About this topic
Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Purva Mīmāṃsā (or Mīmāṃsā, "Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors" from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the physicalist Cārvākas. Given the diversity of views, theories, and systems espoused by Indian philosophers, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems of thought profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of the Indian philosophical vocabulary are such notions of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its negation in Buddhism in the doctrine of anatta ("not-self"), and mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation) and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of Indian thought is concerned with establishing reliable modes of knowing (pramāṇas), such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued apart from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical theories with Western philosophy, though Indian philosophers have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Bu there are also problems central to Western philosophy like the question of whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason, and such distinctions as that between analytic and synthetic judgments that Indian philosophers did not pursue.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. Reed, E. A. -Hindu Literature. [REVIEW]A. C. H. A. C. H. - 1907 - Mind 16:289.
  2. Jåatåiçya Saòmhati, Bi'sva Saòmhati, Bi'sva 'Såanti 'Sråiråamakôrshòna-Bibekåananda Anudhyåane.Manåindra Candra åacåarya - 1987 - Båiònåapåaòni Åacåarya.
  3. The Åagama'såastra of Gauòdapåada.Vidhushekhara Gauòdapåada åacåarya & Bhattacharya - 1989
  4. Brahmadarsanam.åananda åachåarya - 1988 - Duke University Press.
  5. Anantano Åananda 'Sråimad Devacandrajåi-Eka Adhyayana'. åaratåibåaåi - 1995 - Rati Åamra Såahita Pråakaâsana Samiti.
  6. Granthatrayåi.Vijaya Gani åatmåananda & Sheelachandra - 1999 - Âsråijaina Grantha Prakåaâsana Samitióh.
  7. Advaitavedānte Ānandasvarūpam.Nārāyaṇa Ācārya - 2008 - Sāmvidī Prakāśanam.
  8. Brahmadarsanam or, Intuition of the Absolute, Being an Introduction to the Study of Hindu Philosophy.Ananda Acharya - 1917 - Macmillan.
  9. On the Meaning and Function of Ādeśá in the Early Upaniṣads.Diwakar Acharya - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (3):539-567.
    Many modern scholars working on the early Upaniṣads translate ādeśa as substitute, substitution, or the method or rule of substitution. The choice of this translation, which often affects the larger analysis of the text, started only in 1960s, with the late Paul Thieme who understood ‘substitute/substitution’ as the meaning of ādeśa in the Pāṇinian tradition and introduced that meaning to Upaniṣadic analysis. After carefully analysing all relevant passages in their contexts—not just the individual sentences in which the term occurs, this (...)
  10. Erratum To: ‘This World, in the Beginning, Was Phenomenally Non-Existent’: Āruṇi’s Discourse on Cosmogony in Chāndogya Upaniṣad VI.1–VI.7.Diwakar Acharya - 2016 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 44 (5):865-865.
  11. On the Śaiva Concept of Innate Impurity (Mala) and the Function of the Rite of Initiation.Diwakar Acharya - 2014 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (1):9-25.
    This paper tries to trace the roots of the Śaiva Mantramārga concept of innate impurity. Since innate impurity is regarded as one of the three bonds fettering bound individual souls, this paper begins with the Pāśupata and early Śaiva views on these bonds. It examines the Buddhist logician Dharmakīrti’s criticism of the Śaiva idea that initiation removes sin, and discusses the Pāśupata concept of sin-cleansing and two different concepts of innate impurity found in two early Śaiva scriptures: the Sarvajñānottaratantra and (...)
  12. Niyamsara the Original Text in Prakrit, with its Samskrit Renderings, Translation, Exhaustive Commentaries, and an Introd. In English.Uggar Kundakunda Acharya, Brahmachari Sain & Sitala-Prasada - 1931 - Pandit Ajit Prasada, Central Jaina Pub. House.
  13. Yogasūtra 1.10, 1.21–23, and 2.9 in the Light of the Indo-Javanese Dharma Pātañjala. [REVIEW]Andrea Acri - 2012 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (3):259-276.
    . Besides a philosophical exposition of the tenets of a form of Śaiva Siddhānta, the Dharma Pātañjala contains a long presentation of the yoga system that apparently follows the first three chapters of Patañjal’s Yogasūtra , either interweaving Sanskrit excerpts from an untraced versified version of the latter text with an Old Javanese commentary, or directly rendering into Old Javanese what appears to be an original Sanskrit commentary. Although the Old Javanese prose often bears a strong resemblance with the arrangement (...)
  14. Bhāratīya-Tattvamīmāṃsā.Hariprasāda Adhikārī - 2007 - Navaśakti Prakāśana.
  15. Philosophy of History, the Hindu View.Swami Adiswarananda - 1977 - In T. M. P. Mahadevan & Grace E. Cairns (eds.), Contemporary Indian Philosophers of History. World Press.
  16. Brahmavinnidhiḥ =. Ādiveṅkaṭayogi - 2007 - Abhiṣekaprakāśanam.
  17. Yoga in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa.Sucharita Adluri - 2017 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (2):381-402.
    Though scholarship on diverse methods of yoga in the Indian traditions abounds, there has not been sufficient research that examines the traditions of yoga in the purāṇas. The present paper explores yoga articulated in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa and argues that what seems like a unified teaching is a composite of an eight-limbed yoga embedded within an instruction on proto-Sāṃkhya. An evaluation of the key elements of yoga as developed in this text as a whole, clarifies our understanding of the emergence (...)
  18. Ethics an Hermeneutics in the Mahābhārata.Vishwa Adluri - 2016 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 20 (3):385-392.
  19. Pride and Prejudice: Orientalism and German Indology. [REVIEW]Vishwa P. Adluri - 2011 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 15 (3):253-292.
  20. Paradigm Lost: The Application of the Historical-Critical Method to the Bhagavad Gītā.Vishwa Adluri & Joydeep Bagchee - 2016 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 20 (2):199-301.
  21. Sri Jñatadharma-Kathangam.Jaina Agama, Abhayadeva & Vijayajinendrasuri - 1987 - Sri Harsapuspamrta Jaina Granthamala.
  22. Bhagavaticurnih.Jaina Agama, Abhayadevasuri & Jinadasa Mahattara - 2002
  23. Uvangasuttani.Jaina Agama, Nathamal & Tulsi - 1987 - Jaina Vi Sva Bharati.
  24. Candavejjhayam Painnayam Candravedhyaka-Prakirnaka.Sagaramala Jaina Agama, Sure sa Jaina, Sisodiya & Agama-Ahimsa-Samata Evam Prakrta Samsthana - 1991 - Agama Ahimsa-Samata Evam Prakrta Samsthana.
  25. Illustrated Jnata Dharma Kathanga Sutra Original Text with Hindi and English Translations.Sricand Jaina Agama, Amar & Surana - 1996 - Padma Prakashan.
  26. Vatula Suddhagamah Vyakhyanasamalankrtah.Hec Pi Agamas, Ar Malledevaru, Hec Ke Rama Sastri, En Es Siddhagangayya & Venkatanathacarya - 1900 - Pracyavidyasam Sodhanalayah, Maisuruvi Svavidyanilayah.
  27. Lokasamgraha and Ahimsa in The'bhagavad Gita'.Sp Agarwal - 1991 - Journal of Dharma 16 (3):255-268.
  28. Aspects of Indian Philosophy.Madan Mohan Agrawal - 1986 - Shree Publishing House.
  29. Mithuna the Male-Female Symbol in Indian Art and Thought.Prithvi Kumar Agrawala - 1983 - Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
  30. Iqbal's Conception of God.M. Shabbir Ahsen - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (4):602-604.
  31. Guònòdmi Vicåara Parva.Guònòdmi Candraâsåekhara Aitåaòla & Vi Bi Hosamane - 1991 - Bhåaradvåaja Prakåaâsana.
  32. The Concept of Freedom: An Indian Reaction. [REVIEW]C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar - 1961 - Philosophy East and West 11 (3):153 - 160.
  33. Thirty Minor Upanishads, Including the Yoga Upanishads.K. Narayansvami Aiyar - 1982 - Philosophy East and West 32 (3):360-362.
  34. Rambles in Vehanta.Rajam Aiyar & R. B. - 1908 - Madras, Ezhutthu Prachuram.
  35. Fundamentals of Hindu Faith and Culture.Ramaswami Aiyar & P. C. - 1959 - Madras, Ganesh.
  36. Akalaçnkagranthatrayam Svopajänavivrtisahitam Laghåiyastrayam, Nyåayavini'scayaòh, Pramåaònasaçngraha'sca. Akalaçnka & Mahendrakumåara - 1996 - Sarasvatåi Pustaka Bhaònòdåara.
  37. Akalankagranthatrayam. Akalanka & Mahendrakumara Nyaya Sastri - 1939 - Sañcala-Singhi Jaina Granthamala.
  38. Hindu View of Christ.Swami Akhilananda - 1952 - Philosophy East and West 2 (2):172-173.
  39. Hindu Psychology. Its Meaning for the West.Swami Akhilananda - 1948 - Journal of Philosophy 45 (9):251-252.
    The six volume Psychology ann Religion set of the International Library of Psychology explores the interface between psychology and religion, looking at aspects of religious belief and mysticism as related to the study of human consciousness. Hindu Psychology looks at the relevance of Hindu belief systems and theories of perception for the West.
  40. Sri Aurobindo and Urdu Literature.Waheed Akhtar - 1974 - In Aurobindo Ghose, Srinivasa Iyengar & R. K. (eds.), Sri Aurobindo: A Centenary Tribute. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Press. pp. 140.
  41. Transgressing Boundaries: The Advaitic Songs of Shenkottai Avudai Akkal.Shenkottai Avudai Akkal - 2012 - Zubaan.
  42. The Word.Ashok Aklujkar - 2001 - Philosophy East and West 51 (4).
  43. Sa Bandha and Abhisa Bandha.Ashok Aklujkar - 1989 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
  44. Sa $$Dot M$$ Bandha and Abhisa $$Dot M$$ Bandha.Ashok Aklujkar - 1989 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
    The few abbreviations employed in the body of the article are explained in the bibliography.
  45. The Two Kinds of Anumana in Bhartrhari's' Vakyapadiya'.A. Akumatsu - 1999 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1-2):17-22.
  46. Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics. By Richard Shusterman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Pp. Xv+ 239. Hard-Cover $85.00. Paper $24.99. Buddhist Scriptures as Literature: Sacred Rhetoric and the Uses of Theory. By Ralph. [REVIEW]Flores Albany, Crossing Horizons & Shlomo Biderman - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (1):122-123.
  47. DANTO, ARTHUR C./"Mysticism and Morality, Oriental Thought and Moral Philosophy". [REVIEW]Edwin Alexander - 1976 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 4:135.
  48. Common Good Leadership in Business Management: An Ethical Model From the Indian Tradition.John M. Alexander & Jane Buckingham - 2011 - Business Ethics 20 (4):317-327.
    While dominant management thinking is steered by profit maximisation, this paper proposes that sustained organisational growth can best be stimulated by attention to the common good and the capacity of corporate leaders to create commitment to the common good. The leadership thinking of Kautilya and Ashoka embodies this principle. Both offer a common good approach, emphasising the leader's moral and legal responsibility for people's welfare, the robust interaction between the business community and the state, and the importance of moral training (...)
  49. Padmaśrī's Nāgarasarvasva and the World of Medieval Kāmaśāstra.Daud Ali - 2011 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):41-62.
    This essay focuses on a neglected and important text, the Nāgarasarvasva of Padmaśrī, as an index to the changing contours of kāmaśāstra in the early second millennium (1000-1500) CE. Focusing on a number of themes which linked Padmaśrī’s work with contemporary treatises, the essay argues that kāmaśāstra incorporated several new conceptions of the body and related para-technologies as well as elements of material and aesthetic culture which had become prominent in the cosmopolitan, courtly milieu. Rather than seeing this development as (...)
  50. Rethinking the History of the Kāma World in Early India.Daud Ali - 2011 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):1-13.
    This essay introduces a special issue on the history of kāmaśāstra in medieval India. It briefly reviews the secondary scholarship on the subject from the publication of the first translations of the genre at the end of the nineteenth century. It highlights the relatively unexplored history of later kāmaśāstra, and stresses the need for contexualized and detailed studies of the many kāmaśāstra treatises produced in the second millennium CE. The introduction, and the essays that follow, also argue for an expanded (...)
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