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  1. added 2020-10-31
    Insight, Inference, and 'Induction'.Hugo Meynell - 1999 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 73:47-61.
  2. added 2020-10-31
    Hypothetico-Deductivism: The Current State of Play; The Criterion of Empirical Significance: Endgame.Ken Gemes - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (1):1 - 20.
    : Any precise version of H-D needs to handle various problems, most notably, the problem of selective confirmation: Precise formulations of H-D should not have the consequence that where S confirms T, for any T', S confirms T&T'. It is the perceived failure of H-D to solve such problems that has lead John Earman to recently conclude that H-D is "very nearly a dead horse". This suggests the following state of play: H-D is an intuitively plausible idea that breaks down (...)
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  3. added 2020-10-31
    Research Programmes and Induction.Herbert Feigl - 1970 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970:147 - 150.
  4. added 2020-10-31
    Comment on Mr. Achinstein's Paper.Gilbert Ryle - 1960 - Analysis 21 (1):9 - 11.
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  5. added 2020-10-30
    Styles of Reasoning: A Pluralist View.Otávio Bueno - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):657-665.
    Styles of reasoning are important devices to understand scientific practice. As I use the concept, a style of reasoning is a pattern of inferential relations that are used to select, interpret, and support evidence for scientific results. In this paper, I defend the view that there is a plurality of styles of reasoning: different domains of science often invoke different styles. I argue that this plurality is an important source of disunity in scientific practice, and it provides additional arguments in (...)
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  6. added 2020-10-30
    The Inference That Makes Science.Jude P. Dougherty - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (1):169-170.
    This is the 1992 Marquette Aquinas lecture, the fifty-third in a distinguished series sponsored by the Wisconsin Alpha Chapter of Phi Sigma Tau. Though presented as a lecture, it is clearly the outline of a project that draws upon Ernan McMullin's considerable knowledge of the history of the philosophy of science and his realistic assessment of contemporary scientific inquiry. His is a large canvas and he admittedly paints with wide brush strokes. His major thesis, contra the positivism that lingers in (...)
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  7. added 2020-10-29
    Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice.Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.) - 2014 - Pickering & Chatto.
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  8. added 2020-10-29
    How the Great Scientists Reasoned: The Scientific Method in Action.Gary G. Tibbetts - 2013 - Elsevier.
    1. Introduction : humanity's urge to understand -- 2. Elements of scientific thinking : skepticism, careful reasoning, and exhaustive evaluation are all vital. Science Is universal -- Maintaining a critical attitude. Reasonable skepticism -- Respect for the truth -- Reasoning. Deduction -- Induction -- Paradigm shifts -- Evaluating scientific hypotheses. Ockham's razor -- Quantitative evaluation -- Verification by others -- Statistics : correlation and causation -- Statistics : the indeterminacy of the small -- Careful definition -- Science at the frontier. (...)
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  9. added 2020-10-28
    Revival of Objectivity in Scientific Method.Doug Fraedrich - 2001 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 3 (1):29-46.
    Doug Fraedrich reviews recent developments in the field of scientific method and assesses their relevance for Objectivism. Objectivism differentiates between the concepts of proof and validation. The system exploits the use of "concepts" that are generally not proven, but subject to validation. While proof is accomplished by logical deduction, validation is accomplished by the application of the scientific method. Fraedrich concludes that Error Statistics-based inference is objective and that it meets the desiderata of a normative methodology for scientific inference—a necessary (...)
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  10. added 2020-10-26
    The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference. [REVIEW]John W. Yolton - 1976 - Philosophical Books 17 (2):57-59.
  11. added 2020-10-25
    Evaluating Scientific Theories.Russell Berg - 2009 - Philosophy Now 74:14-17.
  12. added 2020-10-25
    Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science.T. R. Addis & D. C. Gooding - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):37-52.
    We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of new information in a computer model. Experiments with this model display a number of features of collective belief-revision leading to consensus-formation, (...)
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  13. added 2020-10-24
    Scientific Discovery, Induction, and the Multi-Level Character of Scientific Inquiry.George Gebhard - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:261-286.
  14. added 2020-10-24
    The Probable and the Provable. [REVIEW]A. F. M. - 1978 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (1):131-133.
    Salutary reading for all philosophers, and not only for inductive logicians, philosophers of science and law, this important book presents an elaborate theory of inductive reasoning whose substantive features are as strikingly original as the approach is rare. First, the theory is based on concrete, real, actual, and significant instances of inductive reasoning, e.g., Karl von Frisch’s work on bees; that is, though its aim is genuinely theoretical in the sense that it engages in the proper amounts of idealization, abstraction, (...)
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  15. added 2020-10-22
    Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications.P. Achinstein (ed.) - 2005 - The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Peter Achinstein has gathered some prominent philosophers and historians of science for critical and lively discussions of both general questions about the ...
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  16. added 2020-10-19
    Achinstein's Newtonian Empiricism.Victor Di Fate - 2011 - In Gregory J. Morgan (ed.), Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein. Oxford University Press.
  17. added 2020-10-19
    Review of Robert Nola and Howard Sankey, Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Robert J. Deltete - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (1):55.
  18. added 2020-10-19
    The Debate Between Whewell and Mill on the Nature of Scientific Induction.Malcolm Forster - 2004 - In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. pp. 10--93.
  19. added 2020-10-19
    Inference to the Best Theory. Kinds of Induction and Abduction, Rather Than Inference to the Best Explanation.T. Kuipers - 2004 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Induction and Deduction in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 25--51.
  20. added 2020-10-19
    Argument, Inference and Reasoning-Integrating Induction and Deduction.Matti Sintonen - 2004 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Induction and Deduction in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 121.
    In the middle of a conference on the logic of science, an eminent biologist once said: “Does it not bother you guys that we scientists do not use any logic at all.” This statement was meant to be a friendly provocation, but there also was a serious message. Scientists often say that the logical analyses are exercises in formal logic and fail to illuminate what the scientists are doing, actual scientific practice. This recurring complaint, although not completely as I will (...)
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  21. added 2020-10-19
    Scientific Method in Practice.Hugh G. Gauch - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
  22. added 2020-10-19
    Social Inference: Inductions, Deductions, and Analogies.Denise R. Beike & Steven J. Sherman - 1994 - In R. Wyer & T. Srull (eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 1--209.
  23. added 2020-10-19
    Cohen, Jonathan L., "An Introduction to the Philosophy of Induction and Probability". [REVIEW]Peter Milne - 1990 - Mind 99:313.
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  24. added 2020-10-19
    William Whewell: Theory of Scientific Method.Robert E. Butts (ed.) - 1989 - Hackett Publishing.
    This volume includes Whewell's seminal studies of the logic of induction (with his critique of Mill's theory), arguments for his realist view that science discovers necessary truths about nature, and exercises in the epistemology and ontology of science. The book sets forth a coherent statement of a historically important philosophy of science whose influence has never been greater: every one of Whewell's fundamental ideas about the philosophy of science is presented here. -/- .
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  25. added 2020-10-19
    Peirce’s Philosophy of Science: Critical Studies in His Theory of Induction and Scientific Method. [REVIEW]B. R. S. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (3):565-566.
    Rescher examines Peirce’s view of science in terms of four major topics, each of which forms one of the four chapters of the book: the self-correctiveness of science, scientific progress and completability, the efficiency of scientific inquiry, and the economy of research. In the first chapter, Rescher defends Peirce’s position against the attack that though Peirce considers self-correctiveness a crucial aspect of scientific methodology in general, and recognizes that the inductive methodology of science includes not only quantitative but also qualitative (...)
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  26. added 2020-10-19
    Probabilities, Problems, and Paradoxes Readings in Inductive Logic.Sidney A. Luckenbach - 1972
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  27. added 2020-10-19
    The Meaning of Terms Employed in Scientific Languages and the Problem of Induction.Nelson Pole - 1971 - Dissertation, The Ohio State University
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  28. added 2020-10-19
    Scientific Inference.Abner Shimony - 1970 - In Robert Colodny (ed.), The Nature and Function of Scientific Theories. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 4.
  29. added 2020-10-19
    W. C. Salmon's "The Foundations of Scientific Inference". [REVIEW]William H. Baumer - 1969 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (3):472.
  30. added 2020-10-19
    William Whewell's Theory of Scientific Method.Robert E. Butts (ed.) - 1969 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    William Whewell is considered one of the most important nineteenth-century British philosophers of science and a contributor to modern philosophical thought, particularly regarding the problem of induction and the logic of discovery. In this volume, Robert E. Butts offers selections from Whewell's most important writings, and analysis of counter-claims to his philosophy.
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  31. added 2020-10-19
    The Foundations of Scientific Inference. [REVIEW]H. K. R. - 1968 - Review of Metaphysics 21 (3):561-561.
    Originally published as a long essay in Mind and Cosmos, Volume II of the University of Pittsburgh series in the philosophy of science, this study admirably fills the need for an elementary survey of problems in the area of probability and induction. But it is more than an introduction. The author is working on the general thesis that Bayes' theorem of the probability calculus holds the key to the understanding of scientific inference. Guided by this idea he attempts to salvage (...)
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  32. added 2020-10-19
    Scientific Inference.Robert Eisler - 1948 - Hibbert Journal 47:375.
  33. added 2020-10-18
    The Science to Save Us From Philosophy of Science.Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (2):149-166.
    Are knowledge and belief pivotal in science, as contemporary epistemology and philosophy of science nearly universally take them to be? I defend the view that scientists are not primarily concerned with knowing and that the methods of arriving at scientific hypotheses, models and scenarios do not commit us having stable beliefs about them. Instead, what drives scientific discovery is ignorance that scientists can cleverly exploit. Not an absence or negation of knowledge, ignorance concerns fundamental uncertainty, and is brought out by (...)
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  34. added 2020-10-18
    Medical Therapeutics: From Induction to Scientific Evolution.José Pedro Lopes Nunes - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (4):568-583.
  35. added 2020-10-18
    Abstraction, Analogy and Induction: Toward a General Account of Ampliative Inference.Gillian Abernathy Barker - 1997 - Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    My central concern is with the epistemological status of ampliative inference. Three sorts of ampliative inference are initially distinguished: enumerative induction, analogical reasoning, and abstraction. Philosophers of science have generally treated these separately, and in particular have often divorced the familiar problem of induction from equally fundamental questions concerning the use of analogy and abstraction: What kinds of similarity can support inference? How can we pick out those features of a system that are essential for the purposes of understanding, and (...)
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  36. added 2020-10-18
    The Design of Scientific Practice: A Study of Physical Laws and Inductive Reasoning.Marc Barrett Lange - 1990 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The expression of a physical law has usually been understood as a description. Among the entities that different philosophers have maintained that nomic expressions describe are regularities among events or states of affairs, natural necessities, and relations among universals. I maintain that nomic expressions are better understood not as serving a descriptive function but as in many respects playing a prescriptive role; the expression of a physical law, I argue, says that one ought to regard certain claims as able to (...)
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  37. added 2020-10-18
    Science and Hypothesis: Historical Essays on Scientific Methodology.Larry Laudan - 1981
  38. added 2020-10-17
    Abduction, Complex Inferences, and Emergent Heuristics of Scientific Inquiry.John R. Shook - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (2):157-186.
    The roles of abductive inference in dynamic heuristics allows scientific methodologies to test novel explanations for the world’s ways. Deliberate reasoning often follows abductive patterns, as well as patterns dominated by deduction and induction, but complex mixtures of these three modes of inference are crucial for scientific explanation. All possible mixed inferences are formulated and categorized using a novel typology and nomenclature. Twenty five possible combinations among abduction, induction, and deduction are assembled and analyzed in order of complexity. There are (...)
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  39. added 2020-10-17
    The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory.Vladimir Vapnik - 2000 - Springer: New York.
  40. added 2020-10-17
    Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 1996 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: A Historical and (...)
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  41. added 2020-10-17
    Inference, Explanation, and Other Frustrations: Essays in the Philosophy of Science.Clark Glymour & Kevin T. Kelly (eds.) - 1992 - University of California Press: Berkeley.
  42. added 2020-10-17
    Decisions and Revisions: Philosophical Essays on Knowledge and Value.Isaac Levi - 1984 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a collection of Isaac Levi's philosophical papers. Over the period represented by the work here, Professor Levi has developed an interrelated set of views, in the tradition of Peirce and Dewey, on epistemology and the philosophy of science and social science. This focus has been on the problem of induction and the growth of knowledge, the foundations of probability and the theory of rational decision-making. His most important essays in these areas are assembled here, with an introduction setting (...)
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  43. added 2020-10-17
    The Structure of Scientific Inference. Mary Hesse.Noretta Koertge - 1978 - Isis 69 (3):439-439.
  44. added 2020-10-17
    The Emergence of Probability. A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference. Ian Hacking.Mary Hesse - 1976 - Isis 67 (4):624-625.
  45. added 2020-10-12
    Sir John F. W. Herschel and Charles Darwin: Nineteenth-Century Science and Its Methodology.Charles H. Pence - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (1):108-140.
    There are a bewildering variety of claims connecting Darwin to nineteenth-century philosophy of science—including to Herschel, Whewell, Lyell, German Romanticism, Comte, and others. I argue here that Herschel’s influence on Darwin is undeniable. The form of this influence, however, is often misunderstood. Darwin was not merely taking the concept of “analogy” from Herschel, nor was he combining such an analogy with a consilience as argued for by Whewell. On the contrary, Darwin’s Origin is written in precisely the manner that one (...)
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  46. added 2020-10-12
    The Epistemic Importance of Establishing the Absence of an Effect.Ari Kruger, Fiona Fidler, Felix Singleton Thorn, Ashley Barnett & Steven Kambouris - 2018 - Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1 (2):237-244.
  47. added 2020-10-12
    What's Wrong With Our Theories of Evidence?Julian Reiss - 2014 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 29 (2):283-306.
    This paper reviews all major theories of evidence such as the Bayesian theory, hypothetico-deductivism, satisfaction theories, error-statistics, Achinstein's explanationist theory and Cartwright's argument theory. All these theories fail to take adequate account of the context in which a hypothesis is established and used. It is argued that the context of an inquiry determines important facts about what evidence is, and how much and what kind has to be collected to establish a hypothesis for a given purpose.
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  48. added 2020-10-12
    Van Fraassen's Critique Of Inference To The Best Explanation.Samir Okasha - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (4):691-710.
  49. added 2020-10-12
    Peirce's Philosophy of Science. Critical Studies in His Theory of Induction and Scientific Method. Nicholas Rescher. [REVIEW]John V. Strong - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (4):655-657.
  50. added 2020-10-12
    The Inductivist Model of Science: A Study in Nineteenth Century Philosophy of Science.Richard J. Blackwell - 1974 - Modern Schoolman 51 (3):197-212.
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