About this topic
Summary Christianity claims that God, or more precisely the second of the three persons that constitute God, made himself to be a man for a few years and that Jesus Christ was this man. The texts in this category discuss whether and how this is possible.
Key works Davis 1992 is a collection of recent investigations of the incarnation. Swinburne 1994 contains an account of the incarnation.
Introductions Davis et al 2002
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Siblings:See also:History/traditions: Incarnation
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  1. C. P. A. (1956). The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, Vol. I, Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. Structure and Growth of Philosophic Systems From Plato to Spinoza, III. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):186-186.
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  2. George N. Abbott (1874). The Personal Relation of Christ to the Human Race. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 8 (4):351 - 360.
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  3. Marilyn McCord Adams (2006). Christ and Horrors: The Coherence of Christology. Cambridge University Press.
    Who would the Saviour have to be, what would the Saviour have to do to rescue human beings from the meaning-destroying experiences of their lives? This book offers a systematic Christology that is at once biblical and philosophical. Starting with human radical vulnerability to horrors such as permanent pain, sadistic abuse or genocide, it develops what must be true about Christ if He is the horror-defeater who ultimately resolves all the problems affecting the human condition and Divine-human relations. Distinctive elements (...)
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  4. Marilyn McCord Adams (2004). Cur Deus Homo?: Priorities Among the Reasons? Faith and Philosophy 21 (2):141-158.
    From some philosophical points of view, the Incarnation is difficult to motivate. From others, a host of reasons appear, raising the problem of how to choose among and/or prioritize them. In this paper I examine how different substantive commitments and starting points combine with contrasting understandings of method in philosophical theology, to generate different analyses and answers to Christianity’s crucial question: cur Deus homo?
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  5. Marilyn McCord Adams (1985). The Metaphysics of the Incarnation in Some Fourteenth-Century Franciscans. In Allan Bernard Wolter, William A. Frank & Girard J. Etzkorn (eds.), Essays Honoring Allan B. Wolter. Franciscan Institute.
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  6. Marilyn McCord Adams (1982). Relations, Inherence and Subsistence: Or, Was Ockham a Nestorian in Christology? Noûs 16 (1):62-75.
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  7. Diogenes Allen (1989). Incarnation In the Gospels and the Bhagavad Gita. Faith and Philosophy 6 (3):241-259.
    This article is a venture into a Christian Theology of Other Faiths. In contrast to History of Religions, which seeks to understand a religion from its own point of view, a Christian Theology of Other Faiths seeks to understand another religion from the perspective of the Christian revelation.Here I present Simone Weil’s claim that the Word of God is manifest in human form in other faiths, and that the Gospels are written from the point of view of a victim, and (...)
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  8. K. C. Anderson (1914). The Person of Jesus Christ in the Christian Faith. The Monist 24 (3):333-361.
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  9. Pamela Sue Anderson (2006). Divinity, Incarnation and Intersubjectivity: On Ethical Formation and Spiritual Practice. Philosophy Compass 1 (3):335-356.
    In what sense, if any, does the dominant conception of the traditional theistic God as disembodied inform our embodied experiences? Feminist philosophers of religion have been either explicitly or implicitly preoccupied by a philosophical failure to address such questions concerning embodiment and its relationship to the divine. To redress this failure, certain feminist philosophers have sought to appropriate Luce Irigaray’s argument that embodied divinity depends upon women themselves becoming divine. This article assesses weaknesses in the Irigarayan position, notably the problematic (...)
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  10. Ray Sherman Anderson (1975). Historical Transcendence and the Reality of God: A Christological Critique. Eerdmans.
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  11. Maria Rosa Antognazza (2001). The Defence of the Mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation: An Example of Leibniz's 'Other' Reason. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (2):283 – 309.
    In this paper I will discuss certain aspects of Leibniz's theory and practice of 'soft reasoning' as exemplified by his defence of two central mysteries of the Christian revelation: the Trinity and the Incarnation. By theory and practice of 'soft' or 'broad' reasoning, I mean the development of rational strategies which can successefully be applied to the many areas of human understanding which escape strict demonstration, that is, the 'hard' or 'narrow' reasoning typical of mathematical argumentation. These strategies disclose an (...)
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  12. James M. Arcadi (2016). Andrew Ter Ern Loke, A Kryptic Model of the Incarnation. Journal of Analytic Theology 4 (1):459-463.
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  13. James M. Arcadi (2016). Kryptic or Cryptic? The Divine Preconscious Model of the Incarnation as a Concrete-Nature Christology. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 58 (2):229-243.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 58 Heft: 2 Seiten: 229-243.
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  14. James M. Arcadi (2015). Impanation, Incarnation, and Enabling Externalism. Religious Studies 51 (1):75-90.
    I articulate a real presence theory of the Eucharist that is coherent, attractive, and utilizes the resources of contemporary Christology. First, I review some of the recent analytic discussions of the metaphysics of the incarnation. From this, I distinguish two types of impanation, which I name Type-H and Type-S Impanation. I then exposit Type-S Impanation utilizing the notion of enabling externalism. I raise two potential objections to this view, the responses to which allows me to highlight the incarnation-like coherence and (...)
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  15. Ronald Aronson (1985). On Boxing: "Incarnation" in Critique, II. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 39 (152/153):149.
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  16. Ma Christina Astorga (2004). Constructive Christology in Roger Haight's Jesus, Symbol of God: A Continuing Critical Christological Discourse. Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture 4 (2 & 3):187-219.
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  17. P. Auger (1960). L'incarnation de la forme. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 150:17 - 36.
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  18. Tony Axe (1984). Incarnation and Holy Places. New Blackfriars 65 (768):261-268.
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  19. Allan Bäck (1998). Scotus on the Consistency of the Incarnation and the Trinity. Vivarium 36 (1):83-107.
    Medieval theologians discussed the logical structure of reduplicative propositions in the midst of their discussions of the Incarnation and the Trinity. Aquinas has the usual medieval analyzes of reduplicative propositions: the specificative and the strictly reduplicative. But neither analysis resolves successfully the problems of the consistency of the statements about God while avoiding making the Trinity or the Incarnation a merely accidental feature of Him. However, Scotus introduces another analysis: abstractive. I shall conclude that Scotus’s view of reduplication, one, if (...)
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  20. Allan Bäck (1982). Aquinas on the Incarnation. New Scholasticism 56 (2):127-145.
    IN THIS PAPER THE AUTHOR DEALS WITH AQUINAS’ SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM, WHETHER THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION IS CONSISTENT. HE FIRST SHOWS WHY THERE IS A PROBLEM OF CONSISTENCY WITH THIS DOCTRINE, GIVEN ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN BELIEFS. HE THEN CLAIMS THAT AQUINAS HAS TWO SOLUTIONS, AND THAT BOTH FAIL: THE FIRST SOLUTION, AS SCOTUS ALSO OBSERVES, DOES NOT RESOLVE THE APPARENT INCONSISTENCY, AND THE OTHER DEPENDS ON MAKING HUMANITY ACCIDENTAL TO CHRIST, AND HENCE ON ABANDONING THE ORTHODOX POSITION.
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  21. Anthony Bale (2016). God’s Cell: Christ as Prisoner and Pilgrimage to the Prison of Christ. Speculum 91 (1):1-35.
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  22. Michel René Barnes (2016). On The Unity of Christ by Christopher A. Beeley. Nova et Vetera 14 (1):331-341.
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  23. J. E. Barnhart (1967). Incarnation and Process Philosophy. Religious Studies 2 (2):225 - 232.
    The purpose of this article is to develop a Christian doctrine of the Incarnation in the light of a process philosophy of the type expounded by A. N. Whitehead and E. S. Brightman. Rather than offer at this time a detailed defence either of the idea of incarnation or of process philosophy, I wish to show that the two can be coherently related in such a way that each receives a greater degree of completion and clarity. Of course risks are (...)
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  24. T. W. Bartel (1995). Why the Philosophical Problems of Chalcedonian Christology Have Not Gone Away. Heythrop Journal 36 (2):153–172.
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  25. Timothy W. Bartel (1991). Like Us in All Things, Apart From Sin? Journal of Philosophical Research 16:19-52.
    A great many philosophers and theologians have recently maintained that we ought to adopt the following interpretation of the Christian Church’s proclamation that Jesus Christ is perfectly human and perfectly divine:(1) The one person Jesus Christ has every essential property of the kind humanity and every essential property of the kind divinity,where F is an essential property of a kind k just in case there is no possible world in which something belongs to k yet lacks F. I argue that (...)
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  26. Ankur Barua (2012). Myth as Metaphysics: The Christian Saviour and the Hindu Gods. [REVIEW] Sophia 51 (3):379-393.
    A distinction which is often rehearsed in some strands of Christian writing on the ‘Eastern’ religions, especially Hinduism, is that while they are full of ‘mythological’ fancies, Biblical faith is based on the solid rock of ‘historical’ truth. I argue that the sharp contours of this antithesis are softened when we consider two issues regarding the relation between ‘myth’ and ‘history’. First, the decades–long attempts to separate the ‘historical’ facts about Jesus Christ from the interpretive elements in the Biblical narrative (...)
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  27. Frederick Bauerschmidt (2005). Incarnation, Redemption, and the Character of God. Nova Et Vetera 3:459-472.
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  28. Anthony Baxter (1984). The Term 'Archetype', and its Application to Jesus Christ. Heythrop Journal 25 (1):19–38.
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  29. Tim Bayne (2003). Inclusion and Incarnation: A Reply to Sturch. Religious Studies 39 (1):107-109.
    I make three points in response to Richard Sturch's comments on my paper: I defend my interpretation of the Morris–Swinburne (M–S) account of the Incarnation; I argue that the M–S model appears to undercut the view that the unity of consciousness can be explained in terms of the self; and third, I argue that M–S model seems to entail that God has false beliefs.
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  30. Timothy J. Bayne (2001). The Inclusion Model of the Incarnation: Problems and Prospects. Religious Studies 37 (2):125-141.
    Thomas Morris and Richard Swinburne have recently defended what they call the ‘two-minds’ model of the Incarnation. This model, which I refer to as the ‘inclusion model’ or ‘inclusionism’, claims that Christ had two consciousnesses, a human and a divine consciousness, with the former consciousness contained within the latter one. I begin by exploring the motivation for, and structure of, inclusionism. I then develop a variety of objections to it: some philosophical, others theological in nature. Finally, I sketch a variant (...)
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  31. William Bechtel (2006). The Mind Incarnate. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):497-500.
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  32. Gwilym Beckerlegge (1978). Jesus' Authority and the Problem of His Self-Consciousness. Heythrop Journal 19 (4):365–382.
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  33. Elizabeth Belloc (1926). The Loneliness of Christ. New Blackfriars 7 (73):201-201.
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  34. Wessel Bentley (2016). Re-Visiting the Notion of Deep Incarnation in Light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and Emergence Theory. Hts Theological Studies 72 (4):1-8.
    Niels Hendrik Gregersen's 'Deep Incarnation' is opening up possibilities for engagement between science and theology. Recent discoveries, like that of Homo naledi, raise questions about how inclusive a Christian doctrine of Incarnation is. Is Jesus only God incarnate for Homo sapien sapiens, or is the incarnation inclusive of preceding hominid species as well? Does the incarnation stretch beyond the hominid line? This chapter engages Gregersen's understanding of Deep Incarnation in light of 1 Corinthians 15:28 and emergence theory. It proposes that (...)
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  35. C. Clifton Black (forthcoming). Book Review: God's Final Envoy: Early Christology and Jesus' Own View of His Mission. [REVIEW] Interpretation 54 (1):88-90.
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  36. Douglas K. Blount (2002). On the Incarnation of a Timeless God. In God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Hendrikus Boers (1972). Where Christology Is Real A Survey of Recent Research on New Testament Christology. Interpretation 26 (3):300-327.
    The one way to overcome the dilemma confronting New Testament Christology is to understand the christological titles as ways in which primitive Christianity tried to express who Jesus was as a response to the claim which was already implicit in his message and activity.
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  38. Christian L. Bonnet (1937). Le Corps Mystique du Christ. New Scholasticism 11 (2):167-170.
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  39. Arthur Boutwood (1909). P. T. Forsyth, The Person and Place of Jesus Christ. [REVIEW] Hibbert Journal 8:686.
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  40. Louis Bouyer (1943). L'incarnation Et l'Église-Corps du Christ Dans la Théologie de Saint Athanase. Éditions du Cerf.
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  41. David Braine (1996). What Makes a Christology Into a Christian Theology? New Blackfriars 77 (905):288-302.
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  42. Gerald Lewis Bray (1997). Creeds, Councils, and Christ. Mentor.
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  43. Paul Brazier (2010). From Achilles to Christ: Why Christians Should Read the Pagan Classics. By Louis Markos and Simone Weil's Apologetic Use of Literature: Her Christological Interpretations of Ancient Greek Texts (Oxford Modern Languages and Literature Monographs). By Marie Cabaud Meaney. Heythrop Journal 51 (1):100-101.
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  44. Paul Brazier (2008). Exploring Kenotic Christology: The Self-Emptying of God. Edited by C. Stephen Evans. Heythrop Journal 49 (1):132–134.
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  45. Brian Brock (2015). Global Justice, Christology and Christian Ethics by Lisa Sowle Cahill , Xiv + 312 Pp. Modern Theology 31 (2):347-349.
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  46. Graham Brown (1981). Identity Statements and the Incarnation. Heythrop Journal 22 (3):261–277.
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  47. Buch-Hansen Gitte (2010). Chapter 4. The First Pneumatic Event. The Descent of the Spirit as Jesus’ Divine Generation. In Gitte Buch-Hansen (ed.), "It is the Spirit That Gives Life": A Stoic Understanding of Pneuma in John's Gospel. De Gruyter.
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  48. James J. Buckley (1991). Adjudicating Conflicting Christologies. Philosophy and Theology 6 (2):117-135.
    In this study of Marshall’s Christology in Conflict, the author deals with three questions and issues which can be raised regarding Marshall’s argument: his account of the historical shape of the problem, his critique of Rahner, and his use of Barth’s christology.
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  49. Bogdan G. Bucur (2006). “The Feet That Eve Heard in Paradise and Was Afraid”: Observations on the Christology of Byzantine Hymns. Philosophy and Theology 18 (1):3-26.
    The paper discusses the Christological bearing of certain Byzantine festal hymns, whose roots stretch back to the early Christian tradition, but which are still used in the services of the Orthodox Church. These hymns avoid the vocabulary of their contemporary dogmatic debates, and offer an alternative poetic theology deeplyrooted in Biblical imagery, yet surprisingly precise and effective in conveying the very same message about Christ. This finding opens up the discussion of theological method, namely the question of how these hymns (...)
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  50. Arthur Bumstead (1902). The Risen Christ at Damascus. The Monist 13 (1):138-146.
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