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  1. Consequences of Unexplainable Machine Learning for the Notions of a Trusted Doctor and Patient Autonomy.Michal Klincewicz & Lily Frank - 2020 - Proceedings of the 2nd EXplainable AI in Law Workshop (XAILA 2019) Co-Located with 32nd International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2019).
    This paper provides an analysis of the way in which two foundational principles of medical ethics–the trusted doctor and patient autonomy–can be undermined by the use of machine learning (ML) algorithms and addresses its legal significance. This paper can be a guide to both health care providers and other stakeholders about how to anticipate and in some cases mitigate ethical conflicts caused by the use of ML in healthcare. It can also be read as a road map as to what (...)
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  2. AI Extenders and the Ethics of Mental Health.Karina Vold & Jose Hernandez-Orallo - forthcoming - In Marcello Ienca & Fabrice Jotterand (eds.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Brain and Mental Health.
    The extended mind thesis maintains that the functional contributions of tools and artefacts can become so essential for our cognition that they can be constitutive parts of our minds. In other words, our tools can be on a par with our brains: our minds and cognitive processes can literally ‘extend’ into the tools. Several extended mind theorists have argued that this ‘extended’ view of the mind offers unique insights into how we understand, assess, and treat certain cognitive conditions. In this (...)
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  3. Artificial Intelligence: Philosophical and Epistemological Perspectives.Pierre Livet & Franck Varenne - 2020 - In H. Prade, Papini O. & Marquis P. (eds.), A Guided Tour of Artificial Intelligence Research. pp. 437-455.
    Research in artificial intelligence (AI) has led to revise the challenges of the AI initial programme as well as to keep us alert to peculiarities and limitations of human cognition. Both are linked, as a careful further reading of the Turing’s test makes it clear from Searle’s Chinese room apologue and from Dreyfus’ suggestions, and in both cases, ideal had to be turned into operating mode. In order to rise these more pragmatic challenges AI does not hesitate to link together (...)
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  4. Artificial Economics.Paul Smart - 2020 - In Timothy Shanahan & Paul R. Smart (eds.), Blade Runner 2049: A Philosophical Exploration. Abingdon, UK: pp. 185–205.
  5. Deepfakes and the Epistemic Backstop.Regina Rini - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (24):1-16.
    Deepfake technology uses machine learning to fabricate video and audio recordings that represent people doing and saying things they've never done. In coming years, malicious actors will likely use this technology in attempts to manipulate public discourse. This paper prepares for that danger by explicating the unappreciated way in which recordings have so far provided an epistemic backstop to our testimonial practices. Our reasonable trust in the testimony of others depends, to a surprising extent, on the regulative effects of the (...)
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  6. Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies.Antonio Lieto - 2015 - Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII):38-44.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an important topic of investigation in (...)
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  7. Legal Fictions and the Essence of Robots: Thoughts on Essentialism and Pragmatism in the Regulation of Robotics.Fabio Fossa - 2018 - In Mark Coeckelbergh, Janina Loh, Michael Funk, Joanna Seibt & Marco Nørskov (eds.), Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and, Public Space. Amsterdam: pp. 103-111.
    The purpose of this paper is to offer some critical remarks on the so-called pragmatist approach to the regulation of robotics. To this end, the article mainly reviews the work of Jack Balkin and Joanna Bryson, who have taken up such ap- proach with interestingly similar outcomes. Moreover, special attention will be paid to the discussion concerning the legal fiction of ‘electronic personality’. This will help shed light on the opposition between essentialist and pragmatist methodologies. After a brief introduction (1.), (...)
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  8. Making Metaethics Work for AI: Realism and Anti-Realism.Michal Klincewicz & Lily E. Frank - 2018 - In Mark Coeckelbergh, M. Loh, J. Funk, M. Seibt & J. Nørskov (eds.), Envisioning Robots in Society – Power, Politics, and Public Space. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press. pp. 311-318.
    Engineering an artificial intelligence to play an advisory role in morally charged decision making will inevitably introduce meta-ethical positions into the design. Some of these positions, by informing the design and operation of the AI, will introduce risks. This paper offers an analysis of these potential risks along the realism/anti-realism dimension in metaethics and reveals that realism poses greater risks, but, on the other hand, anti-realism undermines the motivation for engineering a moral AI in the first place.
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  9. Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2017 - Berlin: Springer.
    This book reports on the results of the third edition of the premier conference in the field of philosophy of artificial intelligence, PT-AI 2017, held on November 4 - 5, 2017 at the University of Leeds, UK. It covers: advanced knowledge on key AI concepts, including complexity, computation, creativity, embodiment, representation and superintelligence; cutting-edge ethical issues, such as the AI impact on human dignity and society, responsibilities and rights of machines, as well as AI threats to humanity and AI safety; (...)
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  10. Love and Realism.Pieter Lemmens - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (2):305-310.
    In this reply I try to show that, contrary to Milberry’s apparent assertion, the general intellect of the multitude does not have the explanatory robustness she accredits to it. Digital network technologies are currently overwhelmingly effective in proletarianizing and disempowering the cognitariat and only an active technopolitics of deproletarianization could reverse this hegemonic situation. In my response to Verbeek, I attempt to correct his misinterpretation of the Stieglerian approach as being dialectical in nature and show that, far from reinstating the (...)
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  11. Ethics in Times of Posthumanism.Galit Wellner - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (2):329-332.
    This commentary is an attempt to rethink the ethics of taking care in posthumanist times. It is an effort to combine ethics, posthumanism and psychological theories. I examine how the psychological notion of long-term well-being can serve as an ethical yardstick and how it can be relevant to non-humans.
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  12. Virtual Futures: Cyberotics, Technology and Posthuman Pragmatism.Joan Broadhurst Dixon & Eric Cassidy (eds.) - 1998 - Routledge.
    _Virtual Futures_ explores the ideas that the future lies in its ability to articulate the consequences of an increasingly synthetic and virtual world. New technologies like cyberspace, the internet, and Chaos theory are often discussed in the context of technology and its potential to liberate or in terms of technophobia. This collection examines both these ideas while also charting a new and controversial route through contemporary discourses on technology; a path that discusses the material evolution and the erotic relation between (...)
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  13. Postphenomenological Investigations of Technological Experience.Arun Kumar Tripathi - 2015 - AI and Society 30 (2):199-205.
  14. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies.Tim Mulgan - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly:pqv034.
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  15. The Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines.James J. Sheehan & Morton Sosna (eds.) - 1991 - University of California Press.
    To the age-old debate over what it means to be human, the relatively new fields of sociobiology and artificial intelligence bring new, if not necessarily compatible, insights. What have these two fields in common? Have they affected the way we define humanity? These and other timely questions are addressed with colorful individuality by the authors of _The Boundaries of Humanity_. Leading researchers in both sociobiology and artificial intelligence combine their reflections with those of philosophers, historians, and social scientists, while the (...)
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  16. Commentary On: Douglas Walton and Thomas F. Gordon's "How to Formalize Informal Logic".Marcin Koszowy & Marcin Selinger - 2013 - Virtues of Argumentation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA), 22-26 May 2013, Windsor:1-7.
  17. Compiled Labelled Deductive Systems a Uniform Presentation of Non-Classical Logics.Krysia Broda, Dov Gabbay, Luis Lamb & Alessandra Russo - 2004 - Hertfordshire: Institute of Physics/Research Studies Press.
    K. Broda, Dov M. Gabbay, Alessandra Russo (all computing or computer science, Imperial College, London) and LuÍs C. Lamb (Informatics, UFRGS, Brazil) argue that though the many families of logic may seem to differ in their logical nature, it is possible to provide them with a unifying logical framework whenever their semantics is axiomatizable in first-order logic. They provide such a framework based on the labeled deductive system methodology, and demonstrate how it works in such families as normal modal logics, (...)
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  18. Parsing the Singularity.Burton Voorhees - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7-8):138-140.
  19. Terrible Angels The Singularity And Science Fiction.Damien Broderick - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):20-41.
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  20. Leakproofing the Singularity Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem.Roman Yampolskiy - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):194-214.
    This paper attempts to formalize and to address the 'leakproofing' of the Singularity problem presented by David Chalmers. The paper begins with the definition of the Artificial Intelligence Confinement Problem. After analysis of existing solutions and their shortcomings, a protocol is proposed aimed at making a more secure confinement environment which might delay potential negative effect from the technological singularity while allowing humanity to benefit from the superintelligence.
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  21. When Technology Wounds: The Human Consequences of Progress.Chellis Glendinning - 1992 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 23 (1):199-200.
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  22. What Kind of Revolution Do You Want? Punk, the Contemporary Left, and Singularity.Reiichi Miura - 2010 - Mediations 25 (1).
    What does punk have to do with Empire? What does singularity have to do with identity? What does the logic of rock ‘n’ roll aesthetics have to do with a politics of representation? What does the concept of the multitude have to do with neoliberalism? The answer to all these questions, argues Reiichi Miura, is a lot more than you might think.
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  23. Singularity and Other Possibilities: Panenmentalist Novelties.Amihud Gilead - 2003 - Rodopi.
    This book elaborates the author's original metaphysics, panenmentalism, focusing on novel aspects of the singularity of any person. Among these aspects, integrated in a systematic view, are: love and singularity; private, intersubjective, and public accessibility; multiple personality; freedom of will; akrasia; a way out of the empiricist-rationalist conundrum; the possibility of God; and some major moral questions.
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  24. We Are a Cyborg.Nathaniel A. Rivers - 2006 - Semiotics:345-355.
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  25. A. H. Eden, J. H. Moor, J. H. Søraker and E. Steinhart : Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, Ix + 441, $79.95, ISBN: 978-3-642-32559-5. [REVIEW]Akop P. Nazaretyan - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):245-248.
    Generals always prepare for the last war.—Winston ChurchillYet in the 18th century, European thinkers noticed that social transformations had been accelerating for several thousand years; subsequent historical knowledge has made this observation more graphic and global. How long can the acceleration regime continue? In 1958, John von Neumann used the mathematical ‘singularity’ concept apropos of this subject, and the sonorous term was soon accepted in the humanities.The conceptual intrigue has become still more fascinating since a series of independent calculations demonstrated (...)
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  26. The Tension Between Human and Cyborg Ethics.Anne Gerdes - 2011 - International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education 1 (1):25-35.
    This article makes no argument against progress but stresses the importance of making it with foresight. The connection between biotechnology, treatment, and enhancement is discussed, stating the need for regulation. Next, the ideas of transhumanism are presented as a framework for an examination of our human condition and it is illustrated that cyborgs will possibly develop other values than Homo sapiens. Thus, the second part of the article discusses what it means to be an ethical being from the perspective of (...)
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  27. The Trick of Singularity.N. Millett - 1997 - Theory, Culture and Society 14 (2):51-66.
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  28. Unfinished Work.N. K. Hayles - 2006 - Theory, Culture and Society 23 (7-8):159-166.
    The cyborg that Donna Haraway appropriated in ‘Manifesto for Cyborgs’ as a metaphor for political action and theoretical inquiry has ceased to have the potency it did 20 years ago. While Haraway has turned from a central focus on technoculture to companion species, much important cultural work remains to be done, especially in networked and programmable media. Problems with the cyborg as a metaphor include the implication that the liberal humanist subject, however problematized by its hybridization with cybernetic mechanism, continues (...)
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  29. Our Posthuman Future: Discussing the Consequences of Biotechnological Advances.Susan Squier & Catherine Waldby - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (4):4.
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  30. Our Posthuman Future: Discussing the Consequences of Biotechnological Advances-To the Editor.A. Silvers - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (6):4-5.
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  31. Our Posthuman Future: Discussing the Consequences of Biotechnological Advances-To the Editor.L. S. Cahill - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (6):5-6.
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  32. Has the Cyborg Been Domesticated?(Or, is Lolo a Disappointing Cyborg?).A. McKenzie - 2004 - Metascience 13 (2):139-148.
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  33. Singularity and Degrees of Embodiment.Paul Cortois - 1999 - Ideas Y Valores 48 (109):3-28.
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  34. Cyborg Teaching.Gill Kirkup - 2001 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 31 (4):23-32.
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  35. On Astrophysics and Superhuman Performance.D. B. Lenat - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):109-110.
  36. Become-Cyborg!Jamie Brassett - 1997 - In .
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  37. Prosthetic Gods: The Posthuman Threat of Self-Service Technology.Thomas B. Cavanagh - 2008 - Interaction Studies 9 (3):458-480.
    Computer-facilitated self-service technologies have become ubiquitous in today’s consumer-focused world. Yet, few human–computer interactions elicit such dramatically polarizing emotional reactions from users as those involving SSTs. ATMs, pay-at-the-pump gas stations, and self-scanning retail registers tend to produce both passionate supporters and critics. While negative comments often center on unpleasant personal user experiences, the actual “abuse” related to such systems is really much deeper and more complex. SSTs carry with them a number of potentially insidious consequences, including the exploitation of consumers (...)
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  38. Satori Before Singularity.Murray Shanahan - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7-8):7-8.
    According to the singularity hypothesis, rapid and accelerating technological progress will in due course lead to the creation of a human-level artificial intelligence capable of designing a successor artificial intelligence of significantly greater cognitive prowess, and this will inaugurate a series of increasingly super-intelligent machines. But how much sense can we make of the idea of a being whose cognitive architecture is qualitatively superior to our own? This article argues that one fundamental limitation of human cognitive architecture is an inbuilt (...)
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  39. Visker, Rudi. Truth and Singularity: Taking Foucault Into Phenomenology.Erich P. Schellhammer - 2002 - Review of Metaphysics 55 (3):654-656.
  40. Technology and Culture and Possibly Vigilance Too.C. T. A. Schmidt - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):371-375.
    Many have bowed before the recently acquired powers of ‘new technologies’. However, in the shift from tekhnē to tekhnologia, it seems we have lost human values. These values are communicative in nature as technological progress has placed barriers like distance, web pages and ‘miscellaneous extras’ between individuals. Certain values, like the interpersonal pleasures of rendering service, have been lost as their domain of predilection has for many become fully commercially oriented, dominated by the cadence of profitability. Though the popular cultures (...)
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  41. Human, Subhuman, Superhuman.Peter Hallward - unknown
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  42. Reconstructing Human-Centred Technology: Lessons From the Hollywood Dream Factory. [REVIEW]J. Martin Corbett - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (3):214-230.
    A post-modernist analysis of human-centred technology (HCT) suggests the ideology which informs the theoretical and practical development of HCT resonates with ideological representations of machine intelligence portrayed in science fiction (sf) films. It is argued that such an ideology reflects and reinforces ontological dualisms which constrain our ability to imagine and realise our future relations with technology. This paper invites proponents of HCT to meet their shadows, to transgress, the cultural and discursive borders constructed in the name of modernism, and (...)
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  43. The New World of Human Genetic Technologies: The Policy Environment and Impacts of Genetic Screening Tests. [REVIEW]Jose Sanmart�N. - 1995 - AI and Society 9 (1):105-114.
    Today it is possible to screen for mutated DNA sequences which do not induce any diseases but predispose to develop diseases under certain environmental condition. These latter disorders are called multifactorial since they result from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Among multifactorial disorders there are job-related diseases whose genetic component can be identified by genetic screening tests. The use of these tests to predict occupational disorders, to cut down on them, and to save costs—in particular for absenteeism, health (...)
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  44. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution (Review).Michael Kazin - 2004 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (1):151-152.
  45. Metal and Flesh, And: Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer (Review).Derrick de Kerckhove - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (3):454-456.
  46. RhizomANTically Becoming‐Cyborg: Performing Posthuman Pedagogies.Noel Gough - 2004 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 36 (3):253–265.
  47. Aging: I Don’T Want to Be a Cyborg! [REVIEW]Don Ihde - 2008 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):397-404.
    Examination is made of a range of cyborg solutions to bodily problems due to damage, but here with particular reference to aging. Both technological and animal implants, transplants and prosthetic devices are phenomenologically analyzed. The resultant trade-off phenomena are compared to popular culture technofantasies and desires and finally to human attitudes toward mortality and contingency. The parallelism of resistance to contingent existence and to becoming a cyborg is noted.
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Artificial Intelligence Safety
  1. On the Logical Impossibility of Solving the Control Problem.Caleb Rudnick - manuscript
    In the philosophy of artificial intelligence (AI) we are often warned of machines built with the best possible intentions, killing everyone on the planet and in some cases, everything in our light cone. At the same time, however, we are also told of the utopian worlds that could be created with just a single superintelligent mind. If we’re ever to live in that utopia (or just avoid dystopia) it’s necessary we solve the control problem. The control problem asks how humans (...)
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  2. Good AI for the Present of Humanity.Nicholas Kluge Corrêa - manuscript
    There is a link between critical theory and some genres of literature that may be of interest to the current debate on AI ethics. While critical theory generally points out certain deficiencies in the present to criticize it, futurology, and literary genres such as Cyber-punk, extrapolate our current condition into possible dystopian futures to criticize the status quo. Given the advance of the AI industry in recent years, an increasing number of ethical matters have been pointed and debated, and we (...)
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  3. Modelos Dinâmicos Aplicados à Aprendizagem de Valores em Inteligência Artificial.Nicholas Kluge Corrêa & Nythamar De Oliveira - 2020 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 2 (65):1-15.
    Experts in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development predict that advances in the development of intelligent systems and agents will reshape vital areas in our society. Nevertheless, if such an advance is not made prudently and critically-reflexively, it can result in negative outcomes for humanity. For this reason, several researchers in the area have developed a robust, beneficial, and safe concept of AI for the preservation of humanity and the environment. Currently, several of the open problems in the field of AI research (...)
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