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  1. added 2020-05-19
    Completeness Theorems for Σ–Additive Probabilistic Semantics.Nebojša Ikodinović, Zoran Ognjanović, Aleksandar Perović & Miodrag Rašković - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (4):102755.
  2. added 2020-04-13
    Channels’ Confirmation and Predictions’ Confirmation: From the Medical Test to the Raven Paradox.Chenguang Lu - 2020 - Entropy 22 (4):384.
    After long arguments between positivism and falsificationism, the verification of universal hypotheses was replaced with the confirmation of uncertain major premises. Unfortunately, Hemple proposed the Raven Paradox. Then, Carnap used the increment of logical probability as the confirmation measure. So far, many confirmation measures have been proposed. Measure F proposed by Kemeny and Oppenheim among them possesses symmetries and asymmetries proposed by Elles and Fitelson, monotonicity proposed by Greco et al., and normalizing property suggested by many researchers. Based on the (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-24
    The Principle of Indifference and Inductive Scepticism.Robert Smithson - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (1):253-272.
    Many theorists have proposed that we can use the principle of indifference to defeat the inductive sceptic. But any such theorist must confront the objection that different ways of applying the principle of indifference lead to incompatible probability assignments. Huemer offers the explanatory priority proviso as a strategy for overcoming this objection. With this proposal, Huemer claims that we can defend induction in a way that is not question-begging against the sceptic. But in this article, I argue that the opposite (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-11
    Choice and Chance: An Introduction to Inductive Logic. Brian Skyrms.Stuart Silvers - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):202-203.
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  5. added 2020-02-07
    Naturalness as a Constraint on Priors.Darren Bradley - 2020 - Mind 129 (513):179-203.
    Many epistemological problems can be solved by the objective Bayesian view that there are rationality constraints on priors, that is, inductive probabilities. But attempts to work out these constraints have run into such serious problems that many have rejected objective Bayesianism altogether. I argue that the epistemologist should borrow the metaphysician’s concept of naturalness and assign higher priors to more natural hypotheses.
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  6. added 2020-01-20
    Rhetoric, Induction, and the Free Speech Dilemma.Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (2):175-193.
  7. added 2020-01-20
    A Material Theory of Induction.John D. Norton - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (4):647-670.
    Contrary to formal theories of induction, I argue that there are no universal inductive inference schemas. The inductive inferences of science are grounded in matters of fact that hold only in particular domains, so that all inductive inference is local. Some are so localized as to defy familiar characterization. Since inductive inference schemas are underwritten by facts, we can assess and control the inductive risk taken in an induction by investigating the warrant for its underwriting facts. In learning more facts, (...)
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  8. added 2020-01-20
    Category-Based Induction.Daniel N. Osherson, Edward E. Smith, Ormond Wilkie & Alejandro López - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (2):185-200.
  9. added 2020-01-20
    Discovery Logics.Thomas Nickles - 1990 - Philosophica 45 (1):7-32.
  10. added 2020-01-20
    Discovery and Ampliative Inference.James Blachowicz - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):438-462.
    An inference to a new explanation may be both logically non-ampliative and epistemically ampliative. Included among the premises of the latter form is the explanadum--a unique premise which is capable of embodying what we do not know about the matter in question, as well as legitimate aspects of what we do know. This double status points to a resolution of the Meno paradox. Ampliative inference of this sort, it is argued, has much in common with Nickles' idea of discoverability and, (...)
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  11. added 2019-12-31
    The Power of Logic, 6th Edition.Daniel Howard-Snyder, Frances Howard-Snyder & Ryan Wasserman - 2020 - New York: McGraw-Hill.
    This is a basic logic text for first-time logic students. Custom-made texts from the chapters is an option as well. And there is a website to go with text too.
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  12. added 2019-11-25
    Statistics Between Inductive Logic and Empirical Science.Jan Sprenger - 2009 - Journal of Applied Logic 7 (2):239--250.
    Inductive logic generalizes the idea of logical entailment and provides standards for the evaluation of non-conclusive arguments. A main application of inductive logic is the generalization of observational data to theoretical models. In the empirical sciences, the mathematical theory of statistics addresses the same problem. This paper argues that there is no separable purely logical aspect of statistical inference in a variety of complex problems. Instead, statistical practice is often motivated by decision-theoretic considerations and resembles empirical science.
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  13. added 2019-10-09
    The Ground of Induction.Donald Cary Williams - 1947 - New York: Russell & Russell.
    A classic defense of the rationality of induction. Williams argues that induction (conceived as inference from sample to population in general) is justified by the proportional syllogism (direct inference), the argument form "Probably if most As are Bs and this is an A, then this is a B." It is a necessary mathematical fact that the vast majority of large samples of a population nearly match the population in composition (e.g. if they have an unknown proportion of black and white). (...)
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  14. added 2019-09-17
    Inductive Logic.Avi Sion - 2018 - Geneva, Switzerland: CreateSpace & Kindle; Lulu..
    Inductive Logic is a ‘thematic compilation’ by Avi Sion. It collects in one volume many (though not all) of the essays, that he has written on this subject over a period of some 23 years, which all demonstrate the possibility and conditions of validity of human knowledge, the utility and reliability of human cognitive means when properly used, contrary to the skeptical assumptions that are nowadays fashionable.
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  15. added 2019-06-28
    Speed-Optimal Induction and Dynamic Coherence.Michael Nielsen & Eric Wofsey - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz030.
    A standard way to challenge convergence-based accounts of inductive success is to claim that they are too weak to constrain inductive inferences in the short run. We respond to such a challenge by answering some questions raised by Juhl (1994). When it comes to predicting limiting relative frequencies in the framework of Reichenbach, we show that speed-optimal convergence—a long-run success condition—induces dynamic coherence in the short run.
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  16. added 2019-06-21
    Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 7: Philosophy of Statistics.Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay & Malcolm Forster (eds.) - 2011 - Elsevier B.V..
  17. added 2019-06-06
    Combining Analogical Support in Pure Inductive Logic.J. B. Paris & A. Vencovská - 2016 - Erkenntnis (2):01-19.
    We investigate the relative probabilistic support afforded by the combination of two analogies based on possibly different, structural similarity (as opposed to e.g. shared predicates) within the context of Pure Inductive Logic and under the assumption of Language Invariance. We show that whilst repeated analogies grounded on the same structural similarity only strengthen the probabilistic support this need not be the case when combining analogies based on different structural similarities. That is, two analogies may provide less support than each would (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Bayesian Induction Is Eliminative Induction.James Hawthorne - 1993 - Philosophical Topics 21 (1):99-138.
    Eliminative induction is a method for finding the truth by using evidence to eliminate false competitors. It is often characterized as "induction by means of deduction"; the accumulating evidence eliminates false hypotheses by logically contradicting them, while the true hypothesis logically entails the evidence, or at least remains logically consistent with it. If enough evidence is available to eliminate all but the most implausible competitors of a hypothesis, then (and only then) will the hypothesis become highly confirmed. I will argue (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability. Kyburg - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (4):549-553.
  20. added 2019-06-06
    The Elements of Logic. [REVIEW]A. E. J. - 1965 - Review of Metaphysics 18 (4):772-772.
  21. added 2019-06-05
    Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability. Rudolf Carnap, Richard C. Jeffrey. Kyburg Jr - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (4):549-553.
  22. added 2019-06-05
    The Problem of Inductive Logic. Imre Lakatos.Alex C. Michalos - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (1):90-91.
  23. added 2019-05-21
    Reason Better: An Interdisciplinary Guide to Critical Thinking.David Manley - 2019 - Toronto, ON, Canada: Tophat Monocle.
    This book is the result of rethinking the standard playbook for critical thinking courses, to include only the most useful skills from the toolkits of philosophy, cognitive psychology, and behavioral economics. -/- The text focuses on: -/- - a mindset that avoids systematic error, more than the ability to persuade others - the logic of probability and decisions, more than than the logic of deductive arguments - a unified treatment of evidence, covering statistical, causal, and best-explanation inferences -/- The unified (...)
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  24. added 2019-04-01
    A Logic for Best Explanations.Jared Millson & Christian Straßer - 2019 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 29 (2):184-231.
    Efforts to formalize qualitative accounts of inference to the best explanation (IBE) confront two obstacles: the imprecise nature of such accounts and the unusual logical properties that explanations exhibit, such as contradiction-intolerance and irreflexivity. This paper aims to surmount these challenges by utilising a new, more precise theory that treats explanations as expressions that codify defeasible inferences. To formalise this account, we provide a sequent calculus in which IBE serves as an elimination rule for a connective that exhibits many of (...)
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  25. added 2019-01-23
    The Hole in the Ground of Induction.Patrick Maher - 1996 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):423 – 432.
  26. added 2019-01-06
    A Comprehensive Theory of Induction and Abstraction, Part II.Cael Hasse - manuscript
    This is part II in a series of papers outlining Abstraction Theory, a theory that I propose provides a solution to the characterisation or epistemological problem of induction. Logic is built from first principles severed from language such that there is one universal logic independent of specific logical languages. A theory of (non-linguistic) meaning is developed which provides the basis for the dissolution of the `grue' problem and problems of the non-uniqueness of probabilities in inductive logics. The problem of counterfactual (...)
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  27. added 2018-10-29
    Recent Work in Inductive Logic.Henry E. Kyburg - 1964 - American Philosophical Quarterly 1 (4):249-287.
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  28. added 2018-09-29
    An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Symbolic Logic Volume 2: Informal Reasoning Assignments.Rebeka Ferreira & Anthony Ferrucci - 2018 - Open Educational Resource: OpenStax-CNX and Canvas Commons.
    This textbook is not a textbook in the traditional sense. Here, what we have attempted is compile a set of assignments and exercise that may be used in critical thinking courses. To that end, we have tried to make these assignments as diverse as possible while leaving flexibility in their application within the classroom. Of course these assignments and exercises could certainly be used in other classes as well. Our view is that critical thinking courses work best when they are (...)
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  29. added 2018-06-05
    Bridging Ranking Theory and the Stability Theory of Belief.Eric Raidl & Niels Skovgaard-Olsen - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (6):577-609.
    In this paper we compare Leitgeb’s stability theory of belief and Spohn’s ranking-theoretic account of belief. We discuss the two theories as solutions to the lottery paradox. To compare the two theories, we introduce a novel translation between ranking functions and probability functions. We draw some crucial consequences from this translation, in particular a new probabilistic belief notion. Based on this, we explore the logical relation between the two belief theories, showing that models of Leitgeb’s theory correspond to certain models (...)
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  30. added 2018-03-15
    Relational Coherence and Cumulative Reasoning.Charles B. Cross - 2003 - In Olsson Erik (ed.), The Epistemology of Keith Lehrer. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 109--127.
    I investigate the consequences of interpreting Lehrer's account of system-relative justification as a theory of inductive inference. I discuss which assumptions about coherence would be sufficient to make the account of inductive inference derived from Lehrer's theory conform to a series of widely discussed general principles, including those constitutive of cumulative reasoning. I then discuss the epistemological significance of the resulting theory of inductive inference.
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  31. added 2018-02-17
    From Bayesian Epistemology to Inductive Logic.Jon Williamson - 2013 - Journal of Applied Logic 11 (4):468-486.
    Inductive logic admits a variety of semantics (Haenni et al., 2011, Part 1). This paper develops semantics based on the norms of Bayesian epistemology (Williamson, 2010, Chapter 7). §1 introduces the semantics and then, in §2, the paper explores methods for drawing inferences in the resulting logic and compares the methods of this paper with the methods of Barnett and Paris (2008). §3 then evaluates this Bayesian inductive logic in the light of four traditional critiques of inductive logic, arguing (i) (...)
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  32. added 2018-01-30
    Inductive Logic, Verisimilitude, and Machine Learning.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2005 - In Petr H’Ajek, Luis Vald’es-Villanueva & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, methodology and philosophy of science. London: College Publications. pp. 295/314.
    This paper starts by summarizing work that philosophers have done in the fields of inductive logic since 1950s and truth approximation since 1970s. It then proceeds to interpret and critically evaluate the studies on machine learning within artificial intelligence since 1980s. Parallels are drawn between identifiability results within formal learning theory and convergence results within Hintikka’s inductive logic. Another comparison is made between the PAC-learning of concepts and the notion of probable approximate truth.
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  33. added 2017-11-29
    Induction: Shadows and Light.Mark Andrews - manuscript
    Inductive conclusions rest upon the Uniformity Principle, that similar events lead to similar results. The principle derives from three fundamental axioms: Existence, that the observed object has an existence independent of the observer; Identity, that the objects observed, and the relationships between them, are what they are; and Continuity, that the objects observed, and the relationships between them, will continue unchanged absent a sufficient reason. Together, these axioms create a statement sufficiently precise to be falsified. -/- Simple enumeration of successful (...)
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  34. added 2017-08-30
    Grounding Reichenbach’s Pragmatic Vindication of Induction.Michael J. Shaffer - 2017 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):43-55.
    This paper has three interdependent aims. The first is to make Reichenbach’s views on induction and probabilities clearer, especially as they pertain to his pragmatic justification of induction. The second aim is to show how his view of pragmatic justification arises out of his commitment to extensional empiricism and moots the possibility of a non-pragmatic justification of induction. Finally, and most importantly, a formal decision-theoretic account of Reichenbach’s pragmatic justification is offered in terms both of the minimax principle and the (...)
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  35. added 2017-05-08
    The Basic Inductive Schema, Inductive Truisms, and the Research-Guiding Capacities of the Logic of Inductive Generalization.Diderik Batens - 2004 - Logique Et Analyse 185:188.
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  36. added 2017-05-08
    Richard M. Martin. A Formalization of Inductive Logic. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 23 No. 3 , Pp. 251–256.Herbert G. Bohnert - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):137-138.
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  37. added 2017-04-08
    Semantic Information Measure with Two Types of Probability for Falsification and Confirmation.Lu Chenguang - manuscript
    Logical Probability (LP) is strictly distinguished from Statistical Probability (SP). To measure semantic information or confirm hypotheses, we need to use sampling distribution (conditional SP function) to test or confirm fuzzy truth function (conditional LP function). The Semantic Information Measure (SIM) proposed is compatible with Shannon’s information theory and Fisher’s likelihood method. It can ensure that the less the LP of a predicate is and the larger the true value of the proposition is, the more information there is. So the (...)
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  38. added 2017-03-13
    Argument and Inference: An Introduction to Inductive Logic.Johnson Gregory - 2016 - MIT Press.
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  39. added 2017-02-15
    Probability, Confirmation, and Simplicity: Readings in the Philosophy of Inductive Logic. [REVIEW]J. M. P. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):385-386.
    As inductive logic and the philosophy of probability theory have become of wider interest, it has become clear that a book of readings in these and related topics would be useful for courses since most of the important articles are scattered and inaccessible. The editors have fashioned an extensive collection of papers in four main areas: the meaning of probability, confirmation theory, simplicity of theories and structures, the justification of induction. Each chapter is preceded by an introduction which sets out (...)
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  40. added 2017-02-15
    Inductive Probability. [REVIEW]R. W. J. - 1961 - Review of Metaphysics 15 (2):341-341.
    Day argues that the meaning of "probable" is partly evaluative and partly descriptive--to say that a proposition is probable is both to recommend its assertion and to say that a certain procedure shows it to be so. The paradigm of an inductive probability judgment, which is the major concern of the book, is "The fact that all observed A's are B's makes it probable that all A's are B's." Several more complex kinds of probability judgments are distinguished and discussed in (...)
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  41. added 2017-02-14
    Hacking Ian. An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic. Cambridge University Press, 2000, Xvii+ 302 Pp. [REVIEW]Branden Fitelson - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (4):506-508.
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  42. added 2017-02-14
    The Inductive Logic of Progressive Problem-Shifts.L. Jonathan Cohen - 1971 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 25:1-2.
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  43. added 2017-02-14
    Assuming, Ascertaining, and Inductive Probability.S. Spielman - 1969 - Studies in the Philosophy of Science. American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph 7.
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  44. added 2017-02-13
    The Theory of Spectrum Exchangeability.E. Howarth & J. B. Paris - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):108-130.
  45. added 2017-02-13
    The Twin Continua of Inductive Methods.Alena Vencovská & Jeff B. Paris - 2015 - In Andrés Villaveces, Roman Kossak, Juha Kontinen & Åsa Hirvonen (eds.), Logic Without Borders: Essays on Set Theory, Model Theory, Philosophical Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics. De Gruyter. pp. 355-366.
  46. added 2017-02-13
    Second Order Inductive Logic and Wilmers' Principle.M. S. Kließ & J. B. Paris - 2014 - Journal of Applied Logic 12 (4):462-476.
  47. added 2017-02-13
    Second Order Inductive Logic and Wilmers' Principle.M. S. Kliess & J. B. Paris - 2014 - Journal of Applied Logic 12 (4):462-476.
    We extend the framework of Inductive Logic to Second Order languages and introduce Wilmers' Principle, a rational principle for probability functions on Second Order languages. We derive a representation theorem for functions satisfying this principle and investigate its relationship to the first order principles of Regularity and Super Regularity.
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  48. added 2017-02-13
    Predicate Exchangeability and Language Invariance in Pure Inductive Logic.M. S. Kliess & J. B. Paris - 2014 - Logique Et Analyse 57 (228):513-540.
    In Pure Inductive Logic, the rational principle of Predicate Exchangeability states that permuting the predicates in a given language L and replacing each occurrence of a predicate in an L-sentence phi according to this permutation should not change our belief in the truth of phi. In this paper we study when a prior probability function w on a purely unary language L satisfying Predicate Exchangeability also satisfies the principle of Unary Language Invariance.
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  49. added 2017-02-13
    Principles of Remembering and Forgetting.E. Howarth & J. B. Paris - 2014 - Logique Et Analyse 57 (228):489-511.
    We propose two principles of inductive reasoning related to how observed information is handled by conditioning, and justify why they may be said to represent aspects of rational reasoning. A partial classification is given of the probability functions which satisfy these principles.
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  50. added 2017-02-13
    An Observation on Carnapʼs Continuum and Stochastic Independencies.J. B. Paris - 2013 - Journal of Applied Logic 11 (4):421-429.
    We characterize those identities and independencies which hold for all probability functions on a unary language satisfying the Principle of Atom Exchangeability. We then show that if this is strengthen to the requirement that Johnson's Sufficientness Principle holds, thus giving Carnap's Continuum of inductive methods for languages with at least two predicates, then new and somewhat inexplicable identities and independencies emerge, the latter even in the case of Carnap's Continuum for the language with just a single predicate.
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