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  1. Artificial Intelligence, Robots, and Philosophy.Masahiro Morioka, Shin-Ichiro Inaba, Makoto Kureha, István Zoltán Zárdai, Minao Kukita, Shimpei Okamoto, Yuko Murakami & Rossa Ó Muireartaigh - 2023 - Journal of Philosophy of Life.
    This book is a collection of all the papers published in the special issue “Artificial Intelligence, Robots, and Philosophy,” Journal of Philosophy of Life, Vol.13, No.1, 2023, pp.1-146. The authors discuss a variety of topics such as science fiction and space ethics, the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the ethics of autonomous agents, and virtuous robots. Through their discussions, readers are able to think deeply about the essence of modern technology and the future of humanity. All papers were invited and completed (...)
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  2. Techno-Animism and the Pygmalion Effect.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - forthcoming - Http://Manovich.Net/Index.Php/Projects/Artificial-Aesthetics.
    Chapter 3 of the ongoing publication "Artificial Aesthetics" Book information: Assume you're a designer, an architect, a photographer, a videographer, a curator, an art historian, a musician, a writer, an artist, or any other creative professional or student. Perhaps you're a digital content creator who works across multiple platforms. Alternatively, you could be an art historian, curator, or museum professional. -/- You may be wondering how AI will affect your professional area in general and your work and career. Our book (...)
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  3. “Even an AI Could Do That”.Emanuele Arielli - forthcoming - Http://Manovich.Net/Index.Php/Projects/Artificial-Aesthetics.
    Chapter 1 of the ongoing online publication "Artificial Aesthetics: A Critical Guide to AI, Media and Design", Lev Manovich and Emanuele Arielli -/- Book information: Assume you're a designer, an architect, a photographer, a videographer, a curator, an art historian, a musician, a writer, an artist, or any other creative professional or student. Perhaps you're a digital content creator who works across multiple platforms. Alternatively, you could be an art historian, curator, or museum professional. -/- You may be wondering how (...)
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  4. Algorithmic Political Bias Can Reduce Political Polarization.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    Does algorithmic political bias contribute to an entrenchment and polarization of political positions? Franke argues that it may do so because the bias involves classifications of people as liberals, conservatives, etc., and individuals often conform to the ways in which they are classified. I provide a novel example of this phenomenon in human–computer interactions and introduce a social psychological mechanism that has been overlooked in this context but should be experimentally explored. Furthermore, while Franke proposes that algorithmic political classifications entrench (...)
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  5. Measuring Information Deprivation: A Democratic Proposal.Adrian K. Yee - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    There remains no consensus among social scientists as to how to measure and understand forms of information deprivation such as misinformation. Machine learning and statistical analyses of information deprivation typically contain problematic operationalizations which are too often biased towards epistemic elites' conceptions that can undermine their empirical adequacy. A mature science of information deprivation should include considerable citizen involvement that is sensitive to the value-ladenness of information quality and that doing so may improve the predictive and explanatory power of extant (...)
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  6. Artificial Intelligence: A Promising Future?Nancy Salay & Selim Akl - 2019 - Queen's Quarterly 126 (1):6-19.
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  7. Institutional Trust in Medicine in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Michał Klincewicz - forthcoming - In David Collins, Mark Alfano & Iris Jovanovic (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Trust. Rowman and Littlefield/Lexington Books: Rowman and Littlefield/Lexington Books.
    It is easier to talk frankly to a person whom one trusts. It is also easier to agree with a scientist whom one trusts. Even though in both cases the psychological state that underlies the behavior is called ‘trust’, it is controversial whether it is a token of the same psychological type. Trust can serve an affective, epistemic, or other social function, and comes to interact with other psychological states in a variety of ways. The way that the functional role (...)
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  8. Algorithmic Political Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-23.
    Some artificial intelligence systems can display algorithmic bias, i.e. they may produce outputs that unfairly discriminate against people based on their social identity. Much research on this topic focuses on algorithmic bias that disadvantages people based on their gender or racial identity. The related ethical problems are significant and well known. Algorithmic bias against other aspects of people’s social identity, for instance, their political orientation, remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that algorithmic bias against people’s political orientation can arise in (...)
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  9. Climbing the Ladder: How Agents Reach Counterfactual Thinking.Caterina Moruzzi - 2022 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence.
  10. Can Artificial Intelligence (Re)Define Creativity?Dessislava Fessenko - 2022 - In EthicAI=LABS Project. Sofia: DA LAB Foundation /Goethe-institut Sofia. pp. 34-48.
    What is the essential ingredient of creativity that only humans – and not machines – possess? Can artificial intelligence help refine the notion of creativity by reference to that essential ingredient? How / do we need to redefine our conceptual and legal frameworks for rewarding creativity because of this new qualifying – actually creatively significant – factor? -/- Those are the questions tackled in this essay. The author’s conclusion is that consciousness, experiential states (such as a raw feel of what (...)
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  11. The Effective and Ethical Development of Artificial Intelligence: An Opportunity to Improve Our Wellbeing.James Maclaurin, Toby Walsh, Neil Levy, Genevieve Bell, Fiona Wood, Anthony Elliott & Iven Mareels - 2019 - Melbourne VIC, Australia: Australian Council of Learned Academies.
    This project has been supported by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council (project number CS170100008); the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science; and the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. ACOLA collaborates with the Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences and the New Zealand Royal Society Te Apārangi to deliver the interdisciplinary Horizon Scanning reports to government. The aims of the project which produced this report are: 1. Examine the transformative role that artificial intelligence may play in (...)
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  12. Metaphysics , Meaning, and Morality: A Theological Reflection on A.I.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2022 - Journal of Moral Theology 11 (Special Issue 1):157-181.
    Theologians often reflect on the ethical uses and impacts of artificial intelligence, but when it comes to artificial intelligence techniques themselves, some have questioned whether much exists to discuss in the first place. If the significance of computational operations is attributed rather than intrinsic, what are we to say about them? Ancient thinkers—namely Augustine of Hippo (lived 354–430)—break the impasse, enabling us to draw forth the moral and metaphysical significance of current developments like the “deep neural networks” that are responsible (...)
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  13. From Responsibility to Reason-Giving Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Kevin Baum, Susanne Mantel, Timo Speith & Eva Schmidt - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-30.
    We argue that explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), specifically reason-giving XAI, often constitutes the most suitable way of ensuring that someone can properly be held responsible for decisions that are based on the outputs of artificial intelligent (AI) systems. We first show that, to close moral responsibility gaps (Matthias 2004), often a human in the loop is needed who is directly responsible for particular AI-supported decisions. Second, we appeal to the epistemic condition on moral responsibility to argue that, in order to (...)
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  14. The Ethics of Generating Posthumans: Philosophical and Theological Reflections on Bringing New Persons Into Existence.Trevor Stammers - 2022 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Is it possible, ethically speaking, to create posthuman and transhuman persons from a religious perspective? Who is responsible for post and transhuman creation? Can post and transhuman persons be morally accountable? Addressing such pressing ethical questions around post and transhuman creation, this volume considers the philosophical and theological arguments that define and stimulate contemporary debate. Contributors consider the full implications of creating post and transhuman beings by highlighting the role of new technologies in shaping new forms of consciousness, as well (...)
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  15. The Kantian Notion of Freedom and Autonomy of Artificial Agency.Manas Sahu - 2021 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 23:136-149.
    The objective of this paper is to provide critical analysis of the Kantian notion of freedom ; its significance in the contemporary debate on free-will and determinism, and the possibility of autonomy of artificial agency in the Kantian paradigm of autonomy. Kant's resolution of the third antinomy by positing the ground in the noumenal self resolves the problem of antinomies; however, it invites an explanatory gap between phenomenality and the noumenal self; even if he has successfully established the compatibility of (...)
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  16. Walking Through the Turing Wall.Albert Efimov - forthcoming - In Teces.
    Can the machines that play board games or recognize images only in the comfort of the virtual world be intelligent? To become reliable and convenient assistants to humans, machines need to learn how to act and communicate in the physical reality, just like people do. The authors propose two novel ways of designing and building Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). The first one seeks to unify all participants at any instance of the Turing test – the judge, the machine, the human (...)
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  17. Tecno-especies: la humanidad que se hace a sí misma y los desechables.Mateja Kovacic & María G. Navarro - 2021 - Bajo Palabra. Revista de Filosofía 27 (II Epoca):45-62.
    Popular culture continues fuelling public imagination with things, human and non-human, that we might beco-me or confront. Besides robots, other significant tropes in popular fiction that generated images include non-human humans and cyborgs, wired into his-torically varying sociocultural realities. Robots and artificial intelligence are re-defining the natural order and its hierar-chical structure. This is not surprising, as natural order is always in flux, shaped by new scientific discoveries, especially the reading of the genetic code, that reveal and redefine relationships between (...)
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  18. Neural Chitchat.Barry Smith - 2021 - The Sherry Turkle Miracle.
    A constant theme in Sherry Turkle’s work is the idea that computers shape our social and psychological lives. This idea is of course in a sense trivial, as can be observed when walking down any city street and noting how many of the passers-by have their heads buried in screens. In The Second Self, however, Turkle makes a stronger claim to the effect that where people confront machines that seem to think this suggests a new way for us to think (...)
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  19. Saint Thomas d'Aquin contre les robots. Pistes pour une approche philosophique de l'Intelligence Artificielle.Matthieu Raffray - 2019 - Angelicum 4 (96):553-572.
    In light of the pervasive developments of new technologies, such as NBIC (Nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science), it is imperative to produce a coherent and deep reflexion on the human nature, on human intelligence and on the limit of both of them, in order to successfully respond to some technical argumentations that strive to depict humanity as a purely mechanical system. For this purpose, it is interesting to refer to the epistemology and metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas as a (...)
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  20. The Legal Ambiguity of Advanced Assistive Bionic Prosthetics: Where to Define the Limits of ‘Enhanced Persons’ in Medical Treatment.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2021 - Clinical Ethics 16 (3):171-182.
    The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence systems has generated a means whereby assistive bionic prosthetics can become both more effective and practical for the patients who rely upon the use of such machines in their daily lives. However, de lege lata remains relatively unspoken as to the legal status of patients whose devices contain self-learning CIS that can interface directly with the peripheral nervous system. As a means to reconcile for this lack of legal foresight, this article approaches the topic (...)
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  21. Playing the Blame Game with Robots.Markus Kneer & Michael T. Stuart - 2021 - In Companion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI’21 Companion). New York, NY, USA:
    Recent research shows – somewhat astonishingly – that people are willing to ascribe moral blame to AI-driven systems when they cause harm [1]–[4]. In this paper, we explore the moral- psychological underpinnings of these findings. Our hypothesis was that the reason why people ascribe moral blame to AI systems is that they consider them capable of entertaining inculpating mental states (what is called mens rea in the law). To explore this hypothesis, we created a scenario in which an AI system (...)
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  22. Privacy and Digital Ethics After the Pandemic.Carissa Véliz - 2021 - Nature Electronics 4:10-11.
    The increasingly prominent role of digital technologies during the coronavirus pandemic has been accompanied by concerning trends in privacy and digital ethics. But more robust protection of our rights in the digital realm is possible in the future. -/- After surveying some of the challenges we face, I argue for the importance of diplomacy. Democratic countries must try to come together and reach agreements on minimum standards and rules regarding cybersecurity, privacy and the governance of AI.
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  23. Could Machines Replace Human Scientists? Digitalization and Scientific Discoveries.Jan G. Michel - 2020 - In Benedikt Paul Göcke & Astrid Rosenthal-von der Pütten (eds.), Artificial Intelligence: Reflections in Philosophy, Theology, and the Social Sciences. pp. 361–376.
    The focus of this article is a question that has been neglected in debates about digitalization: Could machines replace human scientists? To provide an intelligible answer to it, we need to answer a further question: What is it that makes (or constitutes) a scientist? I offer an answer to this question by proposing a new demarcation criterion for science which I call “the discoverability criterion”. I proceed as follows: (1) I explain why the target question of this article is important, (...)
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  24. Consequences of Unexplainable Machine Learning for the Notions of a Trusted Doctor and Patient Autonomy.Michal Klincewicz & Lily Frank - 2020 - Proceedings of the 2nd EXplainable AI in Law Workshop (XAILA 2019) Co-Located with 32nd International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2019).
    This paper provides an analysis of the way in which two foundational principles of medical ethics–the trusted doctor and patient autonomy–can be undermined by the use of machine learning (ML) algorithms and addresses its legal significance. This paper can be a guide to both health care providers and other stakeholders about how to anticipate and in some cases mitigate ethical conflicts caused by the use of ML in healthcare. It can also be read as a road map as to what (...)
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  25. AI Extenders and the Ethics of Mental Health.Karina Vold & Jose Hernandez-Orallo - forthcoming - In Marcello Ienca & Fabrice Jotterand (eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Brain and Mental Health: Philosophical, Ethical & Policy Issues. Springer International Publishing.
    The extended mind thesis maintains that the functional contributions of tools and artefacts can become so essential for our cognition that they can be constitutive parts of our minds. In other words, our tools can be on a par with our brains: our minds and cognitive processes can literally ‘extend’ into the tools. Several extended mind theorists have argued that this ‘extended’ view of the mind offers unique insights into how we understand, assess, and treat certain cognitive conditions. In this (...)
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  26. Artificial Intelligence: Philosophical and Epistemological Perspectives.Pierre Livet & Franck Varenne - 2020 - In H. Prade, Papini O. & Marquis P. (eds.), A Guided Tour of Artificial Intelligence Research. pp. 437-455.
    Research in artificial intelligence (AI) has led to revise the challenges of the AI initial programme as well as to keep us alert to peculiarities and limitations of human cognition. Both are linked, as a careful further reading of the Turing’s test makes it clear from Searle’s Chinese room apologue and from Dreyfus’ suggestions, and in both cases, ideal had to be turned into operating mode. In order to rise these more pragmatic challenges AI does not hesitate to link together (...)
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  27. Artificial Economics.Paul Smart - 2020 - In Timothy Shanahan & Paul R. Smart (eds.), Blade Runner 2049: A Philosophical Exploration. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 185–205.
  28. Deepfakes and the Epistemic Backstop.Regina Rini - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (24):1-16.
    Deepfake technology uses machine learning to fabricate video and audio recordings that represent people doing and saying things they've never done. In coming years, malicious actors will likely use this technology in attempts to manipulate public discourse. This paper prepares for that danger by explicating the unappreciated way in which recordings have so far provided an epistemic backstop to our testimonial practices. Our reasonable trust in the testimony of others depends, to a surprising extent, on the regulative effects of the (...)
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  29. Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies.Antonio Lieto - 2015 - Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII):38-44.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an important topic of investigation in (...)
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  30. Legal Fictions and the Essence of Robots: Thoughts on Essentialism and Pragmatism in the Regulation of Robotics.Fabio Fossa - 2018 - In Mark Coeckelbergh, Janina Loh, Michael Funk, Joanna Seibt & Marco Nørskov (eds.), Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and, Public Space. Amsterdam: pp. 103-111.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer some critical remarks on the so-called pragmatist approach to the regulation of robotics. To this end, the article mainly reviews the work of Jack Balkin and Joanna Bryson, who have taken up such ap- proach with interestingly similar outcomes. Moreover, special attention will be paid to the discussion concerning the legal fiction of ‘electronic personality’. This will help shed light on the opposition between essentialist and pragmatist methodologies. After a brief introduction (1.), (...)
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  31. Making Metaethics Work for AI: Realism and Anti-Realism.Michal Klincewicz & Lily E. Frank - 2018 - In Mark Coeckelbergh, M. Loh, J. Funk, M. Seibt & J. Nørskov (eds.), Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and Public Space. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press. pp. 311-318.
    Engineering an artificial intelligence to play an advisory role in morally charged decision making will inevitably introduce meta-ethical positions into the design. Some of these positions, by informing the design and operation of the AI, will introduce risks. This paper offers an analysis of these potential risks along the realism/anti-realism dimension in metaethics and reveals that realism poses greater risks, but, on the other hand, anti-realism undermines the motivation for engineering a moral AI in the first place.
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  32. Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2017 - Berlin: Springer.
    This book reports on the results of the third edition of the premier conference in the field of philosophy of artificial intelligence, PT-AI 2017, held on November 4 - 5, 2017 at the University of Leeds, UK. It covers: advanced knowledge on key AI concepts, including complexity, computation, creativity, embodiment, representation and superintelligence; cutting-edge ethical issues, such as the AI impact on human dignity and society, responsibilities and rights of machines, as well as AI threats to humanity and AI safety; (...)
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  33. Love and Realism.Pieter Lemmens - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (2):305-310.
    In this reply I try to show that, contrary to Milberry’s apparent assertion, the general intellect of the multitude does not have the explanatory robustness she accredits to it. Digital network technologies are currently overwhelmingly effective in proletarianizing and disempowering the cognitariat and only an active technopolitics of deproletarianization could reverse this hegemonic situation. In my response to Verbeek, I attempt to correct his misinterpretation of the Stieglerian approach as being dialectical in nature and show that, far from reinstating the (...)
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  34. Ethics in Times of Posthumanism.Galit Wellner - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (2):329-332.
    This commentary is an attempt to rethink the ethics of taking care in posthumanist times. It is an effort to combine ethics, posthumanism and psychological theories. I examine how the psychological notion of long-term well-being can serve as an ethical yardstick and how it can be relevant to non-humans.
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  35. Virtual Futures: Cyberotics, Technology and Posthuman Pragmatism.Joan Broadhurst Dixon & Eric Cassidy (eds.) - 1998 - Routledge.
    _Virtual Futures_ explores the ideas that the future lies in its ability to articulate the consequences of an increasingly synthetic and virtual world. New technologies like cyberspace, the internet, and Chaos theory are often discussed in the context of technology and its potential to liberate or in terms of technophobia. This collection examines both these ideas while also charting a new and controversial route through contemporary discourses on technology; a path that discusses the material evolution and the erotic relation between (...)
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  36. Postphenomenological Investigations of Technological Experience.Arun Kumar Tripathi - 2015 - AI and Society 30 (2):199-205.
  37. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies.Tim Mulgan - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly:pqv034.
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  38. The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines.James J. Sheehan & Morton Sosna (eds.) - 1991 - University of California Press.
    To the age-old debate over what it means to be human, the relatively new fields of sociobiology and artificial intelligence bring new, if not necessarily compatible, insights. What have these two fields in common? Have they affected the way we define humanity? These and other timely questions are addressed with colorful individuality by the authors of _The Boundaries of Humanity_. Leading researchers in both sociobiology and artificial intelligence combine their reflections with those of philosophers, historians, and social scientists, while the (...)
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  39. Commentary On: Douglas Walton and Thomas F. Gordon's "How to Formalize Informal Logic".Marcin Koszowy & Marcin Selinger - 2013 - Virtues of Argumentation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA), 22-26 May 2013, Windsor:1-7.
  40. Compiled Labelled Deductive Systems a Uniform Presentation of Non-Classical Logics.Krysia Broda - 2004 - Hertfordshire: Institute of Physics/Research Studies Press.
    K. Broda, Dov M. Gabbay, Alessandra Russo and LuÍs C. Lamb argue that though the many families of logic may seem to differ in their logical nature, it is possible to provide them with a unifying logical framework whenever their semantics is axiomatizable in first-order logic. They provide such a framework based on the labeled deductive system methodology, and demonstrate how it works in such families as normal modal logics, conditional logics of normality, the modal logic of elsewhere, the multiplicative (...)
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  41. Parsing the Singularity.Burton Voorhees - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7-8):138-140.
  42. Terrible Angels The Singularity And Science Fiction.Damien Broderick - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):20-41.
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  43. Leakproofing the Singularity Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem.Roman Yampolskiy - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):194-214.
    This paper attempts to formalize and to address the 'leakproofing' of the Singularity problem presented by David Chalmers. The paper begins with the definition of the Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem. After analysis of existing solutions and their shortcomings, a protocol is proposed aimed at making a more secure confinement environment which might delay potential negative effect from the technological singularity while allowing humanity to benefit from the superintelligence.
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  44. When Technology Wounds: The Human Consequences of Progress.Chellis Glendinning - 1992 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 23 (1):199-200.
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  45. What Kind of Revolution Do You Want? Punk, the Contemporary Left, and Singularity.Reiichi Miura - 2010 - Mediations 25 (1).
    What does punk have to do with Empire? What does singularity have to do with identity? What does the logic of rock ‘n’ roll aesthetics have to do with a politics of representation? What does the concept of the multitude have to do with neoliberalism? The answer to all these questions, argues Reiichi Miura, is a lot more than you might think.
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  46. Singularity and Other Possibilities: Panenmentalist Novelties.Amihud Gilead - 2003 - Rodopi.
    This book elaborates the author's original metaphysics, panenmentalism, focusing on novel aspects of the singularity of any person. Among these aspects, integrated in a systematic view, are: love and singularity; private, intersubjective, and public accessibility; multiple personality; freedom of will; akrasia; a way out of the empiricist-rationalist conundrum; the possibility of God; and some major moral questions.
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  47. We Are a Cyborg.Nathaniel A. Rivers - 2006 - Semiotics:345-355.
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  48. A. H. Eden, J. H. Moor, J. H. Søraker and E. Steinhart : Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, Ix + 441, $79.95, ISBN: 978-3-642-32559-5. [REVIEW]Akop P. Nazaretyan - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):245-248.
    Generals always prepare for the last war.—Winston ChurchillYet in the 18th century, European thinkers noticed that social transformations had been accelerating for several thousand years; subsequent historical knowledge has made this observation more graphic and global. How long can the acceleration regime continue? In 1958, John von Neumann used the mathematical ‘singularity’ concept apropos of this subject, and the sonorous term was soon accepted in the humanities.The conceptual intrigue has become still more fascinating since a series of independent calculations demonstrated (...)
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  49. The Tension Between Human and Cyborg Ethics.Anne Gerdes - 2011 - International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education 1 (1):25-35.
    This article makes no argument against progress but stresses the importance of making it with foresight. The connection between biotechnology, treatment, and enhancement is discussed, stating the need for regulation. Next, the ideas of transhumanism are presented as a framework for an examination of our human condition and it is illustrated that cyborgs will possibly develop other values than Homo sapiens. Thus, the second part of the article discusses what it means to be an ethical being from the perspective of (...)
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  50. The Trick of Singularity.Nick Millett - 1997 - Theory, Culture and Society 14 (2):51-66.
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