Edited by Daniel Von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Christianity claims that God, or more precisely the second of the three persons that constitute God, made himself to be a man for a few years and that Jesus Christ was this man. The texts in this category discuss whether and how this is possible.
Key works Davis 1992 is a collection of recent investigations of the incarnation. Swinburne 1994 contains an account of the incarnation.
Introductions Davis et al 2002
Related categories
Siblings:See also:History/traditions: Incarnation

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  1. The Glory of the Living Sun a World-Wide Appeal to Replace Present Superstitious Creeds by Genuine Religion Which Must Be True, Rational, Universal, Exalting.C. E. R. A. - 1935 - Cranton.
  2. The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, Vol. I, Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. Structure and Growth of Philosophic Systems From Plato to Spinoza, III. [REVIEW]C. P. A. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):186-186.
  3. The Personal Relation of Christ to the Human Race.George N. Abbott - 1874 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 8 (4):351 - 360.
  4. Book Review: Preaching Christ From the Old Testament: A Contemporary Hermeneutical Method. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Achtemeier - 2000 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 54 (2):218-218.
  5. The Ministry of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels.Paul J. Achtemeier - 1981 - Interpretation 35 (2):157-169.
    In his identity, words, and deeds Jesus of Nazareth provides the possibility and promise of ministry in his name.
  6. Mark as Interpreter of the Jesus Traditions.Paul J. Achtemeier - 1978 - Interpretation 32 (4):339-352.
    The hermeneutical key to reading and interpreting the Gospel of Mark is the role which the Evangelist has given to the passion of Jesus as the primary perspective for understanding all the other traditions about Jesus incorporated in the Gospel.
  7. Divinity in Things: Religion Without Myth.Eric Ackroyd - 2009 - Sussex Academic Press.
    Is God dead? -- The western split : transcendent, deity, desacralised nature -- The western split : God's otherness, humanity's degradation -- The western split : gender discrimination, its origins, and its consequences -- Energy and divinity -- Divinity within -- The Christian doctrine of incarnation : restricted immanence -- Incarnation and atonement mythology -- Creativity, divine, and human -- Divinity and ethics -- Religion and science -- The problem of evil : providence -- Death and beyond.
  8. Christ Is the Question – By Wayne A. Meeks.A. K. M. Adam - 2009 - Modern Theology 25 (1):152-154.
  9. Christ and Horrors: The Coherence of Christology.Marilyn Mccord Adams - 2008 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):161-165.
  10. Christ and Horrors: The Coherence of Christology.Marilyn McCord Adams - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Who would the Saviour have to be, what would the Saviour have to do to rescue human beings from the meaning-destroying experiences of their lives? This book offers a systematic Christology that is at once biblical and philosophical. Starting with human radical vulnerability to horrors such as permanent pain, sadistic abuse or genocide, it develops what must be true about Christ if He is the horror-defeater who ultimately resolves all the problems affecting the human condition and Divine-human relations. Distinctive elements (...)
  11. Cur Deus Homo?: Priorities Among the Reasons?Marilyn McCord Adams - 2004 - Faith and Philosophy 21 (2):141-158.
    From some philosophical points of view, the Incarnation is difficult to motivate. From others, a host of reasons appear, raising the problem of how to choose among and/or prioritize them. In this paper I examine how different substantive commitments and starting points combine with contrasting understandings of method in philosophical theology, to generate different analyses and answers to Christianity’s crucial question: cur Deus homo?
  12. The Metaphysics of the Incarnation in Some Fourteenth-Century Franciscans.Marilyn McCord Adams - 1985 - In Allan Bernard Wolter, William A. Frank & Girard J. Etzkorn (eds.), Essays Honoring Allan B. Wolter. Franciscan Institute.
  13. Relations, Inherence and Subsistence: Or, Was Ockham a Nestorian in Christology?Marilyn McCord Adams - 1982 - Noûs 16 (1):62-75.
  14. The Divinity of Christ, 1866-1966.A. C. Adcock - 1967 - Hibbert Journal 65 (59):134.
  15. The Orthodox Foundation of Religion Long Since Collected by That Iudicious and Elegant Man, Mr. Henry Ainsworth, for the Benefit of His Private Company, and Now Divulged for the Publike Good of All That Desire to Know That Cornerstone, Christ Jesus Crucified.Henry Ainsworth & W. S. - 1641 - Printed by R.C. For M. Sparke, Junior.
  16. Radical Orthodoxy and Post-Structuralism: An Unholy Alliance.Lars Albinus - 2009 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 51 (3):340-354.
    The article points to similarities between Radical Orthodoxy and the Post-Structuralist critique of rationalistic secularism together with a shared appraisal of aesthecism. However, although the people of Radical Orthodoxy are sympathetic to the modern experience of immanence, they criticize the flattened immanence which seems to result from a post-structuralist perspective, and claim instead that immanence has to be appreciated as creational (and therefore participating in the divine) in order to withstand the threat of nihilism. Thus, Post-Structuralism is only an ally (...)
  17. S.M. Ogden, "The Point of Christology".R. Aldwinckle - 1983 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (4):253.
  18. Christ the Teacher.Clement of Alexandria - 2000 - The Chesterton Review 26 (1/2):207-209.
  19. Quest the Search for Meaning Through Christ.Diogenes Allen - 2000
  20. Incarnation In the Gospels and the Bhagavad Gita.Diogenes Allen - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (3):241-259.
    This article is a venture into a Christian Theology of Other Faiths. In contrast to History of Religions, which seeks to understand a religion from its own point of view, a Christian Theology of Other Faiths seeks to understand another religion from the perspective of the Christian revelation.Here I present Simone Weil’s claim that the Word of God is manifest in human form in other faiths, and that the Gospels are written from the point of view of a victim, and (...)
  21. Suggestions for a Revised Christology.E. L. Allen - 1941 - Hibbert Journal 40:65.
  22. Book Review: The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Investigation of the Collection and Origin of the Canonical Gospels. [REVIEW]O. Wesley Allen - 2001 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 55 (3):319-319.
  23. Book Review: Jesus the Seer: The Progress of Prophecy. [REVIEW]O. Wesley Allen - 2000 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 54 (4):437-437.
  24. Book Review: The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria. [REVIEW]Dale C. Allison - 2004 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 58 (1):88-88.
  25. Torture, Terror & the Body of Christ.Mark J. Allman - 2014 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 11 (1):241-261.
  26. Jesus—The Secular Jew.Aytun Altindal - 1995 - History of European Ideas 20 (4-6):669-672.
  27. Jesus as the Ultimate Reality in St. Mark's Gospel.Am Ambrozic - 1989 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 12 (3):169-176.
  28. Marilyn McCord Adams, Christ and Horrors: The Coherence of Christology (Current Issues in Theology, No. 4).A. K. Anderson - 2008 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):161-165.
  29. The Person of Jesus Christ in the Christian Faith.K. C. Anderson - 1914 - The Monist 24 (3):333-361.
  30. Divinity, Incarnation and Intersubjectivity: On Ethical Formation and Spiritual Practice.Pamela Sue Anderson - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (3):335-356.
    In what sense, if any, does the dominant conception of the traditional theistic God as disembodied inform our embodied experiences? Feminist philosophers of religion have been either explicitly or implicitly preoccupied by a philosophical failure to address such questions concerning embodiment and its relationship to the divine. To redress this failure, certain feminist philosophers have sought to appropriate Luce Irigaray’s argument that embodied divinity depends upon women themselves becoming divine. This article assesses weaknesses in the Irigarayan position, notably the problematic (...)
  31. Book Review: Ingesting Jesus: Eating and Drinking In the Gospel of John. [REVIEW]Paul N. Anderson - 2005 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 59 (4):430-432.
  32. Historical Transcendence and the Reality of God: A Christological Critique.Ray Sherman Anderson - 1975 - Eerdmans.
  33. The Mimesis of Salvation and Dissimilitude in the Scandalous Gospel of Jesus.Victor Anderson - 2012 - In George Yancy (ed.), Christology and Whiteness: What Would Jesus Do? Routledge. pp. 196.
  34. The Wrestle of Christ and Culture in Pragmatic Public Theology.Victor Anderson - 1998 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 19 (2):135 - 150.
  35. Jesus and Monotheism.Gil Anidjar - 2013 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (S1):158-183.
    From Oedipus to Moses and beyond, Freud's last book has been read with singular obstinacy as addressing a Jewish (or anti-Semitic) question, or as renewing a religious (or antireligious) agenda. Between Athens and Jerusalem, from Judaism to a more general “monotheistic religion,” and from Oedipus (the son) to Moses (the father), scholars have explored or refuted numerous traces the primal murder left and many among the founding fathers, the substitutes to which it gave rise. Yet it is easy to see (...)
  36. The Defence of the Mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation: An Example of Leibniz's 'Other' Reason.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (2):283 – 309.
    In this paper I will discuss certain aspects of Leibniz's theory and practice of 'soft reasoning' as exemplified by his defence of two central mysteries of the Christian revelation: the Trinity and the Incarnation. By theory and practice of 'soft' or 'broad' reasoning, I mean the development of rational strategies which can successefully be applied to the many areas of human understanding which escape strict demonstration, that is, the 'hard' or 'narrow' reasoning typical of mathematical argumentation. These strategies disclose an (...)
  37. L'apparition de Jésus À Marie de Magdala.L. -M. Antoniotti - 1996 - Revue Thomiste 96 (2):302-311.
  38. Did Jesus Consider His Death to Be an Atoning Sacrifice?Daniel J. Antwi - 1991 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 45 (1):17-28.
    The notion that Jesus' death is an atoning sacrifice is grounded in Jesus' own understanding of the temple and sacrificial cult in light of the dawn of the New Age.
  39. Christianity, Identity, and Cultures: A Case Study.Gerald A. Arbuckle - 2013 - The Australasian Catholic Record 90 (1):34.
    Arbuckle, Gerald A The Christian belief that the Great Commission of Jesus Christ, 'Go, therefore, make disciples of all the nations' (Mt 28:19), at first sight looks uncomplicated. As the Father sent the Son into the world, so the Son is missioning his followers to carry on his work in this context. Mission connotes a sending of persons, with authority, to preach the salvation of Christ in accordance with the text, 'they will never have a preacher unless one is sent' (...)
  40. An Incarnational Model of the Eucharist.James Arcadi - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    The Eucharist is at the heart of Christian worship and at the heart of the Eucharist are the curious phrases, 'This is my body' and 'This is my blood'. James M. Arcadi offers a constructive proposal for understanding Christ's presence in the Eucharist that draws on contemporary conceptual resources and is faithful to the history of interpretation. He locates his proposal along a spectrum of Eucharistic theories. Arcadi explores the motif of God's presence related to divine omnipresence and special presence (...)
  41. Kryptic or Cryptic? The Divine Preconscious Model of the Incarnation as a Concrete-Nature Christology.James M. Arcadi - 2016 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 58 (2):229-243.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 58 Heft: 2 Seiten: 229-243.
  42. Andrew Ter Ern Loke, A Kryptic Model of the Incarnation.James M. Arcadi - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4 (1):459-463.
  43. Impanation, Incarnation, and Enabling Externalism.James M. Arcadi - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (1):75-90.
    I articulate a real presence theory of the Eucharist that is coherent, attractive, and utilizes the resources of contemporary Christology. First, I review some of the recent analytic discussions of the metaphysics of the incarnation. From this, I distinguish two types of impanation, which I name Type-H and Type-S Impanation. I then exposit Type-S Impanation utilizing the notion of enabling externalism. I raise two potential objections to this view, the responses to which allows me to highlight the incarnation-like coherence and (...)
  44. The Incarnation: Fact or Fantasy? A Catholic Comment.J. P. Arendzen - 1938 - Hibbert Journal 37:634.
  45. A Certain Rectitude of Order: Jesus and Justification According to Aquinas.J. Mark Armitage - 2008 - The Thomist 72 (1):45-66.
  46. Why Didn't Jesus Write a Book? Aquinas on the Teaching of Christ.J. Mark Armitage - 2008 - New Blackfriars 89 (1021):337-353.
  47. On Boxing: "Incarnation" in Critique, II.Ronald Aronson - 1985 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 39 (152/153):149.
  48. Constructive Christology in Roger Haight's Jesus, Symbol of God: A Continuing Critical Christological Discourse.Ma Christina Astorga - 2004 - Budhi: A Journal of Ideas and Culture 4 (2 & 3):187-219.
  49. The Lord Is God: There Is No Other.Robin Attfield - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (1):73 - 84.
  50. L'incarnation de la forme.P. Auger - 1960 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 150:17 - 36.
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