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Summary

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the most influential thinker in modern western philosophy. 

The central doctrine of Kant’s theoretical philosophy is what he calls “transcendental idealism.”  This is, roughly, the view that there is a sharp distinction between things as they appear to us and things as they really are (in themselves). It is controversial what that distinction consists in or even how to characterize it, but it is clear that Kant wants to deny that things-in-themselves have spatio-temporal features.  Thus they are things that we can think about (‘noumena’) but not things that appear (‘phenomena’). 

Kant argues that we can only explain our knowledge of non-trivial (‘synthetic’) necessary principles -- including the principle according to which all events have causes --  if transcendental idealism is true.  He also thinks that distinguishing between phenomena and noumena leaves room for incompatibilist freedom, God, and the immortality of the soul (at the noumenal level). 

Kant places the notion of autonomy at the center of his moral and political philosophy, and argues that specific moral obligations are based in a very general principle called the Categorical Imperative.  This principle is fundamental to practical rationality and requires that we respect the autonomy of rational agents and refuse to make arbitrary exceptions for ourselves. 

In his early years, Kant was trained in the German rationalist tradition of Christian Wolff (1679–1750) and G. W. Leibniz (1646–1716). But he was influenced by the British Empiricists like John Locke (1632–1704), Isaac Newton (1642–1727), and David Hume (1711–1776). Later, Kant characterizes his Critical philosophy as a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism. 

Kant’s massive influence is felt across the continental and analytic traditions. He is typically regarded as the forefather of German Idealism, and a key figure in the development of Existentialism, NeoKantianism (obviously), Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and even Post-Modernism. 

In the analytic tradition, Kant’s views were in the background of many of the debates in 20th-century epistemology and philosophy of mind. Kantian moral philosophy is one of the main positions in contemporary ethics, and Kantian political philosophy dominated most of the discussion in 20th and early 21st century political philosophy. Kant’s views about aesthetic judgment are central to many developments in the philosophy of art and art criticism. Kant is not a major figure in contemporary analytic metaphysics, however.

Key works

The three Critiques are the central texts for Kant’s “critical system”: Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Power of Judgment (1790). His Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) is among the most influential works in modern ethics. Other major works include Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793)Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798)

The standard German edition of Kant’s works is Königlichen Preußischen (later Deutschen) Akademie der Wissenschaften (ed.), 1900–, Kants gesammelte Schriften, Berlin: Georg Reimer (later Walter De Gruyter). The standard English edition of Kant’s works is P. Guyer and A. Wood (eds.), 1992–, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Introductions Good overall introductions include Wood 2004, Höffe & Farrier 1994, and Guyer 2006Buroker 2006 offers a good introductory overview of Kant’s key text in theoretical philosophy. Cleve 1999 is a more advanced introduction for analytic philosophers. Gardner 1999 is an opinionated but very accessible introduction.  A good introduction to Kant's moral philosophy is Sedgwick 2008.
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Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (1,085 | 55)

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  1. Jörg Noller and John Walsh (Eds), Kant’s Early Critics on Freedom of the Will Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022 Pp. Xlvii + 315 ISBN 9781108482462 (Hbk) £74.99. [REVIEW]Aaron Wells - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-4.
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  2. Kant on the Mathematical Deficiency of Psychology.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (2):485-509.
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  3. Kant’s Moral Theory as a Guide in Philanthropy.Bojana Radovanovic - 2022 - Filozofija I Društvo 33 (3):585-600.
    This paper focuses on Kant?s moral theory and how it can guide our actions in philanthropy. Philanthropy is usually defined as a voluntary action aimed at relieving suffering and improving the quality of lives of others. It has been argued that, within the framework of Kant?s theory, it is our duty to be beneficent, sacrificing a part of our welfare for others. The duty of beneficence is a wide one. Interpreters of Kant disagree on what the wide duty of beneficence (...)
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  4. Memorial for Charles W. Mills.Rachel Zuckert - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-3.
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  5. Kant's Justification of Ethics. [REVIEW]Karl Schafer - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
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  6. Kant and Spinoza on the Old Covenant.Wojciech Kozyra - 2020 - Diametros:1-19.
    Spinoza is often presented as an important source for Kant’s view on Judaism and the Old Testament. This claim is often made on the basis of the alleged affinity between the relevant ideas of the two thinkers. In this article, I agree with scholars who point out that Spinoza’s direct influence on Kant’s view of the Old Covenant can be doubted, and further argue that the substance of their ideas about the Hebrew Bible is fundamentally different. I discuss their views (...)
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  7. Kant on Peace, Honor and the “Point of View” of Princes, 1755–1795.Olivier Higgins - forthcoming - Modern Intellectual History:1-26.
    By recovering the pre-critical foundations of Immanuel Kant's political idealism, this article elucidates his fundamental concern with reorienting the “point of view” of real princes and sovereigns to the cause of peace. I trace this priority to Kant's reading of Pierre Bayle, whose skepticism illustrated that the true nature of princes rendered Saint-Pierre's ideal of peace “not possible.” Beginning in 1756, Kant reframed perpetual peace as the ultimate political honor for those unmoved by strict moral necessity, promising them a legacy (...)
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  8. Brigitte Falkenburg: Kant’s Cosmology: From the Pre-Critical System to the Antinomy of Pure Reason. Springer: Cham 2020, 284 + xvii pp., € 108,99, ISBN: 9783030522896. [REVIEW]Courtney D. Fugate - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-3.
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  9. Kant on the Experience of Time and Pure Imagination.Yaron Senderowicz - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (2):144-161.
    Kant officially argues that the role of the representation of time in the synthetic a priori judgments of arithmetic and the general theory of motion implies that time must be an a priori condition...
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  10. Fichte's Moral Philosophy and Kant's Justification of Ethics, by Owen Ware. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2020, Xv + 244 Pp. ISBN‐13: 978‐0‐19‐008659‐6 Hb $43.78 and New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2021, Xiii + 176 Pp. ISBN‐13: 978‐0‐19‐884993‐3 Hb $61.02. [REVIEW]William F. Bristow - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  11. Moral Consciousness as the “Voice of Conscience” in I. Kant’s Religious Philosophy.Aslanbek Khasuev, Darya Kapustina, Anastasia Nedosugova, Irina Zabolotskaia & Natalia Shafazhinskaya - 2022 - Wisdom 23 (3):146-151.
    The notion of “conscience” is one of the most ancient components of the axiological sphere, the central factor of a person’s moral consciousness. The phenomenon is closely linked with the features of the ontological status of man in the world. The authors present the concept of conscience in the philosophical and religious tradition and examine the key ideas of Immanuel Kant’s religious philosophy in connection with moral consciousness as the “voice of conscience”. The idea of heterodoxy and contradiction between Immanuel (...)
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  12. The Methods of Metaphilosophy: Kant, Maimon, and Schelling on How to Philosophize About Philosophy.Jelscha Schmid - 2022 - Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.
    On the basis of an examination of Kant's, Maimon's and Schelling's metaphilosophies, this book investigates how, starting from Kant's diagnosis of a "groping metaphysics", a philosophical research program, whose goal is to elucidate the nature and method of philosophy itself, develops. What unites theirprojects is the thesis that philosophy must begin with an investigation of its own nature, and that this investigation, because of its special object, must be accompanied by a reflection on its method. To this end, their methods (...)
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  13. Mind Subverted to Madness: The Psychological Force of Hope as Affect in Kant and J. C. Hoffbauer.Katerina Mihaylova - forthcoming - In Anna Ezekiel & Katerina Mihaylova (eds.), Hope and the Kantian Legacy: New Contributions to the History of Optimism. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: Bloomsbury Academic.
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  14. Limits of Intelligibility: Issues From Kant and Wittgenstein.Jens Pier (ed.) - 2022 - London: Routledge.
    The essays in this volume investigate the question of where, and in what sense, the bounds of intelligible thought, knowledge, and speech are to be drawn. Is there a way in which we are limited in what we think, know, and say? And if so, does this mean that we are constrained – that there is something beyond the ken of human intelligibility of which we fall short? Or is there another way to think about these limits of intelligibility – (...)
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  15. Reinventing Kant?Jameliah Inga Shorter-Bourhanou - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-12.
    Immanuel Kant is often interpreted as a universal egalitarian who claims that all people, regardless of their differences, are equal. This view has been challenged by several scholars including Charles Mills and Robert Bernasconi, who note the persistent racist underpinning in Kant’s work; however, the standard reading is that Kant changed his mind about race and eventually reaffirmed his universalism. By considering Charles Mills’ notion of ‘Black Radical Kantianism’, as a way of reinventing Kant, I argue that continued engagement with (...)
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  16. Charles Mills’ ‘Black Radical Kantianism’ as a Plot Twist for Kant Studies and Contemporary Kantian-Liberal Political Philosophy.Dilek Huseyinzadegan - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-15.
    This article shows that the methodology of Mills’ ‘Black Radical Kantianism’ represents a major plot twist for Kant studies as well as contemporary political philosophy utilizing Kantian ideas. BRK is no mere upgrade of Kant’s or Kantian ideal theory for racial justice. Mills’ methodology requires us to posit both that the real Kant and establishment Kantianism have been racist, sexist and Eurocentric; and that only by first admitting and reckoning with the compatibility of white supremacy and liberal egalitarianism can we (...)
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  17. On Rationalism in Kant’s Epistemology.广 缪 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (5):888-893.
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  18. Johann Gottlieb Stoll and Forster’s Challenge to Kant.Joris Van Gorkom - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (2):295-311.
    When in 1786 Georg Forster criticized Immanuel Kant’s racial theory, he famously challenged him to oppose slavery. Although Kant declined to take up this challenge, the discussion between Forster and Kant was the impetus for Johann Gottlieb Stoll to present his views on the matter. In his defense of monogenesis Stoll did what Kant had failed to do, namely, explicitly criticize oppressive institutions like the slave trade and slavery with a demand to respect the dignity and humanity of every human (...)
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  19. Kant’s Opus Postumum and Schelling’s Naturphilosophie: The Very Idea.Terrence Thomson - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (1):97-117.
    This paper is about Kant’s late unfinished manuscript, Opus postumum and some of the resonances it has with Schelling’s early Naturphiloso­phie. Most of the secondary literature on Opus postumum investigates its relation to the rest of Kant’s corpus, often framing the drafts as an attempt to fill a so-called “gap” in the Critical philosophy whilst ignoring the relationship it has to the wider landscape of late eighteenth century German philosophy. Whether Opus postumum may provide grounds for reviewing the relationship between (...)
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  20. La imprenta y Kant.Jairo Guerrero Vicente - 2021 - Claridades. Revista de Filosofía 13 (2):225-252.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la influencia que la aparición de la imprenta supuso en la consolidación histórica de una nueva forma de entender la razón y la libertad en un periodo que desembocará en la concepción ilustrada del hombre. Para ello, vamos a realizar un análisis histórico acerca de qué circunstancias cambiaron y qué posibilidades fueron abiertas con la aparición de la imprenta. Posteriormente, comprobaremos cómo la noción de sujeto kantiana puede ser contextualizada y comprendida en relación (...)
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  21. White Progress: Kant, Race and Teleology.Inder S. Marwah - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-20.
    This article examines how Kant’s conceptualizations of natural history and teleological judgement shape his understanding of human difference and race. I argue that the teleological framework encasing Kant’s racial theory implies constraints on the capacity of non-whites to make moral progress. While commentators tend to approach Kant’s racial theory in relation to his political theory, his late-life cosmopolitanism, and his treatments of colonialism, empire and slavery, the problem I focus on here is that race is itself only intelligible in relation (...)
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  22. Framing Mills’ Black Radical Kantianism: Kant and Du Bois.Frank M. Kirkland - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-16.
    This article has two purposes. The first speaks to the compatibilist quality of Charles Mills’ Black Radical Kantianism, its strengths and weaknesses and the pertinence of W. E. B Du Bois to it. BRK turns from Mills’ previous critique of Kantianism as representative of a rassenstaatlich political liberalism, underwritten and tainted by the racial/domination contract, to his current defence of a compatibilist Kantianism as representative of a rechtsstaatlich political liberalism supported by a non-ideal racially corrective critique of both that contract (...)
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  23. Kant, intoxicated: the aesthetics of drunkenness, between moral duty and “active play”.Matthew Perkins-McVey - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (4):1-13.
    This article examines Kant’s overlooked concept of “active play,” as opposed to “free play,” in connection with the influence of the Brunonian system of medicine, both of which, I propose, are central to understanding the broader significance of intoxication in Kant’s post-1795 work. Beginning with a discussion of the late-18th century German reception of Brunonian theory, the idea of vital stimulus, and their importance for Kant, I assess the distinction drawn between gluttony and intoxication in The Metaphysics of Morals and (...)
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  24. Kant's Will at the Crossroads: An Essay on the Failings of Practical Rationality.Jens Timmermann - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    What happens when human beings fail to do as reason bids? This book is an attempt to address this age-old question within Kant’s mature practical philosophy, i.e. the practical philosophy that emerged with the watershed discovery of autonomy in the mid-1780s. As always, Kant is good for a surprise. There is, it is argued, not one answer but two: he advocates Socratic intellectualism in the realm of prudence whilst defending an anti-intellectualist or volitional account of immoral action. This ‘hybrid’ theory (...)
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  25. Kant, Liberalism, and the Meaning of Life.Jeffrey Church - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    In the wake of populist challenges throughout the past decade in the U.S. and Europe, liberalism has been described as elitist and out of touch, concerned with protecting and promoting material interests with an orientation that is pragmatic, legalistic, and technocratic. Simultaneously, liberal governments have become increasingly detached from the middle class and its moral needs for purpose and belonging. If liberalism cannot provide spiritual sustenance, individuals will look elsewhere for it, especially in illiberal forms of populism. -/- In Kant, (...)
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  26. Kant and Rawls on Moral Maturation.Olga Lenczewska -
    Revise & resubmit (minor revisions), British Journal for the History of Philosophy. While various Kantian influences on Rawls have been discussed in the literature, these discussions have been limited to Part I of A Theory of Justice and consequently to topics concerning a priori ethical considerations and their consequences for political philosophy. In contrast to others who have interpreted Rawls’s Kantianism in this way, I show that what is also at the core of Rawls’s Kantian project in Theory is Kant’s (...)
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  27. Kant E Rawls: Uma Análise Dos Pressupostos Morais Do Liberalismo Político.Douglas João Orben - 2019 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 64 (3):e34658.
    À luz das reformulações conceituais acerca dos pressupostos filosóficos aceitos por Rawls no desenvolvimento de sua teoria da justiça, o presente artigo objetiva questionar a ideia de autossustentabilidade do âmbito político, como exposto em Political Liberalism, evidenciando alguns pressupostos morais não explicitados pelo autor. A partir de um acordo semântico proposto por Rainer Forst, o qual diferencia os âmbitos de aplicação do ético, do político e do moral, pretende-se demostrar que há uma fundamentação moral no liberalismo político, a qual, todavia, (...)
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  28. Ch. Wolff E 1. Kant Sobre Verdade Transcendental.Joãosinho Beckenkamp - 1996 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 41 (161):57-64.
    Nos últimos anos, alguns autores alemães vêm investigandoa origem do terrn,o transcendental tal como usadopor Kant. O presente artigo procura mostrar a ascendênciawolffiana, e mesmo escolástica, do uso kantiano deste termo.
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  29. Formalismo E Liberdade Em Kant.Thadeu Weber - 1996 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 41 (164):671-679.
    A moral kantiana recebe de Hegel a crítica de se constituir um "vazio formalismo', onde o Imperativo Categórico não passa de uma 'indeterminação abstrata'. O debate entre os dois autores pretende recolocar os objetivos fundamentais de cada um e demonstrar a necessidade de sua complementariedade no que se refere a uma avaliação global do agir humano do ponto de vista moral.
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  30. Wille E Willkür: Uma Análise E Uma Interpretação Na Filosofia de Kant.Draiton Gonzaga De Souza & Keberson Bresolin - 2019 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 64 (1):e32160.
    Ao longo de sua trajetória filosófica, Kant aprofundou e esclareceu os conceitos de vontade e arbítrio. Ambos os conceitos são fundamentais para a compreensão da possibilidade da liberdade, seja ela interna ou externa. O filósofo racional usa os conceitos de Wille e Willkür desde a Kritik der reinen Vernunft, mas será apenas na obra tardia da Metaphysik der Sitten que os conceitos ganharam precisão semântica dentro do sistema da metafisica da liberdade. Em virtude disso, iremos percorrer as obras críticas kantianas (...)
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  31. A (Im)Possibilidade Do “Conhecimento” de Deus Em Kant: O Sumo Bem, Objeto Necessário da Razão.Luiz Rohden & Valdinei Vicente De Jesus - 2016 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 61 (3):440-455.
    O sumo bem, tal qual apresentado na CRPr, consiste na união da moralidade com a felicidade. Como esta ligação não pode ser assegurada necessariamente pelo próprio homem durante a sua finita e imperfeita existência, resta que se existe uma síntese; a mesma apenas pode ser elucidada em um suposto juízo sintético a priori que possa unir a vida terrena virtuosa com a felicidade post mortem que é o que parece exigir uma síntese desta natureza. Frente a esta questão, defendemos que (...)
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  32. Immanuel Kant and the Task of Understanding Another's Lived-Experience.Simon Wharne - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (3):161-163.
    Professor katie harster has considered the phenomenon of psychological trauma, bringing philosophical understandings into play. She provides an informed account of observed “symptoms,” and associated treatments. I comment as a counseling psychologist, although I do not specialize in the evidence-based treatments that she describes. Usually, in my work with clients, we are trying to make sense of what has happened, with a concern for what might happen in the future. I am grateful therefore to colleagues who have the expertise that (...)
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  33. Remarks on Kant's Post-Critical Conception of the Autonomy of Reason.Sabina Vaccarino Bremner - 2021 - In Beatrix Himmelmann & Camilla Serck-Hanssen (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 1605-1614.
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  34. The Legacy of Kant in Sellars and Meillassoux.Fabio Gironi (ed.) - 2018
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  35. What’s So Good About the Good Will? An Ontological Critique of Kant’s Axiomatic Moral Construct.Necip Fikri Alican - 2022 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 18 (1):422–467.
    Kant maintains that the only thing that is good in itself, and therefore good without limitation or qualification, is a good will. This is an objectionable claim in support of a controversial position. The problem is not just that the good will is not the only thing that is good in itself, which indeed it is not, but more importantly, that the good will is not so much a thing that is good in itself as it is the good kind (...)
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  36. From Dogmatic Slumber to Rationalist Nightmares: Kant Among the Dreamers of Reason.Joe Stratmann - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  37. Paul Guyer, Reason and Experience in Mendelssohn and Kant, Oxford-New York, Oxford University Press, 2020, 364 P.Tinca Prunea-Bretonnet - 2022 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:445-447.
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  38. La politique chez Kant : une doctrine du droit appliquée.Frédéric Rimoux - 2022 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:323-340.
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  39. The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant's Metaphysics and Epistemology.Schafer Karl & Stang Nicholas (eds.) - 2022 - Oxforrd University Press.
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  40. Kant’s Categories of Quantity and Quality, Reconsidered: From the Point of View of the History of Logic and Natural Science.Yasuhiko Tomida - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-25.
    According to Kant, the division of the categories “is not the result of a search after pure concepts undertaken at haphazard,” but is derived from the “complete” classification of judgments developed by traditional logic. However, the sorts of judgments that he enumerates in his table of judgments are not all ones that traditional logic has dealt with; consequently, we must say that he chose the sorts of judgments in question with a certain intention. Besides, we know that his choice of (...)
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  41. Kant’s Problematic Theory of the Value of Marriage.Christoph Horn - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 197-216.
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  42. Some Remarks on the Concept of Good in the Second Chapter of the Analytics in Kant’s CPR.Federica Basaglia - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 123-138.
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  43. Acting for a Reason. What Kant’s Concept of Maxims Can Tell Us About Value, Human Action, and Practical Identity.Steffi Schadow - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 65-88.
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  44. Kant’s Cosmopolitanism and the Value of Humanity – Implications for a Universal Right to Citizenship.Ewa Wyrębska-Đermanović - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 163-180.
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  45. Kant’s Conception of Value – Realistic Enough?Gerhard Schönrich - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 1-22.
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  46. Kant on Moral Value in the Groundwork.Robinson dos Santos - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 41-64.
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  47. The Moral Value of the Will. The Concepts of Good and Evil in the Second Chapter of Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason.Stephan Zimmermann - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 139-162.
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  48. Honeste Vive and Legal Personality in Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals.Sofie Møller - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 181-196.
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  49. Kant’s Value Prescriptivism.Oliver Sensen - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 23-40.
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  50. The Relationship Between Dignity and the End in Itself in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.Rocco Porcheddu - 2022 - In Christoph Horn & Robinson dos Santos (eds.), Kant’s Theory of Value. De Gruyter. pp. 105-122.
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