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  1. Allocation of Scarce Resources During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Jewish Ethical Perspective.Amy Solnica, Leonid Barski & Alan Jotkowitz - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):444-446.
    The novel COVID-19 pandemic has placed medical triage decision-making in the spotlight. As life-saving ventilators become scarce, clinicians are being forced to allocate scarce resources in even the wealthiest countries. The pervasiveness of air travel and high rate of transmission has caused this pandemic to spread swiftly throughout the world. Ethical triage decisions are commonly based on the utilitarian approach of maximising total benefits and life expectancy. We present triage guidelines from Italy, USA and the UK as well as the (...)
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  2. Should Institutions Disclose the Names of Employees with Covid‐19?Daniel P. Sulmasy & Robert M. Veatch - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):25-27.
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  3. Latin American Healthcare Systems in Times of Pandemic.Sergio G. Litewka & Elizabeth Heitman - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):69-73.
    Developing World Bioethics, Accepted Article.
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  4. Lessons Never Learned: Crisis and Gender‐Based Violence.Neetu John, Sara E. Casey, Giselle Carino & Terry McGovern - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):65-68.
    Developing World Bioethics, Accepted Article.
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  5. Stability of a Nonlinear Stochastic Epidemic Model with Transfer From Infectious to Susceptible.Yanmei Wang & Guirong Liu - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-12.
    We investigate a stochastic SIRS model with transfer from infectious to susceptible and nonlinear incidence rate. First, using stochastic stability theory, we discuss stochastic asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium of this model. Moreover, if the transfer rate from infectious to susceptible is sufficiently large, disease goes extinct. Then, we obtain almost surely exponential stability of disease-free equilibrium, which implies that noises can lead to extinction of disease. By the Lyapunov method, we give conditions to ensure that the solution of this (...)
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  6. Whose Life to Save? Scarce Resources Allocation in the COVID-19 Outbreak.Chiara Mannelli - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):364-366.
    After initially emerging in China, the coronavirus outbreak has advanced rapidly. The World Health Organization has recently declared it a pandemic, with Europe becoming its new epicentre. Italy has so far been the most severely hit European country and demand for critical care in the northern region currently exceeds its supply. This raises significant ethical concerns, among which is the allocation of scarce resources. Professionals are considering the prioritisation of patients most likely to survive over those with remote chances, and (...)
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  7. How to Hold an Ethical Pox Party.Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104336.
    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties (...)
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  8. ICU Triage in an Impending Crisis: Uncertainty, Pre-Emption and Preparation.Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):287-288.
    The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic raises a host of challenging ethical questions at every level of society. However, some of the most acute questions relate to decision making in intensive care. The problem is that a small but significant proportion of patients develop severe viral pneumonitis and respiratory failure. It now seems likely that the number of critically ill patients will overwhelm the capacity of intensive care units within many health systems, including the National Health Service in the UK. The experience (...)
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  9. Community Perspectives on the Benefits and Risks of Technologically Enhanced Communicable Disease Surveillance Systems: A Report on Four Community Juries.Chris Degeling, Stacy M. Carter, Antoine M. van Oijen, Jeremy McAnulty, Vitali Sintchenko, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Trent Yarwood, Jane Johnson & Gwendolyn L. Gilbert - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-14.
    BackgroundOutbreaks of infectious disease cause serious and costly health and social problems. Two new technologies – pathogen whole genome sequencing and Big Data analytics – promise to improve our capacity to detect and control outbreaks earlier, saving lives and resources. However, routinely using these technologies to capture more detailed and specific personal information could be perceived as intrusive and a threat to privacy.MethodFour community juries were convened in two demographically different Sydney municipalities and two regional cities in New South Wales, (...)
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  10. COVID19 and Health.Darryl Macer Darryl - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (1).
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  11. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic.Robert D. Truog, Christine Mitchell & George Q. Daley - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has led to severe shortages of many essential goods and services, from hand sanitizers and N-95 masks to ICU beds and ventilators. Although rationing is not unprecedented, never before has the American public been faced with the prospect of having to ration medical goods and services on this scale.
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  12. Women Proficiency for Global Crises Management in Ethiopia.Debela Bedada - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (4).
    The COVID-19 virus is a new pathogen that is highly contagious, can spread quickly, and considered capable of causing enormous health, economic and societal impacts in any setting. According to WHO report, about (78%-85%) human-to-human transmission of the COVID-19 virus is the household transmission have occurred in families. The main purpose of this article is to assess the potential of women in crises management. These findings suggest that, women leadership has a potential advantage in crises management mainly because, women are (...)
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  13. Scarcity in the Covid‐19 Pandemic.Mildred Z. Solomon, Matthew Wynia & Lawrence O. Gostin - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):3-3.
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  14. Chinese Bioethicists Speak Out on Covid‐19, and Others Follow.Susan Gilbert - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):inside_front_cover-inside_front_.
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  15. Responding to Covid‐19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically.Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman & Sarah A. Wetter - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (2):8-12.
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  16. Love and Social Distancing in the Time of Covid-19: The Philosophy and Literature of Pandemics.Michael A. Peters - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-5.
  17. The COVID-19 Containment in Vietnam: What Are We Doing?Toan Luu Duc Huynh - 2020 - Journal of Global Health 10 (1):010338.
    This viewpoint provides an explanation from the public health policies of Vietnamese government to contain the contagious disease with regard to COVID-19 pandemic. A combination of an early lockdown, increase in “virality” of the health information, encouragement in health declaration, regulation for wearing mask in the public, and country’s unity have been the effective ways to cope with this deadly virus in Vietnam, a developing country, which became the first country to halt the SARS spread successfully in 2003.
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  18. Norming COVID‐19: The Urgency of a Non‐Humanist Holism.Jeffrey P. Bishop & Martin J. Fitzgerald - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  19. Dynamics of Rabies Epidemics in Vampire Bats.Liang Tian & Juping Zhang - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-11.
    In order to study the transmission of rabies epidemics in vampire bats, we propose a mathematical model for vampire bat rabies virus. A threshold R0 is identified which determines the outcome of the disease. If R0 1, the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable with certain conditions. Through the numerical simulation, the correctness of the theoretical results is verified. We carry out the sensitivity analysis of the parameters which provide a theoretical basis for preventing and controlling the transmission of bat (...)
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  20. Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Ross Upshur, Beatriz Thome, Michael Parker, Aaron Glickman, Cathy Zhang, Connor Boyle & James P. Phillips - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine:10.1056/NEJMsb2005114.
    Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
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  21. Policy Response, Social Media and Science Journalism for the Sustainability of the Public Health System Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons.La Viet Phuong, Pham Thanh Hang, Manh-Toan Ho, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Phuc Khanh Linh, Vuong Thu Trang, Nguyen To Hong Kong, Tran Trung, Khuc Van Quy, Ho Manh Tung & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2020 - Sustainability 12:2931.
    Vietnam, with a geographical proximity and a high volume of trade with China, was the first country to record an outbreak of the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. While the country was expected to have a high risk of transmission, as of April 4, 2020—in comparison to attempts to contain the disease around the world—responses from Vietnam are being seen as prompt and effective in protecting the interests of its citizens, (...)
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  22. YouTube, WeCensor: The Pandemic of Information Control in Times of Covid-19.Martin A. M. Gansinger - manuscript
    This work is focused on the rise of institutionalized information control exercised by governments in times of the Covid-19 crisis and the systematic removal or demonetization of content that contradicts or challenges the defined official narrative on influencial platforms like YouTube. With national authorities fragmenting reality into contradicitng national narratives of confinement/no confinement, masks/no masks, ibuprofen/no ibuprofen, chloroquin/no chloroquin etc. the illusion of objective reality in the perpection of the world and even in the context of scientific discourse become more (...)
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  23. We Need to Relax Intellectual Property Rules to Fight This Virus.James Cooper - 2020 - The Hill 1 (1):1.
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  24. The Wall, the Ban, and the Objectification of Women.Amani Othman & William W. Darrow - 2019 - International Journal of Social Quality 9 (2):1-18.
    Discrimination against women and other vulnerable groups prevailed throughout the twentieth century; it persists today. This historical case study analyzes the life and times of “Typhoid Mary,” an unmarried, Irish Catholic, immigrant woman who was persecuted as an intransigent carrier of a deadly infectious disease. Being a Mexican immigrant, Muslim, or unattractive woman could condemn someone for similar mistreatment today. The failure to overcome prejudice impedes the effectiveness of public health to protect infected patients and susceptible persons from harm and (...)
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  25. One Health and Zoonotic Uncertainty in Singapore and Australia: Examining Different Regimes of Precaution in Outbreak Decision-Making.C. Degeling, G. L. Gilbert, P. Tambyah, J. Johnson & T. Lysaght - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phz017.
    A One Health approach holds great promise for attenuating the risk and burdens of emerging infectious diseases in both human and animal populations. Because the course and costs of EID outbreaks are difficult to predict, One Health policies must deal with scientific uncertainty, whilst addressing the political, economic and ethical dimensions of communication and intervention strategies. Drawing on the outcomes of parallel Delphi surveys conducted with policymakers in Singapore and Australia, we explore the normative dimensions of two different precautionary approaches (...)
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  26. Distributed Control and the Lyapunov Characteristic Exponents in the Model of Infectious Diseases.M. Bershadsky, M. Chirkov, A. Domoshnitsky, S. Rusakov & I. Volinsky - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-12.
    The Marchuk model of infectious diseases is considered. Distributed control to make convergence to stationary point faster is proposed. Medically, this means that treatment time can be essentially reduced. Decreasing the concentration of antigen, this control facilitates the patient’s condition and gives a certain new idea of treating the disease. Our approach involves the analysis of integro-differential equations. The idea of reducing the system of integro-differential equations to a system of ordinary differential equations is used. The final results are given (...)
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  27. Assessing National Public Health Law to Prevent Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Immunization Law as a Basis for Global Health Security.Tsion Berhane Ghedamu & Benjamin Mason Meier - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (3):412-426.
    Immunization plays a crucial role in global health security, preventing public health emergencies of international concern and protecting individuals from infectious disease outbreaks, yet these critical public health benefits are dependent on immunization law. Where public health law has become central to preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease, public health law reform is seen as necessary to implement the Global Health Security Agenda. This article examines national immunization laws as a basis to implement the GHSA and promote the public's (...)
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  28. The remote transmission of contagious diseases in Girolamo Fracastoro’s De Contagione.Ruy J. Henríquez Garrido - 2016 - Ludus Vitalis 24 (45):75-100.
    Thanks to how Girolamo Fracastoro defines the different types of contagion in his book De contagione, et contagiosis morbis et eorum curatione, libri tres (1546), and his defense of the “seeds of contagion” (seedbed) as the cause of contagious diseases, he is considered today one parent of the modern epidemiology and microbiology. One of the crucial problems in this book is to explain the remote transmission of the contagious diseases refuting the etiologic use of the occult qualities. The aim of (...)
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  29. Collaborating with Sovereign Tribal Nations to Legally Prepare for Public Health Emergencies.Tina Batra Hershey - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2_suppl):55-58.
    Public health emergencies, including infectious disease outbreaks and natural disasters, are issues faced by every community. To address these threats, it is critical for all jurisdictions to understand how law can be used to enhance public health preparedness, as well as improve coordination and collaboration across jurisdictions. As sovereign entities, Tribal governments have the authority to create their own laws and take the necessary steps to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters and emergencies. Legal preparedness is a key (...)
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  30. Trust and the Ethical Challenges in the Use of Whole Genome Sequencing for Tuberculosis Surveillance: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholder Perspectives.Carly Jackson, Jennifer L. Gardy, Hedieh C. Shadiloo & Diego S. Silva - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):43.
    Emerging genomic technologies promise more efficient infectious disease control. Whole genome sequencing is increasingly being used in tuberculosis diagnosis, surveillance, and epidemiology. However, while the use of WGS by public health agencies may raise ethical, legal, and socio-political concerns, these challenges are poorly understood. Between November 2017 and April 2018, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 key stakeholders across the fields of governance and policy, public health, and laboratory sciences representing the major jurisdictions currently using WGS in national TB programs. (...)
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  31. Bifurcation Analysis of an SIR Model with Logistic Growth, Nonlinear Incidence, and Saturated Treatment.Ángel G. C. Pérez, Eric Avila-Vales & Gerardo Emilio García-Almeida - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-21.
    There is a wide range of works that have proposed mathematical models to describe the spread of infectious diseases within human populations. Based on such models, researchers can evaluate the effect of applying different strategies for the treatment of diseases. In this article, we generalize previous models by studying an SIR epidemic model with a nonlinear incidence rate, saturated Holling type II treatment rate, and logistic growth. We compute the basic reproduction number and determine conditions for the local stability of (...)
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  32. Is Preventive Detention Morally Worse Than Quarantine?Thomas Douglas - 2019 - In Jan W. De Keijser, Julian Roberts & Jesper Ryberg (eds.), Predictive Sentencing: Normative and Empirical Perspectives. London: Hart Publishing.
    In some jurisdictions, the institutions of criminal justice may subject individuals who have committed crimes to preventive detention. By this, I mean detention of criminal offenders (i) who have already been punished to (or beyond) the point that no further punishment can be justified on general deterrent, retributive, restitutory, communicative or other backwardlooking grounds, (ii) for preventive purposes—that is, for the purposes of preventing the detained individual from engaging in further criminal or otherwise socially costly conduct. Preventive detention, thus understood, (...)
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  33. Considerations for Community Engagement When Conducting Clinical Trials During Infectious Disease Emergencies in West Africa.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Dan Allman, Bridget Haire, Aminu Yakubu, Muhammed O. Afolabi & Joseph Cooper - 2019 - Developing World Bioethics 19 (2):96-105.
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  34. Needs Must: Living Donor Liver Transplantation From an HIV-Positive Mother to Her HIV-Negative Child in Johannesburg, South Africa.Harriet Rosanne Etheredge, June Fabian, Mary Duncan, Francesca Conradie, Caroline Tiemessen & Jean Botha - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):287-290.
    The world’s first living donor liver transplant from an HIV-positive mother to her HIV-negative child, performed by our team in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2017, was necessitated by disease profile and health system challenges. In our country, we have a major shortage of donor organs, which compels us to consider innovative solutions to save lives. Simultaneously, the transition of the HIV pandemic, from a death sentence to a chronic illness with excellent survival on treatment required us to rethink our policies (...)
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  35. Ethics Preparedness: Facilitating Ethics Review During Outbreaks - Recommendations From an Expert Panel.Abha Saxena, Peter Horby, John Amuasi, Nic Aagaard, Johannes Köhler, Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki, Emmanuelle Denis, Andreas A. Reis & Raffaella Ravinetto - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):29.
    Ensuring that countries have adequate research capacities is essential for an effective and efficient response to infectious disease outbreaks. The need for ethical principles and values embodied in international research ethics guidelines to be upheld during public health emergencies is widely recognized. Public health officials, researchers and other concerned stakeholders also have to carefully balance time and resources allocated to immediate treatment and control activities, with an approach that integrates research as part of the outbreak response. Under such circumstances, research (...)
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  36. Big Data Analytics, Infectious Diseases and Associated Ethical Impacts.Chiara Garattini, Jade Raffle, Dewi N. Aisyah, Felicity Sartain & Zisis Kozlakidis - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):69-85.
    The exponential accumulation, processing and accrual of big data in healthcare are only possible through an equally rapidly evolving field of big data analytics. The latter offers the capacity to rationalize, understand and use big data to serve many different purposes, from improved services modelling to prediction of treatment outcomes, to greater patient and disease stratification. In the area of infectious diseases, the application of big data analytics has introduced a number of changes in the information accumulation models. These are (...)
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  37. Impartiality and Infectious Disease: Prioritizing Individuals Versus the Collective in Antibiotic Prescription.Bernadine Dao, Thomas Douglas, Alberto Giubilini, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Nadira S. Faber - 2019 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 10 (1):63-69.
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health disaster driven largely by antibiotic use in human health care. Doctors considering whether to prescribe antibiotics face an ethical conflict between upholding individual patient health and advancing public health aims. Existing literature mainly examines whether patients awaiting consultations desire or expect to receive antibiotic prescriptions, but does not report views of the wider public regarding conditions under which doctors should prescribe antibiotics. It also does not explore the ethical significance of public views (...)
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  38. Can Healthcare Workers Reasonably Question the Duty to Care Whilst Healthcare Institutions Take a Reactive Approach to Infectious Disease Risks?Michael Millar & Desmond T. S. Hsu - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (1):94-98.
    Healthcare workers carry a substantial risk of harm from infectious disease, particularly, but not exclusively, during outbreaks. More can be done by healthcare institutions to identify risks, quantify the current burden of preventable infectious disease amongst HCWs and identify opportunities for prevention. We suggest that institutional obligations should be clarified with respect to the mitigation of infectious disease risks to staff, and question the duty of HCWs to care while healthcare institutions persist with a reactive rather than proactive attitude to (...)
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  39. ‘Birth, life, and death of infectious diseases’: Charles Nicolle and the invention of medical ecology in France.Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):2.
    In teasing out the diverse origins of our “modern, ecological understanding of epidemic disease” Greater than the parts: holism in biomedicine, 1920–1950, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998), historians have downplayed the importance of parasitology in the development of a natural history perspective on disease. The present article reassesses the significance of parasitology for the “invention” of medical ecology in post-war France. Focussing on the works of microbiologist Charles Nicolle and on that of physician and zoologist Hervé Harant, I argue that (...)
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  40. Digital Epidemiology and Global Health Security; an Interdisciplinary Conversation.Stephen Roberts, Henning Füller & Tim Eckmanns - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-13.
    Contemporary infectious disease surveillance systems aim to employ the speed and scope of big data in an attempt to provide global health security. Both shifts - the perception of health problems through the framework of global health security and the corresponding technological approaches – imply epistemological changes, methodological ambivalences as well as manifold societal effects. Bringing current findings from social sciences and public health praxis into a dialogue, this conversation style contribution points out several broader implications of changing disease surveillance. (...)
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  41. Ethics of Infection Control Measures for Carriers of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Organisms.Babette Rump, Aura Timen, Marlies Hulscher & Marcel Verweij - 2018 - Emerging Infectious Diseases 24 (9).
    Many countries have implemented infection control measures directed at carriers of multidrug-resistant organisms. To explore the ethical implications of these measures, we analyzed 227 consultations about multidrug resistance and compared them with the literature on communicable disease in general. We found that control measures aimed at carriers have a range of negative implications. Although moral dilemmas seem similar to those encountered while implementing control measures for other infectious diseases, 4 distinct features stand out for carriage of multidrug-resistant organisms: carriage presents (...)
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  42. Developing Global Capacity in Conservation Medicine: Predicting and Preventing the Next Epidemic From Wildlife.A. A. Aguirre - 2011 - Global Bioethics 24 (1-4):51-54.
    Conservation medicine examines the interactions between pathogens and disease and their linkages with the interactions that occur between species and ecosystems. Thus, it focuses on the study of the ecological context of health and the remediation of ecological health problems. In response to the growing health implications of environmental degradation, conservation medicine includes examining the linkages among change in climate, habitat quality, and contaminants; and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions as they sustain land use; emergence and re-emergence of infectious (...)
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  43. The Dialogue Among Islamic Countries and Groups for a Healthy and Safe Hajj.Koutlaki S. A. Salamati P., Naji Z. - 2017 - Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (15):80.
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  44. Ethics for Pandemics Beyond Influenza: Ebola, Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, and Anticipating Future Ethical Challenges in Pandemic Preparedness and Response.Maxwell J. Smith & Diego S. Silva - 2015 - Monash Bioethics Review 33 (2-3):130-147.
    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on (...)
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  45. Disease Detection, Epidemiology and Outbreak Response: The Digital Future of Public Health Practice.Edward Velasco - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-6.
    Inequalities persist when it comes to the attention, resource allocation and political prioritization, and provision of appropriate, adequate, and timely health interventions to populations in need. Set against a complex socio-political backdrop, the pressure on public health science is significant: institutions and scientists are accountable for helping to find the origins of disease, and to prevent and respond effectively more rapidly than ever. In the field of infectious disease epidemiology, new digital methods are contributing to a new ‘digital epidemiology’ and (...)
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  46. An Ethical Assessment Model for Digital Disease Detection Technologies.Kerstin Denecke - 2017 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 13 (1):1-11.
    Digital epidemiology, also referred to as digital disease detection, successfully provided methods and strategies for using information technology to support infectious disease monitoring and surveillance or understand attitudes and concerns about infectious diseases. However, Internet-based research and social media usage in epidemiology and healthcare pose new technical, functional and formal challenges. The focus of this paper is on the ethical issues to be considered when integrating digital epidemiology with existing practices. Taking existing ethical guidelines and the results from the EU (...)
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  47. A Statistician’s Perspective on Digital Epidemiology.Michael Höhle - 2017 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 13 (1):1-4.
    We address the question “does digital epidemiology represent an epistemic shift in infectious disease epidemiology” from a statistician’s viewpoint. Our main argument is that infectious disease epidemiology has not changed fundamentally as it always has been data-driven. However, as the data aspect has become more prominent, we discuss the statistical toolbox of the modern epidemiologist and argue that problem solving in the digital age, more than ever requires an interdisciplinary quantitative approach.
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  48. How Stigma Distorts Justice: The Exile and Isolation of Leprosy Patients in Hawai'i.Alexander T. M. Cheung - 2018 - Asian Bioethics Review 10 (1):53-66.
    Leprosy has taken on many names throughout human history. But none of its nomenclature has adequately captured the essence of what it has historically meant to live with the disease like the Hawaiian term ma`i ho`oka`awale, or “the separating sickness.” The appropriateness of this term is twofold: on the one hand, it accurately reflects the physical isolation imposed on leprosy patients as a result of stigmatization and quarantine policies; on the other, it seems fitting to use the language of the (...)
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  49. Ethics, Health Policy, and Zika: From Emergency to Global Epidemic?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael J. Selgelid - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):343-348.
    Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation, with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics (...)
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  50. Protective Microbiota: From Localized to Long-Reaching Co-Immunity.Lynn Chiu, Thomas Bazin, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Laurence Delhaes & Thomas Pradeu - 2017 - Frontiers Immunology 8:1678.
    Resident microbiota do not just shape host immunity, they can also contribute to host protection against pathogens and infectious diseases. Previous reviews of the protective roles of the microbiota have focused exclusively on colonization resistance localized within a microenvironment. This review shows that the protection against pathogens also involves the mitigation of pathogenic impact without eliminating the pathogens (i.e., “disease tolerance”) and the containment of microorganisms to prevent pathogenic spread. Protective microorganisms can have an impact beyond their niche, interfering with (...)
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