About this topic
Summary Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of science and mathematics who spent the latter part of his career working in Britain, where he held a position at the London School of Economics.  He is best-known in the philosophy of science for his proposal of a methodology of scientific research programmes, which is in some respects an attempt to form a synthesis of Karl Popper's falsificationism and Thomas Kuhn's model of scientific theory change.  According to Lakatos, scientists work in research programmes which contain an inviolable hard core of laws and a revisable protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses.  Research programmes may be appraised on the basis of whether they make progress.  A programme is said to be progressive if it is both theoretically and empirically progressive.  A programme is theoretically progressive if a stage in the research programme leads to at least one novel prediction, and empirically progressive if at least some of its novel predictions are confirmed.  Scientists are able to rationally choose between competing research programmes by determining whether a programme is progressive.  Programmes which fail to be progressive are degenerative or stagnating and are to be rejected.
Key works The classic statement of Lakatos's methodology of scientific research programmes is 'Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes'.  For Lakatos's proposals on how to employ the history of science to evaluate theories of scientific method, see his 'History of Science and its Rational Reconstructions'.  These and other papers by Lakatos are most easily found in his collected papers The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes and Mathematics, Science and Epistemology.  Lakatos's best-known work in the philosophy of mathematics is Proofs and Refutations.  In Progress and its Problems, Larry Laudan suggests that hard cores should be taken to be subject to modification, rather than being treated as inviolable.  In Against Method, Feyerabend argues that Lakatos's methodology is "anarchism in disguise", since it does not tell scientists that they must abandon a degenerating in favor of a progressive research programme.  This issue is discussed at length in Alan Musgrave's paper, 'Method or Madness'.
Introductions See chapter nine of Alan Chalmers' What is this thing called science?.  See also Brendan Larvor's book Lakatos: An Introduction
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  1. added 2020-04-30
    L'heuristique d'Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'heuristique est un concept central de la philosophie de Lakatos. Selon Lakatos, la méthodologie ne fait plus référence à l'ensemble des règles et stratégies à adopter dans le contexte de la découverte. Seules les heuristiques le font. Mais les principes heuristiques (par opposition aux méthodologiques) ne sont pas objectifs et autonomes, ils sont sujets à changement, de même que les changements dans la science. Les séries de théories scientifiques les plus importantes dans le développement de la science se caractérisent par (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-28
    Extension de la méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique d'Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Lakatos a proposé une méthodologie pour étudier l'évolution de la science par le biais de programmes de recherche, une combinaison de la falsifiabilité de Popper, des révolutions scientifiques de Kuhn et de la tolérance méthodologique de Feyerabend. Les programmes de recherche peuvent en même temps concurrencer des théories uniques, des théories uniques entre eux ou des programmes de recherche entre eux. On peut parler d'une « unité de recherche » en tant que théorie singulière ou d'un programme de recherche. DOI: (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-01
    La tolérance méthodologique de Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Tant qu'un programme de recherche en herbe peut être reconstitué de manière rationnelle en tant que problème progressif, il doit être protégé pendant un certain temps d'un rival puissant existant. Ces considérations, dans leur ensemble, soulignent l’importance de la tolérance méthodologique. Même les fameuses « expériences cruciales » n'auront aucune force pour renverser un programme de recherche. Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche, des « expériences cruciales mineures » entre versions ultérieures sont assez courantes. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17935.53922.
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  4. added 2020-03-29
    Um Estudo de Provas e Refutações de Imre Lakatos.Henrique Marins de Carvalho - 2018 - Dissertation, Unifesp, Brazil
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  5. added 2020-03-15
    La falsification méthodologique sophistiquée.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Imre Lakatos a proposé une modification du critère de Popper, qu'il a qualifié de « falsification sophistiquée (méthodologique) ». De ce point de vue, le critère de délimitation ne devrait pas s'appliquer à une hypothèse ou à une théorie isolée, mais plutôt à l'ensemble d'un programme de recherche. La falsification méthodologique sophistiquée change le problème du mode d’évaluation théorique en problème de l’évaluation des séries théoriques. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25555.73761.
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  6. added 2020-02-13
    Imre Lakatos, Dovezi și refutări.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Proofs and Refutations este scrisă ca o serie de dialoguri socratice între un grup de elevi care dezbat demonstrația caracteristicilor Euler definite pentru poliedre. În carte sunt explicate multe idei logice importante, accentuându-se pe ideea de euristică pozitivă. Cartea include două anexe. În prima, Lakatos dă exemple ale procesului euristic în descoperirea matematică în special și în cea științifică în general. În al doilea rând, el contrastează abordările deductiviste și euristice și oferă analize euristice ale unor concepte de ”dovezi”. DOI: (...)
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  7. added 2020-01-19
    What Did Popper Learn From Lakatos?Bence Nanay - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (6):1202-1215.
    The canonical version of the history of twentieth century philosophy of science tells us that Lakatos was Popper’s disciple, but it is rarely mentioned that Popper would have learned anything from Lakatos. The aim of this paper is to examine Lakatos’ influence on Popper’s philosophical system and to argue that Lakatos did have an important, yet somewhat unexpected, impact on Popper’s thinking: he influenced Popper’s evolutionary model for ‘progress’ in science. And Lakatos’ influence sheds new light on why and how (...)
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  8. added 2020-01-18
    A Natural Extension of the Methodology of the Scientific Research Programmes of Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Research programs allow the development of more complex theories. The terms can be applied to both individual theories and programs. Unlike Kuhn's scientific revolutions, Lakatos assumed that the simultaneous existence of several research programs is the norm. Science is currently facing such an unusual situation: two incompatible theories, but both accepted by the scientific community describe the same reality in two different ways. Research programs may at one time compete with single theories, single theories between them, or research programs between (...)
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  9. added 2020-01-16
    Rolul euristicii în metodologia programelor de cercetare a lui Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Euristica este un concept central al filosofiei lui Lakatos. În timp ce euristica în Proofs and Refutations a fost un set de reguli care să ghideze rezolvarea problemelor pentru omul de știință individual, The methodology of scientific research programmes nu oferă niciun sfat euristic oamenilor de știință individuali, dar oferă recomandări pentru comunitatea științifică rațională asupra modului în care ar trebui să acționeze. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31140.63369.
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  10. added 2019-11-09
    Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology (...)
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  11. added 2019-11-08
    The Halt and the Blind: Philosophy and History of Science : "Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences"). [REVIEW]Thomas S. Kuhn - 1980 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 31:181.
  12. added 2019-10-14
    Imre Lakatos : Falsification méthodologique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La falsification méthodologique est une marque du conventionnalisme. Il y a une importante délimitation entre les théories de la connaissance « passives » et « actives ». « Les passivistes prétendent que la vraie connaissance est l'empreinte de la nature sur un esprit parfaitement inerte : l'activité mentale ne peut qu'engendrer des biais et des distorsions. » L'école passiviste la plus influente est l'empirisme classique. « Les activistes » affirment que nous ne pouvons pas lire le livre de la nature (...)
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  13. added 2019-10-13
    Last Bastion of Reason. [REVIEW]James Franklin - 2000 - New Criterion 18 (9):74-78.
    Attacks the irrationalism of Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations and defends mathematics as a "last bastion" of reason against postmodernist and deconstructionist currents.
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  14. added 2019-10-08
    Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists.D. C. Stove - 1982 - Pergamon Press.
    Stove argues that Popper and his successors in the philosophy of science, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend, were irrationalists because they were deductivists. That is, they believed all logic is deductive, and thus denied that experimental evidence could make scientific theories logically more probable. The book was reprinted as Anything Goes (1998) and Scientific Irrationalism: Origins of a Postmodern Cult (1998).
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  15. added 2019-10-06
    Lakatos on Dogmatic Falsificationism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dogmatic (naturalist) falsificationism accepts the falsifiability of all scientific theories without qualification but preserves an infallible empirical basis. He is strictly empiric without being inductivist: he denies the fact that certainty of the empirical basis can be conveyed to theories. Thus, dogmatic falsificationism is the weakest mark of justification. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15196.33927 .
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  16. added 2019-09-10
    Le falsificationnisme dogmatique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Le falsificationnisme dogmatique accepte la falsifiabilité de toutes les théories scientifiques sans réserve, mais conserve une base empirique infaillible. Il est strictement empirique sans être inductif : il nie que la certitude de la base empirique puisse être transmise aux théories. Ainsi, le falsificationnisme dogmatique est donc la marque de justification la plus faible. Le signe distinctif de la falsification dogmatique est la reconnaissance du fait que toutes les théories sont également conjecturales. La science ne peut prouver aucune théorie, mais (...)
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  17. added 2019-08-23
    Imre Lakatos, La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique est une collection d'articles publiés au fil du temps, exprimant une révision radicale du critère de démarcation de Popper entre science et non-science, conduisant à une nouvelle théorie de la rationalité scientifique. Le volume I aborde des aspects de la philosophie des sciences et le volume II contient des travaux sur la philosophie des mathématiques. Pour un historien des sciences, la reconstruction proposée par Lakatos est attrayante et explique l’évolution de la science à (...)
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  18. added 2019-08-05
    Gravitația cuantică – Euristica și teste gravitaționale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În încercarea de dezvoltare a unei teorii solide a gravitației cuantice, au existat mai multe programe de cercetare, dintre care unele au căzut în timp în desuetitudine datorită puterii euristice mai mari a altor programe. Testul primordial al oricărei teorii cuantice a gravitației este reproducerea succeselor relativității generale. Aceasta implică reconstrucția geometriei locale din observabilele nelocale. În plus, gravitația cuantică ar trebui să prezică probabilistic topologia la scară largă a Universului, care în curând poate fi măsurabilă, și fenomene la scala (...)
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  19. added 2019-07-11
    Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes - An Overview.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The methodology of scientific research programmes is a collection of papers published over time expressing a radical review of Popper's demarcation criterion between science and non-science, leading to a new theory of scientific rationality. Volume I address aspects of the philosophy of science, and volume II contains works on the philosophy of mathematics. For a science historian, the reconstruction proposed by Lakatos is attractive and explains the evolution of science to a level that has not been achieved before. The basic (...)
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  20. added 2019-07-11
    Imre Lakatos despre falsificaționismul dogmatic.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Falsificaționismul dogmatic admite falsificabilitatea tuturor teoriilor științifice fără calificare, dar păstrează un fel de bază empirică infailibilă. Este strict empiricist fără a fi inductivist: neagă faptul că certitudinea bazei empirice poate fi transmisă teoriilor. Astfel, falsificabilitatea dogmatică este cea mai slabă marcă a justificării. Semnul distinctiv al falsificării dogmatice este recunoașterea faptului că toate teoriile sunt la fel de conjecturale. Știința nu poate dovedi nicio teorie, dar le poate respinge. Onestitatea științifică constă astfel în aceea de a specifica un experiment (...)
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  21. added 2019-07-08
    La reconstruction rationnelle de la science par le biais des programmes de recherche.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Évaluation: Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, Philosophical papers, volume I, edité par John Worrall et Gregory Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-28031-1, paperback La méthodologie des programmes de recherche scientifique est une collection d'articles publiés au fil du temps, dans laquelle Imre Lakatos exprime une révision radicale du critère de démarcation de Popper entre science et non-science, conduisant à une nouvelle théorie de la rationalité scientifique. -/- Mots-clés: Imre Lakatos, science, méthodologie, programmes de recherche, heuristique -/- (...)
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  22. added 2019-07-04
    Extinderea metodologiei programelor de cercetare a lui Imre Lakatos.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Programele de cercetare permit dezvoltarea unor teorii mai complexe. Termenii pot fi aplicați atât la teorii individuale cât și la programe. În cazul în care se aplică teoriilor din cadrul unui program de cercetare, consider că acestea devin la rândul lor programe de cercetare, pe care le putem numi subprograme de cercetare. Spre deosebire de revoluțiile științifice ale lui Kuhn, Lakatos a presupus că existența simultană a mai multor programe de cercetare este norma. Știința se confruntă în prezent cu o (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-21
    Falsificaționismul metodologic sofisticat – Toleranța metodologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Lakatos a propus o modificare a criteriului lui Popper pe care l-a numit falsificaționism sofisticat (metodologic). Din această perspectivă, criteriul de delimitare ar trebui să se aplice nu unei ipoteze sau unei teorii izolate, ci mai degrabă unui întreg program de cercetare. În lucrările sale timpurii, Lakatos pare să accepte că după un punct de saturație: respingem teoria, pentru ca ulterior să afirme că, dimpotrivă, nu există un astfel de lucru ca punctul de saturație natural pentru un program de cercetare. (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-13
    Lakatos's Idea of Scientific Research Programs.Howard Sankey - 1998 - In Gregory A. Good (ed.), Sciences of the Earth: An encyclopedia of Events, People and Phenomena, Volume 2. New York: Garland. pp. 499-502.
    Introductory discussion of Lakatos's idea of scientific research programmes, and an application to the case-study of continental drift.
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  25. added 2019-06-10
    Imre Lakatos and Theories of Scientific Change.Kostas Gavroglu, Yorgos Goudaroulis & P. Nicolacopoulos (eds.) - 1989 - Springer.
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Is Popper’s ‘Criterion of Demarcation’ Outmoded?Sebastian Boţic - 2010 - Cultura 7 (1):41-53.
    This paper is concerned with the ′criterion of demarcation′ that Karl Popper put forward, while trying to show that it can be safely said that it is still standing. In doing so, I turn to two main objections to it: a Lakatos-Kuhn vision on the growth of science, and the famous Quine-Duhem thesis. The point that I hopefully made here is that the basic message of this prescriptive method is as respectful as ever, and, although not the subject of this (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    The ‘Popperian Programme’ And Mathematics: Part II: From Quasi-Empiricism to Mathematical Research Programmes.Eduard Glas - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):355-376.
    In the first part of this article I investigated the Popperian roots of Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations, which was an attempt to apply, and thereby to test, Popper's theory of knowledge in a field—mathematics—to which it had not primarily been intended to apply. While Popper's theory of knowledge stood up gloriously to this test, the new application gave rise to new insights into the heuristic of mathematical development, which necessitated further clarification and improvement of some Popperian methodological maxims. In the (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Dynamic Interactions with the Philosophy of Mathematics.Donald Gillies & Yuxin Zheng - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):437-459.
    Dynamic interaction is said to occur when two significanrly different fields A and B come into relation, and their interaction is dynamic in the sense that at first the flow of ideas is principally from A to B, but later ideas from B come to influence A. Two examples are given of dynamic interactions with the philosophy of mathematics. The first is with philosophy of scicnce, and thc sccond with computer science. Theanalysis cnables Lakatos to be charactcrised as thc first (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Assaying Lakatos's Philosophy of Mathematics.David Corfield - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (1):99-121.
  30. added 2019-06-06
    From Galen's Theory to William Harvey's Theory: A Case Study in the Rationality of Scientific Theory Change.Bryan Mowry - 1985 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 16 (1):49.
    The history of science is that of older theories being challenged and eventually being superseded by newer theories. The rationality of this process of scientific theory change is a central issue in contemporary philosophy of science. This paper aims to elucidate this topic by examining an episode in the history of medical science, namely the change from Galen's theory of the movement of the heart and blood to Harvey’s theory of the circulation of the blood. In Part I the historical (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Lakatos, Laudan and the Hermeneutic Circle.Anthony C. Murphy - 1984 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 15 (2):119.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    The Rationality of Science.W. H. Newton-Smith - 1981 - Routledge.
    First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    The Career of Continental Drift Theory: An Application of IMRE Lakatos' Analysis of Scientific Growth to the Rise of Drift Theory.Henry Frankel - 1979 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10 (1):21.
  34. added 2019-06-06
    The Role of Crucial Experiments in Science.Imre Lakatos - 1974 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (4):309.
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    Problems in the Philosophy of Science.Imre Lakatos & Alan Musgrave (eds.) - 1968 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co.
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  36. added 2019-06-05
    Lakatos and Nagel: A Fruitful Confrontation.Henk Zandvoort - 1984 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 15 (2):299-307.
    Summary It is shown that, besides differences in emphasis on structural and developmental aspects, there is far reaching agreement between the views of Nagel and Lakatos on structure and development of science. I argue that both views can interact very fruitfully, and by way of illustration a confrontation of Nagel's notion of a model with Lakatos' notion of a positive heuristic is pursued in some detail. The conclusion is that for microscopic theories, a Lakatosian positive heuristic is exactly the same (...)
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  37. added 2019-06-05
    Bußhoffs Wissenschaftstheorie der Politikwissenschaft und Lakatos.Ulrich Steinvorth - 1982 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 13 (2):370-382.
    In reply to H. Bußhoff's paper I give another outline of Lakatos' approach to normative theories in order to reduce the misunderstandings Bußhoff seems to have fallen victim to. . In particular, I try to show that he is wrong in claiming there is a vicious circle in this approach or my interpretation of it . Finally, I expose for criticism his alternative methodology of political science which propagates a theory of a "third type", suggesting that he takes too little (...)
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  38. added 2019-06-05
    Ceteris Paribus Clauses, Closure Clauses and Falsifiability.Ingvar Johansson - 1980 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 11 (1):16-22.
    Summary The article argues thatceteris paribus clauses have to be separated from another type of clauses called closure clauses. The former are associated with laws and theories, the latter with test situations of a particular kind. It is also argued that closure clauses, but notceteris paribus clauses, make Popper's falsifiability principle untenable. In that way, it also resolves the quarrel between Popper and Lakatos aboutceteris paribus clauses and falsifiability by saying that both are partly wrong and partly right.
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  39. added 2019-06-05
    Nachruf auf Imre Lakatos.John Worrall - 1974 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (2):i-217.
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  40. added 2019-06-05
    Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Imre Lakatos, Alan Musgrave. [REVIEW]Hugh Lehman - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (1):92-95.
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  41. added 2019-06-05
    The Problem of Inductive Logic. Imre Lakatos.Alex C. Michalos - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (1):90-91.
  42. added 2019-06-05
    Science, History and Methodology. [REVIEW]J. J. C. Smart - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (3):266-274.
  43. added 2019-06-05
    Problems in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Imre Lakatos. [REVIEW]Edward A. Maziarz - 1969 - Philosophy of Science 36 (3):324-326.
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  44. added 2019-03-04
    Lakatos on Justificationism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    According to the scientific "justificationist" method, knowledge consisted of proven sentences. Classical intellectuals (or "rationalists," in the narrow sense of the term) have accepted extremely varied - and powerful "proofs", through revelation, intellectual intuition, experience. These, with the help of logic, have allowed them to prove any kind of scientific statement. Classical empiricists accepted as axioms only a relatively small set of "factual propositions" that expressed "hard facts". The value of their truth has been established by experience and has been (...)
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  45. added 2019-02-17
    Imre Lakatos: Euristica și toleranța metodologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Pentru a analiza conceptele de euristica și toleranță metodologică dezvoltate de Lakatos, m-am concentrat pe secțiunea ”Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes”, publicată pentru prima dată ca articol în 1970 și apoi în cartea The methodology of scientific research programmes, Volume I (Lakatos 1978). Am analizat, în acest text, exemplificarea autorului pentru programul de cercetare al emisiei de lumină (în fizica cuantică timpurie) al lui Bohr. O exemplificare detaliată a conceptelor este prezentată de Lakatos în secțiunea ”Newton's effect (...)
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  46. added 2019-02-08
    Reconstrucția rațională a științei prin programe de cercetare.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Recenzie: Imre Lakatos, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, Philosophical papers, volumul I, editată de John Worrall și Gregory Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-28031-1, paperback Metodologia programelor de cercetare științifică este o colecție de lucrări publicate de-a lungul timpului, în care Imre Lakatos exprimă o revizuire radicală a criteriului de demarcație al lui Popper între știință și neștiință, conducând la o teorie nouă a raționalității științifice.
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  47. added 2019-02-01
    Verisimilitude and the Dynamics of Scientific Research Programmes.Jesús Bonilla - 2002 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (2):349-368.
    Some peculiarities of the evaluation of theories within scientific research programmes and of the assessing of rival SRPs are described assuming that scientists try to maximise an ‘epistemic utility function’ under economic and institutional constraints. Special attention is given to Lakatos' concepts of ‘empirical progress’ and ‘theoretical progress’. A notion of ‘empirical verisimilitude’ is defended as an appropriate utility function. The neologism ‘methodonomics’ is applied to this kind of studies.
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  48. added 2018-12-21
    From the Logic of Mathematical Discovery to the Methodology of Scientific-Research Programs.Yx Zheng - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (3):377-399.
  49. added 2018-12-21
    Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Invention?Elie Zahar - 1983 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (3):243-261.
  50. added 2018-04-19
    Lakatosian Particularism.Howard Sankey - 2018 - Logos and Episteme (1):49-59.
    This paper explores a particularist element in the theory of method of Imre Lakatos, who appealed to the value-judgements of élite scientists in the appraisal of competing theories of method. The role played by such value-judgements is strongly reminiscent of the epistemological particularism of Roderick Chisholm. Despite the existence of a clear parallel between the particularist approaches of both authors, it is argued that Lakatos’s approach is subject to a weakness that does not affect the approach of Chisholm.
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