About this topic
Summary Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of science and mathematics who spent the latter part of his career working in Britain, where he held a position at the London School of Economics.  He is best-known in the philosophy of science for his proposal of a methodology of scientific research programmes, which is in some respects an attempt to form a synthesis of Karl Popper's falsificationism and Thomas Kuhn's model of scientific theory change.  According to Lakatos, scientists work in research programmes which contain an inviolable hard core of laws and a revisable protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses.  Research programmes may be appraised on the basis of whether they make progress.  A programme is said to be progressive if it is both theoretically and empirically progressive.  A programme is theoretically progressive if a stage in the research programme leads to at least one novel prediction, and empirically progressive if at least some of its novel predictions are confirmed.  Scientists are able to rationally choose between competing research programmes by determining whether a programme is progressive.  Programmes which fail to be progressive are degenerative or stagnating and are to be rejected.
Key works The classic statement of Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programmes is 'Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes'.  For Lakatos's proposals on how to employ the history of science to evaluate theories of scientific method, see his 'History of Science and its Rational Reconstructions'.  These and other papers by Lakatos are most easily found in his collected papers The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes and Mathematics, Science and Epistemology.  Lakatos's best-known work in the philosophy of mathematics is Proofs and Refutations.  In Progress and its Problems, Larry Laudan suggests that hard cores should be taken to be subject to modification, rather than being treated as inviolable.  In Against Method, Feyerabend argues that Lakatos's methodology is "anarchism in disguise", since it does not tell scientists that they must abandon a degenerating in favor of a progressive research programme.  This issue is discussed at length in Alan Musgrave's paper, 'Method or Madness'.
Introductions See chapter nine of Alan Chalmers' What is this thing called science?.  See also Brendan Larvor's book Lakatos: An Introduction
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  1. An Oblique Epistemic Defence of Conceptual Analysis.Alexander S. Harper - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):235-256.
    This article argues, against contemporary experimentalist criticism, that conceptual analysis has epistemic value, with a structure that encourages the development of interesting hypotheses which are of the right form to be valuable in diverse areas of philosophy. The article shows, by analysis of the Gettier programme, that conceptual analysis shares the proofs and refutations form Lakatos identified in mathematics. Upon discovery of a counterexample, this structure aids the search for a replacement hypothesis. The search is guided by heuristics. The heuristics (...)
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  2. Imre Lakatos: A Critical Appraisal.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Imre Lakatos holds a well-deserved primary place in current philosophy of science. In this essay, Leslie Allan critically examines Lakatos' theory of knowledge in two key areas. The first area of consideration is Lakatos' notion that knowledge is gained through a process of competition between rival scientific research programmes. Allan identifies and discusses four problems with Lakatos' characterization of a research programme. Next, Allan considers Lakatos' proposed test of adequacy for theories of rationality using his methodology of historiographical research programmes. (...)
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  3. El sentido lógico de la refutabilidad.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    According to falsificationism, a theory is scientific if it can be incompatible with some empirically testable statements. This epistemological approach has been criticized because, in practice, it is impossible to decide when a particular fact should be considered incompatible with a theory. These criticisms, however, neglect the fact that the Popperian sense of falsification is a “logical sense.” Thus, the Popperian criterion of falsifiability only requires that, assuming certain auxiliary hypotheses, the theory in question be logically incompatible with some empirically (...)
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  4. The Evolution of the Individual.Peter Godfrey-Smith - manuscript
    Sometimes themes can be found in common across very different systems in which change occurs. Imre Lakatos developed a theory of change in science, and one involving entities visible at different levels. There are theories defended at a particular time, and there are also research programs, larger units that bundle together a sequence of related theories and within which many scientists may work. Research programs are competing higher-level units within a scientific field. Scientific change involves change within research programs, and (...)
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  5. Imre Lakatos, Preuves et Réfutations.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Preuves et Réfutations est écrit comme une série de dialogues socratiques entre un groupe d'étudiants discutant de la démonstration des caractéristiques d'Euler définies pour les polyèdres. Le livre explique de nombreuses idées logiques importantes, mettant l'accent sur l'idée d'heuristique positive. Le livre comprend deux annexes. Dans le premier, Lakatos donne des exemples du processus heuristique de la découverte mathématique en particulier et du processus scientifique en général. Deuxièmement, il oppose les approches déductives et heuristiques et propose des analyses heuristiques des (...)
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  6. Extinderea metodologiei programelor de cercetare a lui Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Programele de cercetare permit dezvoltarea unor teorii mai complexe. Termenii pot fi aplicați atât la teorii individuale cât și la programe. În cazul în care se aplică teoriilor din cadrul unui program de cercetare, consider că acestea devin la rândul lor programe de cercetare, pe care le putem numi subprograme de cercetare. Spre deosebire de revoluțiile științifice ale lui Kuhn, Lakatos a presupus că existența simultană a mai multor programe de cercetare este norma. Știința se confruntă în prezent cu o (...)
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  7. Lakatos on Dogmatic Falsificationism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dogmatic (naturalist) falsificationism accepts the falsifiability of all scientific theories without qualification but preserves an infallible empirical basis. He is strictly empiric without being inductivist: he denies the fact that certainty of the empirical basis can be conveyed to theories. Thus, dogmatic falsificationism is the weakest mark of justification. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15196.33927 .
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  8. Lakatos on Justificationism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    According to the scientific "justificationist" method, knowledge consisted of proven sentences. Classical intellectuals (or "rationalists," in the narrow sense of the term) have accepted extremely varied - and powerful "proofs", through revelation, intellectual intuition, experience. These, with the help of logic, have allowed them to prove any kind of scientific statement. Classical empiricists accepted as axioms only a relatively small set of "factual propositions" that expressed "hard facts". The value of their truth has been established by experience and has been (...)
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  9. Imre Lakatos: Euristica și toleranța metodologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Pentru a analiza conceptele de euristica și toleranță metodologică dezvoltate de Lakatos, m-am concentrat pe secțiunea ”Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes”, publicată pentru prima dată ca articol în 1970 și apoi în cartea The methodology of scientific research programmes, Volume I (Lakatos 1978). Am analizat, în acest text, exemplificarea autorului pentru programul de cercetare al emisiei de lumină (în fizica cuantică timpurie) al lui Bohr. O exemplificare detaliată a conceptelor este prezentată de Lakatos în secțiunea ”Newton's effect (...)
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  10. Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology (...)
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  11. La reconstruction rationnelle de la science par le biais des programmes de recherche.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Évaluation: Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, Philosophical papers, volume I, edité par John Worrall et Gregory Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-28031-1, paperback La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique est une collection d'articles publiés au fil du temps, dans laquelle Imre Lakatos exprime une révision radicale du critère de démarcation de Popper entre science et non-science, conduisant à une nouvelle théorie de la rationalité scientifique. -/- Mots-clés: Imre Lakatos, science, méthodologie, programmes de recherche, heuristique -/- (...)
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  12. Imre Lakatos, La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique est une collection d'articles publiés au fil du temps, exprimant une révision radicale du critère de démarcation de Popper entre science et non-science, conduisant à une nouvelle théorie de la rationalité scientifique. Le volume I aborde des aspects de la philosophie des sciences et le volume II contient des travaux sur la philosophie des mathématiques. Pour un historien des sciences, la reconstruction proposée par Lakatos est attrayante et explique l’évolution de la science à (...)
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  13. Falsificaționismul metodologic sofisticat – Toleranța metodologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Lakatos a propus o modificare a criteriului lui Popper pe care l-a numit falsificaționism sofisticat (metodologic). Din această perspectivă, criteriul de delimitare ar trebui să se aplice nu unei ipoteze sau unei teorii izolate, ci mai degrabă unui întreg program de cercetare. În lucrările sale timpurii, Lakatos pare să accepte că după un punct de saturație: respingem teoria, pentru ca ulterior să afirme că, dimpotrivă, nu există un astfel de lucru ca punctul de saturație natural pentru un program de cercetare. (...)
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  14. La tolérance méthodologique de Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Tant qu'un programme de recherche en herbe peut être reconstitué de manière rationnelle en tant que problème progressif, il doit être protégé pendant un certain temps d'un rival puissant existant. Ces considérations, dans leur ensemble, soulignent l’importance de la tolérance méthodologique. Même les fameuses « expériences cruciales » n'auront aucune force pour renverser un programme de recherche. Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche, des « expériences cruciales mineures » entre versions ultérieures sont assez courantes. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17935.53922.
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  15. Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes - An Overview.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The methodology of scientific research programmes is a collection of papers published over time expressing a radical review of Popper's demarcation criterion between science and non-science, leading to a new theory of scientific rationality. Volume I address aspects of the philosophy of science, and volume II contains works on the philosophy of mathematics. For a science historian, the reconstruction proposed by Lakatos is attractive and explains the evolution of science to a level that has not been achieved before. The basic (...)
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  16. Gravitația cuantică – Euristica și teste gravitaționale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În încercarea de dezvoltare a unei teorii solide a gravitației cuantice, au existat mai multe programe de cercetare, dintre care unele au căzut în timp în desuetitudine datorită puterii euristice mai mari a altor programe. Testul primordial al oricărei teorii cuantice a gravitației este reproducerea succeselor relativității generale. Aceasta implică reconstrucția geometriei locale din observabilele nelocale. În plus, gravitația cuantică ar trebui să prezică probabilistic topologia la scară largă a Universului, care în curând poate fi măsurabilă, și fenomene la scala (...)
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  17. Rolul euristicii în metodologia programelor de cercetare a lui Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Euristica este un concept central al filosofiei lui Lakatos. În timp ce euristica în Proofs and Refutations a fost un set de reguli care să ghideze rezolvarea problemelor pentru omul de știință individual, The methodology of scientific research programmes nu oferă niciun sfat euristic oamenilor de știință individuali, dar oferă recomandări pentru comunitatea științifică rațională asupra modului în care ar trebui să acționeze. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31140.63369.
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  18. L'heuristique d'Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'heuristique est un concept central de la philosophie de Lakatos. Selon Lakatos, la méthodologie ne fait plus référence à l'ensemble des règles et stratégies à adopter dans le contexte de la découverte. Seules les heuristiques le font. Mais les principes heuristiques (par opposition aux méthodologiques) ne sont pas objectifs et autonomes, ils sont sujets à changement, de même que les changements dans la science. Les séries de théories scientifiques les plus importantes dans le développement de la science se caractérisent par (...)
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  19. Imre Lakatos : Falsification méthodologique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La falsification méthodologique est une marque du conventionnalisme. Il y a une importante délimitation entre les théories de la connaissance « passives » et « actives ». « Les passivistes prétendent que la vraie connaissance est l'empreinte de la nature sur un esprit parfaitement inerte : l'activité mentale ne peut qu'engendrer des biais et des distorsions. » L'école passiviste la plus influente est l'empirisme classique. « Les activistes » affirment que nous ne pouvons pas lire le livre de la nature (...)
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  20. Reconstrucția rațională a științei prin programe de cercetare.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Recenzie: Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, Philosophical papers, volumul I, editată de John Worrall și Gregory Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-28031-1, paperback Metodologia programelor de cercetare științifică este o colecție de lucrări publicate de-a lungul timpului, în care Imre Lakatos exprimă o revizuire radicală a criteriului de demarcație al lui Popper între știință și neștiință, conducând la o teorie nouă a raționalității științifice.
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  21. A Natural Extension of the Methodology of the Scientific Research Programmes of Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Research programs allow the development of more complex theories. The terms can be applied to both individual theories and programs. Unlike Kuhn's scientific revolutions, Lakatos assumed that the simultaneous existence of several research programs is the norm. Science is currently facing such an unusual situation: two incompatible theories, but both accepted by the scientific community describe the same reality in two different ways. Research programs may at one time compete with single theories, single theories between them, or research programs between (...)
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  22. Le falsificationnisme dogmatique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Le falsificationnisme dogmatique accepte la falsifiabilité de toutes les théories scientifiques sans réserve, mais conserve une base empirique infaillible. Il est strictement empirique sans être inductif : il nie que la certitude de la base empirique puisse être transmise aux théories. Ainsi, le falsificationnisme dogmatique est donc la marque de justification la plus faible. Le signe distinctif de la falsification dogmatique est la reconnaissance du fait que toutes les théories sont également conjecturales. La science ne peut prouver aucune théorie, mais (...)
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  23. Imre Lakatos despre falsificaționismul dogmatic.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Falsificaționismul dogmatic admite falsificabilitatea tuturor teoriilor științifice fără calificare, dar păstrează un fel de bază empirică infailibilă. Este strict empiricist fără a fi inductivist: neagă faptul că certitudinea bazei empirice poate fi transmisă teoriilor. Astfel, falsificabilitatea dogmatică este cea mai slabă marcă a justificării. Semnul distinctiv al falsificării dogmatice este recunoașterea faptului că toate teoriile sunt la fel de conjecturale. Știința nu poate dovedi nicio teorie, dar le poate respinge. Onestitatea științifică constă astfel în aceea de a specifica un experiment (...)
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  24. Extension de la méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique d'Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Lakatos a proposé une méthodologie pour étudier l'évolution de la science par le biais de programmes de recherche, une combinaison de la falsifiabilité de Popper, des révolutions scientifiques de Kuhn et de la tolérance méthodologique de Feyerabend. Les programmes de recherche peuvent en même temps concurrencer des théories uniques, des théories uniques entre eux ou des programmes de recherche entre eux. On peut parler d'une « unité de recherche » en tant que théorie singulière ou d'un programme de recherche. DOI: (...)
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  25. La falsification méthodologique sophistiquée.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Imre Lakatos a proposé une modification du critère de Popper, qu'il a qualifié de « falsification sophistiquée (méthodologique) ». De ce point de vue, le critère de délimitation ne devrait pas s'appliquer à une hypothèse ou à une théorie isolée, mais plutôt à l'ensemble d'un programme de recherche. La falsification méthodologique sophistiquée change le problème du mode d’évaluation théorique en problème de l’évaluation des séries théoriques. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25555.73761.
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  26. Imre Lakatos, Dovezi și refutări.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Proofs and Refutations este scrisă ca o serie de dialoguri socratice între un grup de elevi care dezbat demonstrația caracteristicilor Euler definite pentru poliedre. În carte sunt explicate multe idei logice importante, accentuându-se pe ideea de euristică pozitivă. Cartea include două anexe. În prima, Lakatos dă exemple ale procesului euristic în descoperirea matematică în special și în cea științifică în general. În al doilea rând, el contrastează abordările deductiviste și euristice și oferă analize euristice ale unor concepte de ”dovezi”. DOI: (...)
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  27. Kuhn Vs. Popper by Way of Lakatos and the Cold War.Lawrence Boland - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
    David Hume’s Treatise on Human Nature famously fell `deadborn from the press’ because it was too far ahead of its time. Basu’s book is one of a number published in recent years that suggest we are at last ready to put its precepts into action.1 Modern game theory provides a framework that makes Hume’s insights genuinely applicable, and I totaly agree with Basu that this is not only the right way forward, but that it now looksincreasingly likely that this is (...)
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  28. Um Estudo de Provas e Refutações de Imre Lakatos.Henrique Marins de Carvalho - 2018 - Dissertation, Unifesp, Brazil
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  29. Lakatosian Particularism.Howard Sankey - 2018 - Logos and Episteme (1):49-59.
    This paper explores a particularist element in the theory of method of Imre Lakatos, who appealed to the value-judgements of élite scientists in the appraisal of competing theories of method. The role played by such value-judgements is strongly reminiscent of the epistemological particularism of Roderick Chisholm. Despite the existence of a clear parallel between the particularist approaches of both authors, it is argued that Lakatos’s approach is subject to a weakness that does not affect the approach of Chisholm.
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  30. Internal History Versus External History.Bence Nanay - 2017 - Philosophy 92 (2):207-230.
    The aim of this paper is to generalize a pair of concepts that are widely used in the history of science, in art history and in historical linguistics – the concept of internal and external history – and to replace the often very vague talk of ‘historical narratives’ with this conceptual framework of internal versus external history. I argue that this way of framing the problem allows us to see the possible alternatives more clearly – as a limited number of (...)
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  31. What Did Popper Learn From Lakatos?Bence Nanay - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (6):1202-1215.
    The canonical version of the history of twentieth century philosophy of science tells us that Lakatos was Popper’s disciple, but it is rarely mentioned that Popper would have learned anything from Lakatos. The aim of this paper is to examine Lakatos’ influence on Popper’s philosophical system and to argue that Lakatos did have an important, yet somewhat unexpected, impact on Popper’s thinking: he influenced Popper’s evolutionary model for ‘progress’ in science. And Lakatos’ influence sheds new light on why and how (...)
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  32. Prediction and Novel Facts in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs.Wenceslao J. Gonzalez - 2015 - In Philosophico-Methodological Analysis of Prediction and its Role in Economics. Springer Verlag. pp. 103-124.
    In the methodology of scientific research programs (MSRP) there are important features on the problem of prediction, especially regarding novel facts. In his approach, Imre Lakatos proposed three different levels on prediction: aim, process, and assessment. Chapter 5 pays attention to the characterization of prediction in the methodology of research programs. Thus, it takes into account several features: (1) its pragmatic characterization, (2) the logical perspective as a proposition, (3) the epistemological component, (4) its role in the appraisal of research (...)
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  33. Alasdair MacIntyre's Analysis of Tradition.Tom Angier - 2014 - European Journal of Philosophy 22 (4):540-572.
    I argue that, in analysing the structure and development of moral traditions, MacIntyre relies primarily on Kuhn's model of scientific tradition, rather than on Lakatos' model. I unpack three foci of Kuhn's conception of the sciences, namely: the ‘crisis’ conception of scientific development, what I call the ‘systematic conception’ of scientific paradigms, and the view that successive paradigms are incommensurable. I then show that these three foci are integrated into MacIntyre's account of the development of moral traditions with a surprising (...)
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  34. Should Philosophers of Mathematics Make Use of Sociology?Donald Gillies - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):12-34.
    This paper considers whether philosophy of mathematics could benefit by the introduction of some sociology. It begins by considering Lakatos's arguments that philosophy of science should be kept free of any sociology. An attempt is made to criticize these arguments, and then a positive argument is given for introducing a sociological dimension into the philosophy of mathematics. This argument is illustrated by considering Brouwer's account of numbers as mental constructions. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of Azzouni's view that (...)
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  35. The Evolution of Lakatos’s Repercussion on the Methodology of Economics.Wenceslao J. Gonzalez - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (1):1-25.
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  36. Methodological Issues in Science Education Research: A Perspective From the Philosophy of Science.Keith S. Taber - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1839-1893.
    This chapter offers an overview of methodological issues within science education research and considers the extent to which this area of scholarship can be understood to (actually and potentially) be scientific. The chapter considers the nature of education and educational research, how methodological issues are discussed in educational research and the range of major methodological strategies commonly used. It is suggested that the way research is discussed, undertaken and reported seems quite different in science education from research in the natural (...)
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  37. A Computational Model Of Lakatos-Style Reasoning.Alison Pease - 2013 - Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal 27.
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  38. Reasoning About Representations in Autonomous Systems: What Pόlya and Lakatos Have to Say.Alan Bundy - 2012 - In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 167.
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  39. Historical Approaches: Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend.Martin Carrier - 2012 - In James R. Brown (ed.), Philosophy of Science: The Key Thinkers. Continuum Books. pp. 132.
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  40. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century.Bijoy Mukherjee - 2012 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 2 (1):171-198.
    Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate (...)
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  41. Kuhn, Normativity and History and Philosophy of Science.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Epistemologia:103-111.
    This paper addresses the relationship between the history and philosophy of science by way of the issue of epistemic normativity. After brief discussion of the relationship between history and philosophy of science in Kuhn’s own thinking, the paper focuses on the implications of the history of science for epistemic normativity. There may be historical evidence for change of scientific methodology, which may seem to support a position of epistemic relativism. However, the fact that the methods of science undergo variation does (...)
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  42. De la historia natural a la biología evolucionista. Aplicación Del moDelo de Lakatos.María Elena Bernal & Elmer Castaño Ramírez - 2011 - Ludus Vitalis 19 (36):1-27.
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  43. Una valoración de la metodología de Imre Lakatos desde la práctica científica contemporánea.Ernesto Fabbricatore - 2011 - Laguna 29:9-24.
    El artículo pretende analizar la metodología de los programas de investigación de Imre Lakatos a la luz de la ciencia contemporánea. Tomando como base las encuestas realizadas a un grupo de físicos del CERN, se constata que las sugerencias de Lakatos sobre el progreso en la ciencia, esto es, sobre cómo determinar el carácter progresivo o no de un programa de investigación, entran en colisión con la práctica cientí? ca. La conclusión es que el modelo lakatosiano no es un marco (...)
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  44. Virtually Science: An Agent-Based Model of the Rise and Fall of Scientific Research Programs.Daniel Farhat - 2011 - Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (4):363-385.
    Is there more to? good science? than explaining novel facts? Social interaction within scientific communities plays a pivotal role in defining acceptable research practices. This article explores the connection between research outcomes and the socio-cultural environment they are constructed in by developing an agent-based computational model of scientific communities. Agent-to-agent interaction is added to a system of knowledge production inspired by the work of Lakatos on scientific research programs as an important factor guiding the actions of researchers. Simulation results show (...)
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  45. Science, Metaphysics, and Scientific Realism.Jerzy Gołosz - 2011 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):27-45.
    The paper can be logically divided into two parts. In the first part I distinguish two kinds of metaphysics: basic metaphysics, which affects scientific theories, and a second kind, which is an effect of interpretations of these theories. I try to show the strong mutual relations between metaphysics and science and to point out that the basic metaphysics of science is based on realistic assumptions. In the second part of my paper I suggest that we should consider the basic metaphysics (...)
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  46. Five Theories of Reasoning: Interconnections and Applications to Mathematics.Alison Pease & Andrew Aberdein - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):7-57.
    The last century has seen many disciplines place a greater priority on understanding how people reason in a particular domain, and several illuminating theories of informal logic and argumentation have been developed. Perhaps owing to their diverse backgrounds, there are several connections and overlapping ideas between the theories, which appear to have been overlooked. We focus on Peirce’s development of abductive reasoning [39], Toulmin’s argumentation layout [52], Lakatos’s theory of reasoning in mathematics [23], Pollock’s notions of counterexample [44], and argumentation (...)
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  47. Defeasible Reasoning + Partial Models: A Formal Framework for the Methodology of Research Programs. [REVIEW]Fernando Tohmé, Claudio Delrieux & Otávio Bueno - 2011 - Foundations of Science 16 (1):47-65.
    In this paper we show that any reasoning process in which conclusions can be both fallible and corrigible can be formalized in terms of two approaches: (i) syntactically, with the use of defeasible reasoning, according to which reasoning consists in the construction and assessment of arguments for and against a given claim, and (ii) semantically, with the use of partial structures, which allow for the representation of less than conclusive information. We are particularly interested in the formalization of scientific reasoning, (...)
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  48. Nauka normalna, nauka globalna, fakty instytucjonalne jako cel nauki.Jerzy Bobryk - 2010 - Filozofia Nauki 18 (3).
    The paper describes the theory of mirror neurons system and reminds selected empirical researches made in its context. Author evaluates the theory from the theo-retical and methodological point of view. The background of undertaken analysis and evaluation is Lakatos' and Kuhn's methodology and philosophy of science.
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  49. Is Popper’s ‘Criterion of Demarcation’ Outmoded?Sebastian Boţic - 2010 - Cultura 7 (1):41-53.
    This paper is concerned with the ′criterion of demarcation′ that Karl Popper put forward, while trying to show that it can be safely said that it is still standing. In doing so, I turn to two main objections to it: a Lakatos-Kuhn vision on the growth of science, and the famous Quine-Duhem thesis. The point that I hopefully made here is that the basic message of this prescriptive method is as respectful as ever, and, although not the subject of this (...)
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  50. On the Determination of Planetary Distances in the Ptolemaic System.Christián C. Carman - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):257-265.
    In 1975, Imre Lakatos and Elie Zahar claimed that the determination of planetary distances represents excess empirical content of Copernicus's theory over that of Ptolemy. This claim provoked an interesting discussion during the first half of the 1980s. The discussion started when Alan Chalmers affirmed that it is not correct to attribute this advantage to the Copernican system over the Ptolemaic. Other scholars criticized Chalmers's assertion, reaffirming the position of Lakatos and Zahar: one went even further, asserting that Copernicus has (...)
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