認知對象的兩階段模式」,闡明想像力在認知過程中獨一無二的功能與位置,並在此基礎上論證想像力是一種獨立、自足的認知能力。由於想像力是一種獨立認知能力,因此 至少在理論哲學和知識論脈絡下,康德學者沒有忽視想像力的理由。 Rolf-Peter Horstmann's recent work, Kant's Power of Imagination, is a response to the neglect of "the power of imagination" in the Kantian circle. In this 102-page book, Horstmann analyzes passages relevant to imagination in Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Judgment in detail, with the aim of making Kant's theory of imagination coherent. He argues for the unique contribution of imagination in the context of the constitution of cognitive objects. Horstmann proposes a "two-stage model (...)
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  36. EXPERIMENTOS MENTAIS COMO ARGUMENTOS: OBJEÇÕES À ABORDAGEM DE NORTON.Tiegue Vieira Rodrigues & Roberto Schimitz Nitsche - 2020 - Perspectiva Filosófica 46 (1):53-76.
    Entende-se que os experimentos mentais são dispositivos da imaginação que podem nos fornecer crenças que constituem conhecimento. John D. Norton apresentou uma abordagem que se tornou influente para explicar como os experimentos mentais científicos podem produzir novos conhecimentos so- bre o mundo. Ele afirma que não há nada distintivo nos experimentos men- tais, uma vez que sustenta que eles funcionam exatamente como argumen- tos. Neste artigo, contestamos sua abordagem. Examinamos aspectos essen- ciais de sua abordagem, que envolvem as noções de (...)
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  37. Introducing THE PHILOSOPHY OF CREATIVITY.Elliot Samuel Paul & Scott Barry Kaufman - 2014 - In Elliot Samuel Paul & Scott Barry Kaufman (eds.), The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays. New York, NY, USA: pp. 3-14.
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  38. The Priority of Imagination in Judgment -Hannah Arendt's Interpretation of Kant and its Problems.Tak-lap Yeung - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Ideas 1 (Special Issue):345-363.
    The power of imagination (Die Einbildungskraft), or in short imagination, has a unique and prior position in Arendt’s theory of judgment, which has been long overlooked. This first aim of this paper is to argue for the priority and necessity of imagination in Arendt’s theory of judgment by reconstructing her descriptions and arguments mainly from her interpretation of Kantian philosophy. The second aim is to shed light on the implications of the priority of imagination in respect of judgment. In the (...)
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  39. Delusions as Herero-Dynamic Property Clusters.Shelby Clipp - 2020 - ScholarWorks.
    The standard position in psychiatry maintains that delusions are beliefs. However, the features of delusions often diverge from those typically associated with belief. This discrepancy has given rise to what I refer to as the doxastic status debate, which concerns whether delusions are best characterized as “beliefs.” Despite efforts, there has been little progress in settling this debate. I argue that the debate has been stymied because it’s largely a verbal dispute (Chalmers, 2011). I then attempt to advance the debate (...)
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  40. Belief-Like Imaginings and Perceptual (Non-)Assertoricity.Alon Chasid & Assaf Weksler - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (5):731-751.
    A commonly-discussed feature of perceptual experience is that it has ‘assertoric’ or ‘phenomenal’ force. We will start by discussing various descriptions of the assertoricity of perceptual experience. We will then adopt a minimal characterization of assertoricity: a perceptual experience has assertoric force just in case it inclines the perceiver to believe its content. Adducing cases that show that visual experience is not always assertoric, we will argue that what renders these visual experiences non-assertoric is that they are penetrated by belief-like (...)
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  41. The Thought Experimenting Qualities of Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling.Ingrid Malm Lindberg - 2019 - Religions 10 (6).
    In this article, I examine the possible thought experimenting qualities of Soren Kierkegaard's novel Fear and Trembling and in which way it can be explanatory. Kierkegaard's preference for pseudonyms, indirect communication, Socratic interrogation, and performativity are identified as features that provide the narrative with its thought experimenting quality. It is also proposed that this literary fiction functions as a Socratic-theological thought experiment due to its influences from both philosophy and theology. In addition, I suggest three functional levels of the fictional (...)
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  42. Twardowski, Ingarden, and Blaustein on Creative Imagination.Witold Płotka - 2019 - Social Imaginaries 5 (1):121-141.
    The article is a critical elaboration of two phenomenological theories of imagination formulated by Ingarden and Blaustein in their discussion with Twardowski. Ingarden, as well as Blaustein were students of both Twardowski and Husserl, however, they defined imagination in two different contexts: whereas for Ingarden a proper way of analysis of imagination is ontology, for Blaustein imagination is the object of descriptive psychology, connected mainly with an aesthetic experience. As a result, the question of creativity of imagination is described in (...)
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  43. Imagination and Belief: The Microtheories Model of Hypotheical Thinking.J. Davies & J. Bicknell - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (3-4):31-49.
    Beliefs about hypothetical situations need to be 'quarantined' from factual representations, so that our inference processes do not make false conclusions about the real world. Nichols argued for the existence of a place where these special beliefs are kept: the pretence box. We show that this theory has a number of drawbacks, including its inability to account for simultaneously keeping track of multiple imagined worlds. We offer an explanation that remedies these problems: beliefs of content imagination each belong to some (...)
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  44. Imagination in the Appreciation of Nature: A Comparative Approach.Yingying Tang - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (3):929-943.
    In Western aesthetics, there is a consensus that imagination is significant in art appreciation. But the significance of imagination in appreciating nature is still a matter of debate; this is especially true within contemporary analytic environmental aesthetics. While some aestheticians passionately embrace the significance of imagination in appreciating nature, other aestheticians hold that imagination is not just unnecessary, but even inappropriate, for the aesthetic appreciation of nature.Emily Brady famously contends that imagination can help to discover certain aesthetic truths about natural (...)
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  45. Thought Experiments: State of the Art.Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James R. Brown - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 1-28.
    This is the introduction to the Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments.
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  46. El Poder de Visualizar. La "Phantasia" Según Aristóteles.Emmanuel Alloa - 2018 - Anuario Filosófico 51 (2):243-274.
    When translating phantasia as ‘imagination’, one commits a dangerous anachronism: interpreting the Greek concept from the vantage point of a modern, post-Kantian framework which sees imagination as a faculty mediating between sensibility and reasoning. A close reading of the Aristotelian sources shows why phantasia cannot be identifi ed as a distinct faculty, but rather designates a transversal power common to all psychic acts. The article argues that a more adequate translation of phantasia would be ‘visualization’.
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  47. Interacting with Emotions: Imagination and Supposition.Margherita Arcangeli - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (269):730-750.
    A widespread claim, which I call ‘the Emotionality Claim’, is that imagination but not supposition is intimately linked to emotion. In more cognitive jargon, imagination is connected to the affect system, whereas supposition is not. EC is open to several interpretations which yield very different views about the nature of supposition. The literature lacks an in-depth analysis of EC which sorts out these different readings and ways to carve supposition and imagination at their joints. The aim of this paper is (...)
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  48. Imagining the Magdeburg Rider.Assaf Pinkus - 2014 - Paragrana: Internationale Zeitschrift für Historische Anthropologie 23 (1):23-45.
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  49. Imagination as Self-Knowledge: Kepler on Proclus' Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements.Guy6 Claessens - 2011 - Early Science and Medicine 16 (3):179-199.
    The Neoplatonist Proclus, in his commentary on Euclid's Elements, appears to have been the first to systematically cut imagination's exclusive ties with the sensible realm. According to Proclus, in geometry discursive thinking makes use of innate concepts that are projected on imagination as on a mirror. Despite the crucial role of Proclus' text in early modern epistemology, the concept of a productive imagination seems almost not have been received. It was generally either transplanted into an Aristotelian account of mathematics or (...)
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  50. Wittgenstein's Private Language: Grammar, Nonsense, and Imagination in Philosophical Investigations, §§ 143–315 ‐ By Stephen Mulhall. [REVIEW]John Troyer - 2008 - Philosophical Books 49 (4):383-384.
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