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Summary

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the most influential thinker in modern western philosophy. 

The central doctrine of Kant’s theoretical philosophy is what he calls “transcendental idealism.”  This is, roughly, the view that there is a sharp distinction between things as they appear to us and things as they really are (in themselves). It is controversial what that distinction consists in or even how to characterize it, but it is clear that Kant wants to deny that things-in-themselves have spatio-temporal features.  Thus they are things that we can think about (‘noumena’) but not things that appear (‘phenomena’). 

Kant argues that we can only explain our knowledge of non-trivial (‘synthetic’) necessary principles -- including the principle according to which all events have causes --  if transcendental idealism is true.  He also thinks that distinguishing between phenomena and noumena leaves room for incompatibilist freedom, God, and the immortality of the soul (at the noumenal level). 

Kant places the notion of autonomy at the center of his moral and political philosophy, and argues that specific moral obligations are based in a very general principle called the Categorical Imperative.  This principle is fundamental to practical rationality and requires that we respect the autonomy of rational agents and refuse to make arbitrary exceptions for ourselves. 

In his early years, Kant was trained in the German rationalist tradition of Christian Wolff (1679–1750) and G. W. Leibniz (1646–1716). But he was influenced by the British Empiricists like John Locke (1632–1704), Isaac Newton (1642–1727), and David Hume (1711–1776). Later, Kant characterizes his Critical philosophy as a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism. 

Kant’s massive influence is felt across the continental and analytic traditions. He is typically regarded as the forefather of German Idealism, and a key figure in the development of Existentialism, NeoKantianism (obviously), Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and even Post-Modernism. 

In the analytic tradition, Kant’s views were in the background of many of the debates in 20th-century epistemology and philosophy of mind. Kantian moral philosophy is one of the main positions in contemporary ethics, and Kantian political philosophy dominated most of the discussion in 20th and early 21st century political philosophy. Kant’s views about aesthetic judgment are central to many developments in the philosophy of art and art criticism. Kant is not a major figure in contemporary analytic metaphysics, however.

Key works

The three Critiques are the central texts for Kant’s “critical system”: Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Power of Judgment (1790). His Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) is among the most influential works in modern ethics. Other major works include Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793)Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798)

The standard German edition of Kant’s works is Königlichen Preußischen (later Deutschen) Akademie der Wissenschaften (ed.), 1900–, Kants gesammelte Schriften, Berlin: Georg Reimer (later Walter De Gruyter). The standard English edition of Kant’s works is P. Guyer and A. Wood (eds.), 1992–, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Introductions Good overall introductions include Wood 2004, Höffe & Farrier 1994, and Guyer 2006Buroker 2006 offers a good introductory overview of Kant’s key text in theoretical philosophy. Cleve 1999 is a more advanced introduction for analytic philosophers. Gardner 1999 is an opinionated but very accessible introduction.  A good introduction to Kant's moral philosophy is Sedgwick 2008.
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Subcategories:
Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (11,198 | 3,168)

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  1. Ought Implies Can, Asymmetrical Freedom, and the Practical Irrelevance of Transcendental Freedom.Matthé Scholten - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, I demonstrate that Kant's commitment to an asymmetry between the control conditions for praise and blame is explained by his endorsement of the principle Ought Implies Can (OIC). I argue that Kant accepts only a relatively weak version of OIC and that he is hence committed only to a relatively weak requirement of alternate possibilities for moral blame. This suggests that whether we are transcendentally free is irrelevant to questions about moral permissibility and moral blameworthiness.
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  2. Kant and Arendt on Barbaric and Totalitarian Evil.Helga Varden - manuscript
    I will be polishing this paper over the next couple of weeks. If you are interested and find time to read it, I'd love to hear your thoughts. There is also a link to the podcast from the session at the Aristotelian Society in the "external link.".
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  3. Co to znaczy być transcendentalnym idealistą i empirycznym realistą jednocześnie? O statusie rzeczy w filozofii transcendentalnej.Alicja Pietras - 2020 - Ethos. Kwartalnik Instytutu Jana Pawła II 3 (33):69-89.
    The aim of the article is to present an interpretation of the Kantian concept of transcendental idealism, which would make it possible to understand the status of things from the perspective of transcendental philosophy. The main claim of the article is that Kant’s standpoint can be situated beyond metaphysical realism and idealism, or, to use contemporary terms, beyond representationalism and constructivism. The standpoint in question can thus be regarded as an inspiration to reject the Cartesian dualism of substance and to (...)
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  4. Kant on the Ground of Human Dignity.Apaar Kumar - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-19.
    Kant interpreters have contrasting views on what Kant takes to be the basis for human dignity. Several commentators have argued that human dignity can be traced back to some feature of human beings. Others contend that humans in themselves lack dignity, but dignity can be attributed to them because the moral law demands respect for humanity. I argue, alternatively, that human dignity in Kant’s system can be seen to be grounded in the reciprocal relationship between the dignity of the moral (...)
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  5. Kant on Lazy Savagery, Racialized.Huaping Lu-Adler - forthcoming - Journal of History of Philosophy.
    Kant develops a concept of savagery, partly characterized by laziness, to envision a program for human progress. He also racializes savagery, treating native Americans, in particular, as literal savages. He ascribes to this “race” a peculiar physiological laziness, a supposedly hereditary trait of blunted life power. Accordingly, while he grants them the same “germs” for perfections as he does the civilized Europeans, he allows them no prospect of actually fulfilling any such perfection. For the road to perfection must be paved (...)
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  6. Ameriks Karl, Kantian Subjects: Critical Philosophy and Late Modernity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, Pp. Xi + 272, ISBN 9780198841852 (Hbk) £70.00. [REVIEW]Markus Kohl - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-6.
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  7. Kant on the Fundamental Forces of Matter: Why Attraction and Repulsion?Stephen Howard - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-21.
    This article addresses a simple question that has rarely been asked of Kant’s philosophy of nature: why are attraction and repulsion the two fundamental forces of matter? Where proposals can be found in the literature, they are divergent. I provide a new answer, which has strong support from the historical context: Kant pursues a modified version of what I call the ‘reduction method’ that was much debated in the German metaphysical tradition. To this, Kant crucially adds his critical doctrine of (...)
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  8. Toby Svoboda, Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic New York, Routledge: 2019, Pp. 172, ISBN 9780367258405 (Pbk) £29.59. [REVIEW]Milene Consenso Tonetto - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-4.
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  9. Wolfgang Ertl, The Guarantee of Perpetual Peace Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, Pp. Iv + 72, ISBN 9781108529785 (Pbk) £15.00. [REVIEW]Eric Watkins - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-5.
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  10. Allen W. Wood, Kant and Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, Pp. 270, ISBN 9781108422345 (Hbk) $89.99.Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-5.
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  11. Christopher J. Insole, Kant and the Divine: From Contemplation to the Moral Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020, Pp. Xvi + 426, ISBN 9780198853527 (Hbk) £85.00. [REVIEW]Kienhow Goh - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-5.
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  12. Regulative Principles and Kinds of the Unconditioned.Angela Breitenbach - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-11.
    In his Kant on Laws, Eric Watkins presents an account of reason on which the principles of specification and continuity are regulative instructions to search for different kinds of the unconditioned. I suggest that we correct Watkins’ account in two ways. First, we need to complete Watkins’ claim to the plurality of the unconditioned: reason aims for three kinds of the unconditioned, associated with the lowest, next and highest concepts. Second, we need to look beyond reason’s search for the unconditioned (...)
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  13. The Role of Synthetic A Priori Propositions in the Development of Kant’s Account of Practical Autonomy: A Critique of Watkins’ Reading of Kant’s Prolegomena.Konstantin Pollok - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-7.
    I draw attention to a 12-page Vorarbeit to Kant’s Prolegomena from the so-called Scheffner-Nachlaß and argue that the parallel Kant draws there between the possibility of theoretical and practical synthetic a priori propositions provides important insight into the development of his account of practical autonomy in the Groundwork. Based on a brief sketch of the role synthetic a priori propositions play in the development of Kant’s critical philosophy, I conclude that for Kant the objective validity of any science depends on (...)
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  14. Watkins on Kant’s Laws of Nature.Janum Sethi - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-8.
    I discuss three sets of worries concerning Watkins’ account of laws of nature in Kant on Laws. First, I argue contra Watkins that Kant’s laws of nature do not depend on acts of prescription in any literal sense. Second, I question how his generic conception of laws applies to empirical laws of nature and suggest that the worries about unknowability or contingency that he raises for contemporary alternatives may equally arise for empirical laws on Kant’s account. Finally, I discuss his (...)
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  15. Review of Inés Valdez, Transnational Cosmopolitanism: Kant, Du Bois, and Justice as a Political Craft. [REVIEW]Elvira Basevich - forthcoming - Kantian Review.
  16. Review of Reason and Conversion in Kierkegaard and the German Idealists, Ryan S. Kemp and Christopher Iacovetti. [REVIEW]G. Anthony Bruno - forthcoming - Kantian Review.
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  17. Replies to the Comments of Angela Breitenbach, Konstantin Pollok and Janum Sethi.Eric Watkins - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-20.
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  18. Kant’s Enlightenment and Women’s Peculiar Immaturity.Charlotte Sabourin - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-26.
    In ‘What is Enlightenment?’, Kant claims that no women are currently enlightened. Here I argue that this exclusion is due to certain legal restrictions guiding Kant’s conception of enlightenment. As enlightenment is intended to take place in society, it appears that Kant has a specific legal context in mind that affects its enactment. His twofold conception of citizenship and the dimension of subordination he puts forward by restricting the private use of reason will prove useful in clarifying those legal restrictions. (...)
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  19. A Kantian Theory of the Sensory Processing Subtype of ASD [Autism Spectrum Disorder].Susan V. H. Castro - 2019 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 6 (1):1-15.
    Immanuel Kant’s theory of imagination is a surprisingly fruitful nexus of explanation for the prima facie disparate characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially the sub-spectrum best characterized by the Sensory Integration (SI) and Intense World (IW) theories of ASD. According to the psychological theories that underpin these approaches to autism, upstream effects of sensory processing atypicalities explain a cascade of downstream effects that have been characterized in the diagnostic triad, e.g., poor sensory integration contributes to weak central coherence, which (...)
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  20. Bering and Kant on a Hundred Actual and Possible Thalers.Rogelio Rovira - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-26.
    This paper has three aims. First, to show Kant’s originality in using the celebrated example of the hundred thalers as a criticism of the ontological proof, despite being inspired by a 1780 booklet by Johann Bering. Second, to assess Bering’s and Kant’s different reasons for supporting the truth meant to be illustrated by the case of the thalers. Third, to point out that the debate on the example demands a discussion of the problem of universals. Indeed, the value and scope (...)
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  21. Peirce Chase’Ing Pythagoras.Rasmus Rebane - 2021 - Sign Systems Studies 48 (2-4):350-367.
    Despite the common knowledge that there is something “Pythagorean” about Charles Peirce’s phenomenology and classification of signs there is a manifest lack of inquiries into the matter. Perhaps there is too little to go on, as Pythagoras himself did not leave us any writings to consult. Nevertheless, much of ancient Greek philosophy bears an unmistakable Pythagorean stamp, and Iamblichus’ bio - graphy of Pythagoras provides us with enough to get such inquiries started. This paper examines the development of triads, beginning (...)
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  22. Corijn van Mazijk: Perception and Reality in Kant, Husserl, and McDowell, New York: Routledge, 2020, 192 Pp., ISBN 978-0-367-44180-7, ISBN 978-1-003-01022-7. [REVIEW]Kristjan Laasik - forthcoming - Continental Philosophy Review:1-5.
    Corijn van Mazijk’s book is a critical exploration of the relations between Immanuel Kant’s, Edmund Husserl’s, and John McDowell’s transcendental philosophies. His primary aim is not to conduct a historical study, but “to show that history provides us with viable alternatives to McDowell’s theory of our perceptual access to reality.” The book covers a variety of McDowellian themes: the Myth of the Given, the space of reasons vs. the space of nature, conceptualism, disjunctivism, naturalism, and realism—uncovering the roots of McDowell’s (...)
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  23. The Impossible Possibility of Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism.Chris L. Firestone - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):99-104.
    Stephen R. Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism revisits his earlier work on Kant and Swedenborg, arguing that, contrary to standard interpretations, the arguments of Dreams of a Spirit-Seer expand into ‘Critical mysticism’ throughout the Critical philosophy and into the Opus Postumum. Although the beginning portions of Palmquist’s book successfully disturb the standard portrait of Kant as the all-destroyer of metaphysics and religious experience, his argument for critical mysticism is inconclusive. It is impossible to know if his interpretation of the Opus Postumum (...)
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  24. Daniel O. Dahlstrom (Ed.), Kant and His German Contemporaries, Vol. 2, Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. Pp. Xii + 285. ISBN 9781107178168 (Hbk) $105.00. [REVIEW]Robert B. Louden - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):163-168.
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  25. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Kant’s Critical Method: Comments on Stephen R. Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism.J. Colin McQuillan - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):113-117.
    In his new book, Kant and Mysticism, Stephen Palmquist argues that Kant had already formulated his critical method by the mid-1760s and that it emerged from his reflections on Swedenborg’s mystical visions. In order to evaluate these claims, I consider Kant’s correspondence with Charlotte von Knobloch and Moses Mendelssohn before and after the publication of Dreams of a Spirit-Seer; the context in which Kant published Dreams; and the method he employs when he discusses Swedenborg’s visions in that work. I conclude (...)
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  26. Mysticism Without the Mustikos? Some Reflections on Stephen Palmquist’s Mystical Kant.Swami Medhananda - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):105-111.
    This article critically examines some of the main arguments of Stephen Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism. While I agree with Palmquist that Kant admits the possibility of certain indirect forms of mystical experience, I argue that Palmquist makes Kant out to be more of a mystic than he actually was. In particular, I contend that Palmquist fails to provide convincing justification of two of his main claims: that Kant was a mystic or at least had strong mystical tendencies and that some (...)
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  27. Critical Mysticism or Critical Ethos? Intercultural Reflections on Stephen Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism.Eric S. Nelson - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):119-127.
    This contribution offers a sympathetic historical and intercultural reflection on Stephen Palmquist’s work Kant and Mysticism. It examines the appropriateness of this portrayal of Kant and mysticism in relation to its historical context, suggesting that Kant is committed to an account of rationality, ethical personhood and a ‘critical ethos’ in tension with mysticism; and the inadequacy of Kant’s understanding of mysticism in the context of South and East Asian philosophical and religious discourses, indicating the need for an intercultural turn in (...)
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  28. Immediate Experience, Mystical ‘Encounters’ and the ‘Voice’ of God: Palmquist’s Critical Mysticism and Kant’s Theory of Experience.Lawrence Pasternack - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):129-135.
    In this brief commentary, I focus on Part II of Kant and Mysticism, where Stephen Palmquist explores the space for mystical experience in Kant. In particular, I focus on what Palmquist calls ‘immediate experience’ or ‘encounters’; what he calls the ‘supervening’ of religious experience on ordinary experience; and moral conscience as the ‘voice’ of God.
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  29. Responses to Critics: What Makes Mysticism Critical?Stephen R. Palmquist - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):137-162.
    After summarizing the content of my book, Kant and Mysticism, I warn against four preliminary misconceptions. The book never argues that Kant viewed himself as a mystic, fully acknowledges Kant’s negative view of mysticism, offers no comprehensive overview of mystical traditions, and aims to initiate a dialogue, not to have the final word. I then respond to the foregoing essays by the five critics.
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  30. Helga Varden, Sex, Love, and Gender: A Kantian Theory Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020 Pp. Xxii+ 337 ISBN 9780198812838 (Hbk) £65.00. [REVIEW]Charlotte Sabourin - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):176-181.
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  31. Dilek Huseyinzadegan, Kant’s Nonideal Theory of Politics Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2019 Pp. 216 ISBN 978-0-8101-3988-6 (Hbk) $99.95. [REVIEW]Susan Shell - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):168-171.
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  32. Rachel Zuckert, Herder’s Naturalist Aesthetics New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019 Pp. 266 ISBN 9781108483070 (Hbk) $114.95. [REVIEW]William Eck - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):171-176.
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  33. Kant’s Critical Theory of the Best Possible World.Maya Krishnan - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (1):27-51.
    In this article I argue that the Critical Kant endorses the claim that God creates the best possible world, and that this claim is best understood as committing him to the view that God creates an infinitely valuable world. Kant’s understudied Critical theory of the best possible world differs significantly from his better-known quasi-Leibnizian pre-Critical account insofar as it uses an axiological rather than ontological metric for the goodness of worlds. The axiological metric introduces unique challenges for a Kantian account (...)
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  34. The Spectricity of Humanness.Zachary Isrow - forthcoming - Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
    The question of humanness requires a philosophical anthropology and we need a revision of what philosophical anthropology means in light of contemporary efforts in speculative realism and object-oriented ontology. This is the main claim of the book which expands into the smaller supporting claims that 1) contemporary work in speculative realism indicates that Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein needs to be rethought in consideration of certain Kantian values 2) recent philosophical anthropology offers an incomplete look at the central concern of philosophical (...)
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  35. 解讀及評價: Rolf Peter Horstmann《康德之想像力》. [REVIEW]Tak-lap Yeung & 楊德立 - 2020 - 國立臺灣大學哲學論評 60:169-182.
    Rolf-Peter Horstmann近作《康德之想像力》(Kant's Power of Imagination),是針對「想像力」在康德學統下備受忽視的情況而作。這部102頁的著作,仔細分析了《純粹理性批判》和《判斷力批判》中與想像力相關的內容,意圖從內部理順康德的想像力理論,並論證想像 力在建構認知對象過程裡的獨特貢獻。他提出了「建構認知對象的兩階段模式」,闡明想像力在認知過程中獨一無二的功能與位置,並在此基礎上論證想像力是一種獨立、自足的認知能力。由於想像力是一種獨立認知能力,因此 至少在理論哲學和知識論脈絡下,康德學者沒有忽視想像力的理由。 Rolf-Peter Horstmann's recent work, Kant's Power of Imagination, is a response to the neglect of "the power of imagination" in the Kantian circle. In this 102-page book, Horstmann analyzes passages relevant to imagination in Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Judgment in detail, with the aim of making Kant's theory of imagination coherent. He argues for the unique contribution of imagination in the context of the constitution of cognitive objects. Horstmann proposes a "two-stage model (...)
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  36. Dewey, Ebbinghaus, and the Frankfurt School: A Controversy Over Kant Neither Fought Out nor Exhausted.Cedric Braun - 2021 - In Michael G. Festl (ed.), Pragmatism and Social Philosophy. Exploring a Stream of Ideas from America to Europe. New York City, New York, USA: pp. 163-180.
    This chapter discusses the controversy over the legacy of Kantian moral philosophy in Dewey’s German Philosophy and Politics. It argues that the polemical reaction to Dewey’s book by Julius Ebbinghaus, reiterated through Axel Honneth and Ebbinghaus’s student Georg Geismann, is based on talking at cross-purposes. While Dewey’s reading of Kant is, indeed, flawed, Ebbinghaus and Geismann misconceive Dewey’s argumentative intent. Nevertheless, the controversy serves to clarify Dewey’s line of argument and to discuss parallels with and differences from the world war (...)
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  37. Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics: The Critique of Pure Reason Reconsidered: By Karin de Boer, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020, 290 Pp., £ 75.00 (Hardback), ISBN 9781108897983. [REVIEW]Mahdi Ranaee - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 29 (1):121-126.
    The very title of Karin de Boer’s latest book Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics: The Critique of Pure Reason Reconsidered makes her position clear: Kant is a reformist not a revolutionary and this refor...
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  38. Disagreement, Unilateral Judgment, and Kant’s Argument for Rule by Law.Daniel Koltonski - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Kant argues that it is only as citizens of a properly constituted state that persons are able to respect one another’s innate right to freedom, for joint subjection to the authority of a state enables them to avoid what Kantians call ‘the problem of unilateralism’: when I interact with you in a state of nature according to my judgment of right in circumstances of disagreement between us, I implicitly claim that my judgment, and not yours, has authority over us simply (...)
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  39. Béatrice Longuenesse, I, Me, Mine: Back to Kant and Back Again. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2020 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):513-516.
  40. Review of Abraham Anderson's Kant, Hume, and the Interruption of Dogmatic Slumber. [REVIEW]Adam Andreotta - 2020 - Phenomenological Reviews.
  41. Einbildungskraft als Orientierungskraft - Neuinterpretation der phänomenologischen Kant-Deutung Heideggers.Tak-lap Yeung - 2020 - Baden-Baden: Academia Verlag.
    Tak-Lap Yeungs Arbeit verfolgt eine innovative Deutungsperspektive mit dem Versuch, Heideggers Kant-Adaption als Weg einer Umdeutung nachzuvollziehen, um eine neue Kant-Lesart stark zu machen und zugleich darüber hinaus einen von Hannah Arendt inspirierten eigenständigen Ansatz zu entwickeln, der die Rolle der Einbildungskraft als ontologische und konstitutive Instanz der Existenzorientierung zu bestimmen ermöglicht. In Ergänzung dazu zeigt diese Arbeit im Anhang einen Vergleich zwischen Heideggers Kant-Deutung und der eines chinesischen Philosophen, Mou Zongsan, auf. Der transkulturelle Hintergrund hat Yeung, der an Universitäten (...)
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  42. Kant and the Problem of Unequal Enforcement of Law.Daniel Koltonski - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Kant infamously opposes not only revolution but also any resistance or disobedience by citizens that aims to compel states to reform themselves. This paper argues that, in fact, the Kantian account of the legitimate state has the resources for a distinctive justification of principled disobedience, including even violent or destructive disobedience, that applies to citizens of contemporary Western democracies. When a state fails to enforce the law equally, this lack of equal enforcement can deprive some citizens of the equal assurance (...)
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  43. The C** Word: Covid-19 and Calculation.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - The Philosophical Salon.
    Calculation is omnipresent in the current pandemic. And yet, Continental philosophers never talk about calculation: it seems to be the c** of philosophy. Why is that so? Has it always been like that?
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  44. The Ambiguity in Schopenhauer’s Doctrine of the Thing-in-Itself.Vasfi Onur Özen - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (294): 251-288.
    The general attitude towards Arthur Schopenhauer’s metaphysics is rather fiercely critical and at times even tendentious. It seems that the figure of Schopenhauer as an irredeemably flawed, stubborn, and contradictory philosopher serves as a leitmotiv among scholars. Schopenhauer’s identification of the thing-in-itself with the will continues to be a thorny puzzle in the secondary literature, and it presents perhaps the greatest challenge to Schopenhauer scholars. Schopenhauer borrows the term ‘thing-in-itself’ from Immanuel Kant, who uses it to refer to a reality (...)
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  45. A Marxist Educated Kant: Philosophy of History in Kant and the Frankfurt School.Hauke Brunkhorst - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):515-540.
    In a lecture that Habermas gave on his 90th birthday he ironically, but with serious intent, called a good Kant a sufficiently Marxist educated Kant. This dialectical Kant is the only one of the many Kants who maintains the idea of an unconditioned moral autonomy but completely within evolution, history and in the middle of societal class and other struggles. The article tries to show what Kant could have learned from his later critics to enable him to become a member (...)
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  46. Towards an Unfettered Critique: Adorno’s Appropriations and Transformations of Kant’s Enlightenment.Garmon D. Iago - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):631-654.
    Many recent commentators have noticed how Adorno, in his late works, borrows Kant’s definition of enlightenment to define key areas of his own critical practice. These discussions, however, have failed to notice how these late borrowings present an image of Kant’s enlightenment which is diametrically opposed to his previous discussions. By tracing the development of Adorno’s engagement with Kant’s essay, I discover Adorno deliberately sublating Kant’s definition as to enable its incorporation into his own works. Further, the article will examine (...)
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  47. Habermasian Constructivism: An Alternative to the Constitutivist Argument.Dafydd Huw Rees - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):675-698.
    Jürgen Habermas’ discourse theory of morality should be understood, in metaethical terms, as a constructivist theory. All constructivist theories face a Euthyphro-like dilemma arising from how they classify the constraints on their metaethical construction procedures: are they moral or non-moral? Many varieties of Kantian constructivism, such as Christine Korsgaard’s, classify the constraints as moral, albeit constitutive of human reason and agency in general. However, this constitutivist strategy is vulnerable to David Enoch’s ‘shmagency’ objection. The discourse theory of morality, by classifying (...)
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  48. Adorno, Kant and Enlightenment.Deborah Cook - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):541-557.
    Theodor W. Adorno often made reference to Immanuel Kant’s famous essay on enlightenment. Although he denied that immaturity is self-incurred, the first section of this article will show that he adopted many of Kant’s ideas about maturity in his philosophically informed critique of monopoly conditions under late capitalism. The second section will explore Adorno’s claim that the educational system could foster maturity by encouraging critical reflection on the social conditions that have made us what we are. Finally, this article will (...)
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  49. Private Autonomy and Public Autonomy: Tensions in Habermas’ Discourse Theory of Law and Politics.Maeve Cooke - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):559-582.
    Habermas dialogically recasts the Kantian conception of moral autonomy. In a legal-political context, his dialogical approach has the potential to redress certain troubling features of liberal and communitarian approaches to democratic politics. Liberal approaches attach greater normative weight to negatively construed individual freedoms, which they seek to protect against the interventions of political authority. Communitarian approaches prioritize the positively construed freedoms of communal political participation, viewing legal-political institutions as a means for collective ethical self-realization. Habermas’ discourse theory of law and (...)
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  50. A Frankfurter in Königsberg: Prolegomenon to Any Future Non-Metaphysical Kant.James Gordon Finlayson - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):583-604.
    In this article I press four different objections on Forst’s theory of the ‘Right to Justification’. These are that the principle of justification is not well-formulated; that ‘reasonableness and reciprocity’, as these notions are used by Rawls, are not apt to support a Kantian conception of morality; that the principle of justification, as Forst understands it, gives an inadequate account of what makes actions wrong; and that, in spite of his protestations to the contrary, Forst’s account veers towards a version (...)
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