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  1. Figures of Speech in the Rāmāyaṇa.J. L. Brockington - 1977 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 97 (4):441-459.
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  2. Śabdādvaita Darśana: Bhartr̥hari Kā Darśana.Kailāśa Pati Miśra - 2006 - Kalā Prakāśana.
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  3. Bhartrhari's Vākyapadīya: Its Linguistic and Literary Implications with Special Reference to Modern English Poetry.R. Anitha - 2010 - Sukr̥tīndra Oriental Research Institute.
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  4. The Central Problems of Bhartr̥hari's Philosophy.Devendra Nath Tiwari - 2008 - Indian Council of Philosophical Research.
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  5. Sa Dot Mdot Mbandha and Abhisa Dot Mdot Mbandha.Ashok Aklujkar - 1989 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3).
    The few abbreviations employed in the body of the article are explained in the bibliography.
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  6. On Semantics and Saṃketa: Thoughts on a Neglected Problem with Buddhist Apoha Doctrine. [REVIEW]Dan Arnold - 2006 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 34 (5):415-478.
    “...a theory of meaning for a particular language should be conceived by a philosopher as describing the practice of linguistic interchange by speakers of the language without taking it as already understood what it is to have a language at all: that is what, by imagining such a theory, we are trying to make explict." – Michael Dummer (2004: 31).
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  7. A Theory of Tarka Sentences.V. K. Bharadwaja - 1981 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 41 (4):532-546.
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  8. Bhartr̥hari, Philosopher and Grammarian: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bhartr̥hari (University of Poona, January 6-8, 1992). [REVIEW]Saroja Bhate & Johannes Bronkhorst (eds.) - 1992 - Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
    This is the reason why an international conference on Bhartrhari was organized in January 1992 in Pune, under the joint auspices of the University of Poons and ...
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  9. The Context Principle and Some Indian Controversies Over Meaning.B. K. Matilal & P. K. Sen - 1988 - Mind 97 (385):73-97.
  10. Śabda, a Study of Bhartr̥hari's Philosophy of Language.Tandra Patnaik - 1994 - D.K. Printworld.
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  11. Linguistic Philosophy in Vākyapadīya.Gayatri Rath - 2000 - Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan.
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  12. The Philosophy of Bhartr̥hari.Gaurinath Bhattacharyya Shastri - 1991 - Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan.
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Vyakarana/Grammar
  1. The Literal/Non-Literal Distinction in Indian Philosophy.Malcolm Keating - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Article lays out the conceptual space for Indian theorizing about literal and non-literal meaning by way of each of these three textual traditions. Since the article’s structure is topical rather than historical, a chronology of major figures is appended to help orient readers. The focus of the article is the period demarcated roughly from 200 CE to 1300 CE, often characterized as the Classical Period of Indian philosophy.
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  2. Book Review The Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, 2010-2012 Edited by Dr V Kameswari, Dr K S Balasubramanian, and Dr T V Vasudeva.Swami Narasimhananda - 2014 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 119 (8):504.
    The Journal of Oriental Research was started in 1927 by Prof. S Kuppuswami Sastri, who was also the founder of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute. Originally an annual journal, its regularity has been disturbed due to financial difficulties. Th e present issue comprises volumes eighty-three to eighty-four and has been funded by the Dr V Raghavan Memorial Endowment.
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  3. Book Review Lectures on Patañjali’s Mahābhāsya Volumes IX and X by P S Subrahmanya Sastri. [REVIEW]Swami Narasimhananda - 2014 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 119 (6):405.
    The ninth volume contains ahnikas, divisions, forty-two to forty-seven, and the tenth volume contains ahnikas forty-eight to fifty-six. Each Panini sutra is followed by the relevant bhashya, commentary, and the varttika, annotation, of Vararuchi. Each volume has indexes of the sutras, varttikas, nyayas, paribhashas, and important Sanskrit and English words.
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  4. तत्त्वज्ञान, ब्रह्मज्ञान आणि दर्शन Tattvanjan, Brahmjnan and Darsan.Shriniwas Hemade - 2014 - In Girish Kuber & Abhijit Tamhane (eds.), Article in weekly column daily Loksatta in Maharashtra (Indian Express Group). Indian Express Group. pp. 6.
    तत्त्वज्ञान, ब्रह्मज्ञान आणि दर्शन is the 13 article of the weekly column in Daily Loksatta, Marathi publication of Indian Express Group India. The Column is entitled as Tattvabhan तत्त्वभान – A Philosophical Counsciousness. Present article is published on 27th March 2014, explains the meaning and usage of the three terms mentioned in the Title. – Dr. Shriniwas Hemade – Author, shriniwas.sh@gmail.com.
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  5. BEING AND BECOMING OF THE MIND: AN UPANISHADIC INSIGHT OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNSESS AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2013 - In In Proceedings of the International Conference o “Is Science able to explain the Scientist? (Science abd Scientist-2013) being held at Synergy Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, on December 08, 2013. Covers Theme 1 : Science of Spiritual.
    Human consciousness, as dealt with in the Upanishads, modeled as a mechanical oscillator of infrasonic frequency (the Atman/Brahman), the result of breathing process, is further advanced to get an insight of functions of mind. An analytical approach is followed in parallel to and separette from quantum mechanical, quantum field and other theoretical propositions, approaches and presentations. Pure consciousness, unoccupied awareness and occupied awareness are identified, defined, classified and discussed together with fresh insight about time-space and time. A reversible transformation (vivartanam) (...)
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  6. Debating Verbal Cognition: The Theory of the Principal Qualificand (Mukyaviśeṣya) in Classical Indian Thought.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Motilal Banarsidass.
    The intellectual culture of India presents us with highly elaborated theories of verbal cognition, known in Sanskrit philosophical literature under the generic name of sabdabodha. The theory explored in this book represents the content of the cognition derived from linguistic utterances as a paraphrase centered on a meaning element-the principal qualificand, which is qualified by other meaning elements. Thinkers of the Mimamsa, Nyaya and Vyakarana schools concern themselves with this topic, situated at the interface between epistemology, linguistics, scriptural exegesis and (...)
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  7. Meaning, Understanding, and Knowing-What: An Indian Grammarian Notion of Intuition (Pratibha).Chien-Hsing Ho - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (2):404-424.
    For Bhartrhari, a fifth-century Indian grammarian-philosopher, all conscious beings—beasts, birds and humans—are capable of what he called pratibha, a flash of indescribable intuitive understanding such that one knows what the present object “means” and what to do with it. Such an understanding, if correct, amounts to a mode of knowing that may best be termed knowing-what, to distinguish it from both knowing-that and knowing-how. This paper attempts to expound Bhartrhari’s conception of pratibha in relation to the notions of meaning, understanding, (...)
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  8. The Two Kinds of anumĀNa in Bhartrhari's VĀkyapadĪya.Akihiko Akamatsu - 1999 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1/2):17-22.
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  9. Can the Grammarians'Dharma Be a Dharma for All?Ashok Aklujkar - 2004 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 32 (5-6):687-732.
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  10. The Word is the World: Nondualism in Indian Philosophy of Language.Ashok Aklujkar - 2001 - Philosophy East and West 51 (4):452-473.
    The meanings in which the word "word" can be taken, the interpretations that the relevant meanings would necessitate of the "word-equals-world" thesis, and the extent to which Bhartṛhari can be said to be aware of or receptive to these interpretations are considered. The observation that more than one interpretation would have been acceptable to Bhartṛhari naturally leads to a discussion of his notion of truth, his perspectivism, and his understanding of the nature of philosophizing as an activity in which language (...)
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  11. A Case of Vyākaraṇic Oxymoroṇ: The Notion of Anvarthasaṃjñā. [REVIEW]Emilie Aussant - 2007 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (2):133-147.
    The anvartha-saṃjñā compound associates two contradictory terms: anvartha, which means “[used] in conformity with his [etymological/first] meaning”, and saṃjñā which implies the idea of a convention; it therefore appears to be quite intriguing. The question is: is it relevant to focus on this contradiction or is it only a false problem? The aim of this paper is to answer the above question and this implies to grasp somewhat better the use of this notion by the Pāṇinian grammarians. To do so, (...)
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  12. Saying the Unsayable.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2006 - Philosophy East and West 56 (3):409-427.
    A number of traditional philosophers and religious thinkers advocated an ineffability thesis to the effect that the ultimate reality cannot be expressed as it truly is by human concepts and words. However, if X is ineffable, the question arises as to how words can be used to gesture toward it. We can't even say that X is unsayable, because in doing so, we would have made it sayable. In this article, I examine the solution offered by the fifth-century Indian grammarian-philosopher (...)
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Nirukta/Etyomology
  1. The Literal/Non-Literal Distinction in Indian Philosophy.Malcolm Keating - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Article lays out the conceptual space for Indian theorizing about literal and non-literal meaning by way of each of these three textual traditions. Since the article’s structure is topical rather than historical, a chronology of major figures is appended to help orient readers. The focus of the article is the period demarcated roughly from 200 CE to 1300 CE, often characterized as the Classical Period of Indian philosophy.
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  2. Book Review The Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, 2010-2012 Edited by Dr V Kameswari, Dr K S Balasubramanian, and Dr T V Vasudeva.Swami Narasimhananda - 2014 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 119 (8):504.
    The Journal of Oriental Research was started in 1927 by Prof. S Kuppuswami Sastri, who was also the founder of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute. Originally an annual journal, its regularity has been disturbed due to financial difficulties. Th e present issue comprises volumes eighty-three to eighty-four and has been funded by the Dr V Raghavan Memorial Endowment.
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  3. तत्त्वज्ञान, ब्रह्मज्ञान आणि दर्शन Tattvanjan, Brahmjnan and Darsan.Shriniwas Hemade - 2014 - In Girish Kuber & Abhijit Tamhane (eds.), Article in weekly column daily Loksatta in Maharashtra (Indian Express Group). Indian Express Group. pp. 6.
    तत्त्वज्ञान, ब्रह्मज्ञान आणि दर्शन is the 13 article of the weekly column in Daily Loksatta, Marathi publication of Indian Express Group India. The Column is entitled as Tattvabhan तत्त्वभान – A Philosophical Counsciousness. Present article is published on 27th March 2014, explains the meaning and usage of the three terms mentioned in the Title. – Dr. Shriniwas Hemade – Author, shriniwas.sh@gmail.com.
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Indian Linguistic Philosophy, Misc
  1. Roy Tzohar, A Yogācāra Buddhist Theory of Metaphor. [REVIEW]Malcolm Keating - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201808.
    Indian philosophy has a history of sophisticated linguistic analysis (Pāṇini's grammar being the usual example), which includes theories of reference, polysemy, ellipsis, sentential unity, figurative language, and more. Roy Tzohar's A Yogācāra Buddhist Theory of Metaphor is a sustained argument for attending both to the intertextual nature of Indian philosophy and to the philosophical importance of topics such as metaphor and figurative language. Tzohar's central thesis is that Sthiramati, a fifth- or sixth-century CE Indian Buddhist thinker, has a theory of (...)
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  2. Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Mukula's “Fundamentals of the Communicative Function”.Malcolm Keating - forthcoming - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    his introduction brings to life the main themes in Indian philosophy of language by using an accessible translation of an Indian classical text to provide an entry into the world of Indian linguistic theories. -/- Malcolm Keating draws on Mukula's Fundamentals of the Communicative Function to show the ability of language to convey a wide range of meanings and introduce ideas about testimony, pragmatics, and religious implications. Along with a complete translation of this foundational text, Keating also provides: - Clear (...)
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  3. The Literal/Non-Literal Distinction in Indian Philosophy.Malcolm Keating - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Article lays out the conceptual space for Indian theorizing about literal and non-literal meaning by way of each of these three textual traditions. Since the article’s structure is topical rather than historical, a chronology of major figures is appended to help orient readers. The focus of the article is the period demarcated roughly from 200 CE to 1300 CE, often characterized as the Classical Period of Indian philosophy.
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  4. (Close) the Door, the King (Is Going): The Development of Elliptical Resolution in Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsā.Malcolm Keating - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (5):911-938.
    This paper examines three commentaries on the Śabdapariccheda in Kumārila Bhaṭṭa’s Ślokavārttika, along with the the seventeenth century Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsā work, the Mānameyodaya. The focus is the Mīmāṃsā principle that only sentences communicate qualified meanings and Kumārila’s discussion of a potential counter-example to this claim–single words which appear to communicate such content. I argue that there is some conflict among commentators over precisely what Kumārila describes with the phrase sāmarthyād anumeyetvād, although he is most likely describing ellipsis completion through arthāpatti. (...)
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  5. Metonymy and Metaphor as Verbal Postulation: The Epistemic Status of Non-Literal Speech in Indian Philosophy.Malcolm Keating - 2017 - Journal of World Philosophies 2 (1).
    In this paper, I examine Kumārila Bha ṭṭ a's account of figurative language in Tantravārttika 1.4.11-17, arguing that, for him, both metonymy and metaphor crucially involve verbal postulation, a knowledge-conducive cognitive process which draws connections between concepts without appeal to speaker intention, but through compositional and contextual elements. It is with the help of this cognitive process that we can come to have knowledge of what is meant by a sentence in context. In addition, the paper explores the relationship between (...)
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  6. The Cow is to Be Tied Up: Sort-Shifting in Classical Indian Philosophy.Keating Malcolm - 2013 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (4):311-332.
    This paper undertakes textual exegesis and rational reconstruction of Mukula Bhaṭṭa’s Abhidhā-vṛttta-mātṛkā, or “The Fundamentals of the Communicative Function.” The treatise was written to refute Ānandavardhana’s claim, made in the Dhvanyāloka, that there is a third “power” of words, vyañjanā (suggestion), beyond the two already accepted by traditional Indian philosophy: abhidhā (denotation) and lakṣaṇā(indication).1 I argue that the explanation of lakṣaṇā as presented in his text contains internal tensions, although it may still be a compelling response to Ānandavardhana.
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  7. Book Review The Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, 2010-2012 Edited by Dr V Kameswari, Dr K S Balasubramanian, and Dr T V Vasudeva.Swami Narasimhananda - 2014 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 119 (8):504.
    The Journal of Oriental Research was started in 1927 by Prof. S Kuppuswami Sastri, who was also the founder of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute. Originally an annual journal, its regularity has been disturbed due to financial difficulties. Th e present issue comprises volumes eighty-three to eighty-four and has been funded by the Dr V Raghavan Memorial Endowment.
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  8. Forerunners of Malayalam Literature.Swami Narasimhananda - 2010 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 115 (9):525-529.
    A brief survey of the pioneers of Malayalam literature.
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  9. The Sense-Reference Distinction in Indian Philosophy of Language.Mark Siderits - 1987 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 14 (3):331-355.
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  10. Understanding a Philosophical Text. The Problem of “Meaning” in Jayanta’s Nyāyamañjarī, Book 5.Elisa Freschi & Artemij Keidan - 2017 - In Patrick McAllister (ed.), Reading Bhaṭṭa Jayanta on Buddhist Nominalism. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 251-290.
    The authors make an attempt to comparatively analyse some stances of the Old Indian philosophy of language, exemplified by the Medieval Indian author Jayanta, along with the Western tradition of the analytical philosophy of language, and to highlight the differences as well as the similarities. The main focus is on Jayanta's discussion of the meaning vs. reference problem.
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  11. BEING AND BECOMING OF THE MIND: AN UPANISHADIC INSIGHT OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNSESS AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2013 - In In Proceedings of the International Conference o “Is Science able to explain the Scientist? (Science abd Scientist-2013) being held at Synergy Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, on December 08, 2013. Covers Theme 1 : Science of Spiritual.
    Human consciousness, as dealt with in the Upanishads, modeled as a mechanical oscillator of infrasonic frequency (the Atman/Brahman), the result of breathing process, is further advanced to get an insight of functions of mind. An analytical approach is followed in parallel to and separette from quantum mechanical, quantum field and other theoretical propositions, approaches and presentations. Pure consciousness, unoccupied awareness and occupied awareness are identified, defined, classified and discussed together with fresh insight about time-space and time. A reversible transformation (vivartanam) (...)
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  12. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS: A LIFE-SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE OF BRAHMAJNAANA.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2011 - In In the Proceedings of 4th National conference on VEDIC SCIENCE with theme of "Ancient Indian Life science and related Technologies" on 23rd, 24th, and 25th December 2011 atBangalore conducted by National Institute of Vedic Science (NIVS ) Bang.
    A biophysical and biochemical perspective of Brahmajnaana will be advanced by viewing Upanishads and related books as “Texts of Science on human mind”. A biological and cognitive science insight of Atman and Maya, the results of breathing process; constituting and responsible for human consciousness and mental functions will be developed. The Advaita and Dvaita phases of human mind, its cognitive and functional states will be discussed. These mental activities will be modeled as brain-wave modulation and demodulation processes. The energy-forms and (...)
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  13. A COGNITIVE SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE OF YOGA SYSTEM OF THOUGHT.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2011 - In The proceedings of the national conference on "Opportunities and Challenges of Ayurveda (including Siddha) and Yoga in the Present Milieu" (AYURYOG 2011) between 21-23 January, 2011 at Dept. of Sanskrit Studies, University of Hyderabad, at Hyder.
    A cognitive science perspective of yoga system of thought will be developed in conjugation with the Samkhya Darsana. This development will be further advanced using Advaita Vedanta and will be translated into modern scientific terms to arrive at an idea about cognition process. The stalling of the cognitive process and stilling the mind will be critically discussed in the light of this perspective. This critical analysis and translation into cognitive science and modern scientific terms will be presented together with its (...)
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  14. Methods of Philosophical Inquiry in Upanishads.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2012 - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research 1 (2):57-62.
    Philosophy is a subject which does not concerned only to an expert or specialist. It appears that there is probably no human being who does not philosophise. Good philosophy expands one’s imagination as some philosophy is close to us, whoever we are. Then of course some is further away, and some is further still, and some is very alien indeed. We raise questions about the assumptions, presuppositions, or definitions upon which a field of inquiry is based, and these questions can (...)
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  15. Debating Verbal Cognition: The Theory of the Principal Qualificand (Mukyaviśeṣya) in Classical Indian Thought.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Motilal Banarsidass.
    The intellectual culture of India presents us with highly elaborated theories of verbal cognition, known in Sanskrit philosophical literature under the generic name of sabdabodha. The theory explored in this book represents the content of the cognition derived from linguistic utterances as a paraphrase centered on a meaning element-the principal qualificand, which is qualified by other meaning elements. Thinkers of the Mimamsa, Nyaya and Vyakarana schools concern themselves with this topic, situated at the interface between epistemology, linguistics, scriptural exegesis and (...)
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  16. Prasangika's Semantic Nominalism: Reality is Linguistic Concept.Sonam Thakchoe - 2012 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (4):427-452.
    Buddhist semantic realists assert that reality is always non-linguistic, beyond the domain of conceptual thought. Anything that is conceptual and linguistic, they maintain, cannot be reality and therefore cannot function as reality.The Pra¯san˙gika however rejects the realist theory and argues that all realities are purely linguistic—just names and concepts—and that only linguistic reality can have any causal function. This paper seeks to understand the Pra¯san˙gika’s radical semantic nominalism and its philosophical justifications by comparing and contrasting it with the realistic semantic (...)
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  17. Lakṣaṇā as Inference.Nilanjan Das - 2011 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (4-5):353-366.
    This paper questions a few assumptions of Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya’s theory of ordinary verbal cognition (laukika-śābdabodha). The meaning relation (vṛtti) is of two kinds: śakti (which gives us the primary referent of a word) and lakṣaṇā (which yields the secondary referent). For Gaṅgeśa, the ground (bīja) of lakṣaṇā is a sort of inexplicability (anupapatti) pertaining to the composition (anvaya) of word-meanings. In this connection, one notices that the case of lakṣaṇā is quite similar to that of one variety of postulation, namely, (...)
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  18. The Two Kinds of anumĀNa in Bhartrhari's VĀkyapadĪya.Akihiko Akamatsu - 1999 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1/2):17-22.
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