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  1. Investigating the Risk Factors for Contraction and Diagnosis of Human Tuberculosis in Indonesia Using Data From the Fifth Wave of RAND’s Indonesian Family Life Survey.Nathan Adam, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Marianna Cerasuolo & Mark Amos - forthcoming - Journal of Biosocial Science:1-13.
    Tuberculosis is a globally widespread disease, with approximately a quarter of the world’s population currently infected. Some risk factors, such as HIV status, nutrition and body mass index, have already been thoroughly investigated. However, little attention has been given to behavioural and/or psychological risk factors such as stress and education level. This study investigated the risk factors for TB diagnosis by statistical analyses of publicly available data from the most recent wave of the Indonesian Family Life survey conducted in 2015. (...)
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  2. Justifying an Intentional Species Extinction: The Case of Anopheles Gambiae.Daniel Edward Callies & Yasha Rohwer - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
    Each year, over 200 million people are infected with the malaria parasite, nearly half a million of whom succumb to the disease. Emerging genetic technologies could, in theory, eliminate the burden of malaria throughout the world by intentionally eradicating the mosquitoes that transmit the disease. In this paper, we offer an ethical examination of the intentional eradication of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector of sub-Saharan Africa. In our evaluation, we focus on two main considerations: the benefit of alleviating the (...)
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  3. Ethical and Legal Challenges Posed by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Lawrence O. Gostin, Ronald Bayer & Amy L. Fairchild - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics: Theory, Policy, and Practice.
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  4. The Precautionary Principle in Zoonotic Disease Control.J. van Herten & B. Bovenkerk - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that zoonotic diseases are a great threat for humanity. During the course of such a pandemic, public health authorities often apply the precautionary principle to justify disease control measures. However, evoking this principle is not without ethical implications. Especially within a One Health strategy, that requires us to balance public health benefits against the health interests of animals and the environment, unrestricted use of the precautionary principle can lead to moral dilemmas. In this article, we (...)
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  5. A Public Health Ethics Case for Mitigating Zoonotic Disease Risk in Food Production.Justin Bernstein & Jan Dutkiewicz - 2021 - Food Ethics 6 (2).
    This article argues that governments in countries that currently permit intensive animal agriculture - especially but not exclusively high-income countries - are, in principle, morally justified in taking steps to restrict or even eliminate intensive animal agriculture to protect public health from the risk of zoonotic pandemics. Unlike many extant arguments for restricting, curtailing, or even eliminating intensive animal agriculture which focus on environmental harms, animal welfare, or the link between animal source food consumption and noncommunicable disease, the argument in (...)
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  6. Factors Associated With Post-Traumatic Growth Among Healthcare Workers Who Experienced the Outbreak of MERS Virus in South Korea: A Mixed-Method Study.Hye Sun Hyun, Mi Ja Kim & Jin Hyung Lee - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: Infectious disease outbreaks such as COVID-19 and MERS pose a major threat to healthcare workers' physical and mental health. Studies exploring the positive changes gained from adapting to traumatic events, known as post-traumatic growth, have attracted much attention. However, it is unclear which factors or experiences lead to PTG among HCWs. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate factors associated with PTG among HCWs who experienced the MERS outbreak in South Korea, and fully describe their experience of (...)
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  7. The Way We Live Now?Warwick Anderson - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):834-837.
  8. Learning to Live with the Virus.Robert Aronowitz - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):787-790.
  9. Infection Control for Third-Party Benefit: Lessons From Criminal Justice.Thomas Douglas - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):17-31.
    This article considers what can be learned regarding the ethical acceptability of intrusive interventions intended to halt the spread of infectious disease from existing ethical discussion of intrusive interventions used to prevent criminal conduct. The main body of the article identifies and briefly describes six objections that have been advanced against Crime Control, and considers how these might apply to Infection Control. The final section then draws out some more general lessons from the foregoing analysis for the ethical acceptability of (...)
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  10. Adaptation of Animal and Human Health Surveillance Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases Accompanying Climate Change.Sam F. Halabi - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (4):694-704.
    Anthropogenic climate change is causing temperature rise in temperate zones resulting in climate conditions more similar to subtropical zones. As a result, rising temperatures increase the range of disease-carrying insects to new areas outside of subtropical zones, and increased precipitation causes flooding that is more hospitable for vector breeding. State governments, the federal government, and governmental agencies, like the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of USDA and the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (...)
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  11. Introduction: Microbes, Networks, Knowledge—Disease Ecology and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Time of COVID-19.Mark Honigsbaum & Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-9.
    This is an introduction to the topical collection Microbes, Networks, Knowledge: Disease Ecology in the twentieth Century, based on a workshop held at Queen Mary, University London on July 6–7 2016. More than twenty years ago, historian of science and medicine Andrew Mendelsohn asked, “Where did the modern, ecological understanding of epidemic disease come from?” Moving beyond Mendelsohn’s answer, this collection of new essays considers the global history of disease ecology in the past century and shows how epidemics and pandemics (...)
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  12. Discrimination, Social Stigma, and COVID-19.Kazi A. S. M. Nurul Huda - 2020 - In Md Nuruzzaman (ed.), World Philosophy Day 2020 Souvenir. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Department of Philosophy, University of Dhaka. pp. 47-51.
    This paper explains how discrimination and COVID-19 related stigmas are intertwined. When people stigmatize COVID-19 victims, they act in ways for which the victims suffer status loss and discrimination. As a result, they do not enjoy participatory parity in various aspects of their life making COVID-19 related stigmatization a deplorable instance of discrimination. But a society already fraught with discrimination is a breeding ground of stigmatization often because of people’s fear and anxiety about their life once they become a patient (...)
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  13. Risk Overgeneralization in Times of a Contagious Disease Threat.Spike W. S. Lee, Julie Y. Huang & Norbert Schwarz - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
  14. Selecting Participants Fairly for Controlled Human Infection Studies.Douglas MacKay, Nancy S. Jecker, Punnee Pitisuttithum & Katherine W. Saylor - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (8):771-784.
    Controlled human infection (CHI) studies involve the deliberate exposure of healthy research participants to infectious agents to study early disease processes and evaluate interventions under controlled conditions with high efficiency. Although CHI studies expose participants to the risk of infection, they are designed to offer investigators unique advantages for studying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and testing potential vaccines or treatments in humans. One of the central challenges facing investigators involves the fair selection of research subjects to participate in CHI (...)
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  15. Someday a Big Plague Will Come: Laurie Garrett’s The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance.Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):814-817.
  16. Fear, Anger, and Media-Induced Trauma During the Outbreak of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic.Radek Trnka & Radmila Lorencova - 2020 - Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 12.
    Fear, anger and hopelessness were the most frequent traumatic emotional responses in the general public during the first stage of outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic (N = 1,000). The four most frequent categories of fear were determined: (a) fear of the negative impact on household finances, (b) fear of the negative impact on the household finances of significant others, (c) fear of the unavailability of health care, and (d) fear of an insufficient food supply. The pessimistic (...)
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  17. A Novel Human-Like Control Framework for Mobile Medical Service Robot.Xin Zhang, Jiehao Li, Wen Qi, Xuanyi Zhou, Yingbai Hu, Hao Quan & Zhen Wang - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-11.
    Recently, as a highly infectious disease of novel coronavirus has swept the globe, more and more patients need to be isolated in the rooms of the hospitals, so how to deliver the meals or drugs to these infectious patients is the urgent work. It is a reliable and effective method to transport medical supplies or meals to patients using robots, but how to teach the robot to the destination and to enter the door like a human is an exciting task. (...)
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  18. The 1925 Diphtheria Antitoxin Run to Nome - Alaska: A Public Health Illustration of Human-Animal Collaboration.Basil H. Aboul-Enein, William C. Puddy & Jacquelyn E. Bowser - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (3):287-296.
    Diphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated superficial infection of the respiratory tract or skin caused by the aerobic gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The epidemiology of infection and clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different parts of the world. Historical accounts of diphtheria epidemics have been described in many parts of the world since antiquity. Developed in the late 19th century, the diphtheria antitoxin played a pivotal role in the history of public health and vaccinology prior to the advent of the (...)
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  19. Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética.Agueda Muñoz del Carpio-Toia, Héctor Sánchez, Claude Vergès de López, María Angélica Sotomayor, Luis López Dávila & Patricia Sorokin - 2019 - Persona y Bioética 22 (2):331-357.
    Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética Tuberculose na América Latina e no Caribe: reflexões da bioética The objective of this article is to analyze the conditions of access to health services by people with tuberculosis in Latin America and the Caribbean, reflecting on the public health aspects involved from a bioethical perspective. A literature review of the context of tuberculosis in LAC based on epidemiological data was performed. The results were analyzed from its relationship with (...)
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  20. Beyond the Lab: Eh!Woza and Knowing Tuberculosis.Bianca Masuku, Nolwazi Mkhwanazi, Ed Young, Anastasia Koch & Digby Warner - 2018 - Medical Humanities 44 (4):285-292.
    Eh!woza is a public engagement initiative that explores the biomedical and social aspects of tuberculosis in South Africa. The project is a collaboration between scientists based in an infectious disease research institute, a local conceptual/visual artist, a youth-based educational non-governmental organization and young learners from a high-burden TB community. The learners participate in a series of interactive science and media production workshops: initially presented with biomedical knowledge about TB and, in later sessions, are trained in creating documentary films and engage (...)
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  21. Research and Global Health Emergencies: On the Essential Role of Best Practice.Nayha Sethi - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (3):237-250.
    This article addresses an important, overlooked regulatory challenge during global health emergencies. It provides novel insights into how, and why, best practice can support decision makers in interpreting and implementing key guidance on conducting research during GHEs. The ability to conduct research before, during and after such events is crucial. The recent West-African Ebola outbreaks and the Zika virus have highlighted considerable room for improvement in meeting the imperative to research and rapidly develop effective therapies. A means of effectively capturing (...)
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  22. Zika, Contraception and the Non‐Identity Problem.Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (3):173-204.
    The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome. This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of conception alter which people will exist in (...)
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  23. The Ethics of Brazilian Abortion Law in the Age of Zika.Alix Masters - 2017 - Voices in Bioethics 3.
    As a woman who believes whole-heartedly in the human right to safe and legal access to abortion regardless of circumstance, it is rare I find myself balking at a movement to extend legal access to abortion. However, in the case of Brazil’s Zika epidemic, I am struck by an ethical dilemma. Brazil, a historically pro-life country, is currently considering reforming their anti-abortion laws exclusively in cases of fetal defects caused by Zika infection.[1] I strongly believe reproductive rights are human rights, (...)
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  24. Consideration of Health Capability Paradigm to Ensure Equitable Protection Through Indian National Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Program.Rhyddhi Chakraborty - 2016 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 26 (1):18-26.
    Tuberculosis, caused by bacteria, usually affects the lung. Being airborne, TB has been one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases. In spite of being curable and preventable, the disease has always been a continuous threat to human population. Moreover, there are cases of multidrug resistant, extremely drug resistant as well as HIV associated forms. Recognizing this grave threat, the World Health Organization urged every country to have a national program for tuberculosis prevention and control. After incidences of involuntary detentions of (...)
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  25. Zika Virus.Dilinie Herbert - 2015 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 21 (2):12.
    Herbert, Dilinie The Zika virus has dominated the news media and captured the attention of the international community. Epidemic disease has become the mainstay of public health emergencies in our recent past with Ebola virus in West Africa and now Zika virus in Latin America. An unexpected and troubling feature of this current outbreak is the high incidence of birth defects and neurological health complications. As scientists investigate a possible causal link, health authorities as well as Catholic Church leaders are (...)
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  26. Cholera: history of a great calamity of the humanity.Rita María Sánchez Lera & Pérez Vázquez - 2014 - Humanidades Médicas 14 (2):547-569.
    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de profundizar los conocimientos sobre el cólera y su historia. Se tratan aspectos relacionados con la etiología de la enfermedad, patogenia, cuadro clínico, tratamiento, epidemiología y prevención. El cólera es una enfermedad de origen multicausal donde intervienen factores biológicos, ambientales, sociales, políticos y culturales, la cual está resurgiendo como un problema sanitario de primera magnitud en muchos países. Para su erradicación es necesario desarrollar una fuerte promoción de salud en el seno de (...)
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  27. Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases.Marie Darrason - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  28. Infectious Milk: Issues of Pathogenic Certainty Within Ideational Regimes and Their Biopolitical Implications.Stephen W. Speake - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):530-541.
    Throughout the 19th century and early decades of the 20th century, milk was a dangerous food that required state intervention to make it safe. Throughout this period, the germ theory of contagious disease came to prominence, but could not explicitly determine the causal relationships linking germs, milk, and human illness. Using the notion of an ideational regime, I examine how (1) knowledge claims move from uncertainty to certainty and become privileged claims within ideational regimes that (2) result in an unintended, (...)
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  29. A Case Study in Explanatory Power: John Snow’s Conclusions About the Pathology and Transmission of Cholera.Dana Tulodziecki - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (3):306-316.
    In the mid-1800s, there was much debate about the origin or 'exciting cause' of cholera. Despite much confusion surrounding the disease, the so-called miasma theory emerged as the prevalent account about cholera's cause. Going against this mainstream view, the British physician John Snow inferred several things about cholera's origin and pathology that no one else inferred. Without observing the vibrio cholerae, however,-data unavailable to Snow and his colleagues-, there was no way of settling the question of what exactly was causing (...)
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  30. Robert Koch and the Invention of the Carrier State: Tropical Medicine, Veterinary Infections and Epidemiology Around 1900.Christoph Gradmann - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):232-240.
    This paper reassesses Robert Koch’s work on tropical infections of humans and cattle as being inspired by an underlying interest in epidemiology. Such an interest was developed from the early 1890s when it became clear that an exclusive focus on pathogens was insufficient as an approach to explain the genesis and dynamics of epidemics. Koch, who had failed to do so before, now highlighted differences between infection and disease and described the role of various sub-clinical states of disease in the (...)
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  31. Turning Crisis Into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Siu Ling Wong, Jenny Kwan, Derek Hodson & Benny Hin Wai Yung - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (1):95-118.
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  32. Self-State of Nurses in Caring for Sars Survivors.Hsien-Hsien Chiang, Mei-Bih Chen & I.-Ling Sue - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (1):18-26.
    The aim of this study was to analyze nurses' experiences of role strain when taking care of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We adopted an interpretive/constructivist paradigm. Twenty-one nurses who had taken care of SARS patients were interviewed in focus groups. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The self-state of nurses during the SARS outbreak evolved into that of professional self as: (1) self-preservation; (2) self-mirroring; and (3) self-transcendence. The relationship between self-state and reflective practice is discussed.
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  33. Through the Quarantine Looking Glass: Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Public Health Governance, Law, and Ethics.David P. Fidler, Lawrence O. Gostin & Howard Markel - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):616-628.
    Dramatic events involving dangerous microbes often focus attention on isolation and quarantine as policy instruments. The incident in May-June 2007 involving Andrew Speaker and drug-resistant tuberculosis joins other communicable disease crises that have forced contemplation or actual application of quarantine powers. Implementation of quarantine powers, which encompasses authority for both isolation and quarantine actions, is important not only for the handling of a specific event but also because the use of such authority provides a window on broader issues of public (...)
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  34. Factors Predicting Nurses' Consideration of Leaving Their Job During the Sars Outbreak.Judith Shu-Chu Shiao, David Koh, Li-Hua Lo, Meng-Kin Lim & Yueliang Leon Guo - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (1):5-17.
    Taiwan was affected by an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in early 2003. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine (1) the perceptions of risk of SARS infection in nurses; (2) the proportion of nurses considering leaving their job; and (3) work as well as non-work factors related to nurses' consideration of leaving their job because of the SARS outbreak. Nearly three quarters (71.9%) of the participants believed they were 'at great risk of exposure to SARS', 49.9% felt'an (...)
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  35. Ethics and Public Health Emergencies: Restrictions on Liberty.Matthew K. Wynia - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):1 – 5.
    Responses to public health emergencies can entail difficult decisions about restricting individual liberties to prevent the spread of disease. The quintessential example is quarantine. While isolating sick patients tends not to provoke much concern, quarantine of healthy people who only might be infected often is controversial. In fact, as the experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) shows, the vast majority of those placed under quarantine typically don't become ill. Efforts to enforce involuntary quarantine through military or police powers also (...)
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  36. Ethical Considerations in Presymptomatic Testing for Variant CJD.R. E. Duncan - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):625-630.
    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnostic tests. Research into such tests is well advanced. In this article the ethical implications of (...)
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  37. Ethical Considerations in Presymptomatic Testing for Variant CJD.R. E. Duncan, M. B. Delatycki, S. J. Collins, A. Boyd & C. L. Masters - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):625-630.
    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnostic tests. Research into such tests is well advanced. In this article the ethical implications of (...)
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  38. Nurses' Professional Care Obligation and Their Attitudes Towards SARS Infection Control Measures in Taiwan During and After the 2003 Epidemic.Huey-Ming Tzeng - 2004 - Nursing Ethics 11 (3):277-289.
    This study investigated the relationship between hospital nurses’ professional care obligation, their attitudes towards SARS infection control measures, whether they had ever cared for SARS patients, their current health status, selected demographic characteristics, and the time frame of the data collection (from May 6 to May 12 2003 during the SARS epidemic, and from June 17 to June 24 2003 after the SARS epidemic). The study defines 172 nurses’ willingness to provide care for SARS patients as a professional obligation regardless (...)
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  39. Prophet in His Own Country: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize.Rachel Lewinsohn - 2003 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (4):532-549.
  40. Quarantine in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases.Jane Speakman, Fernando González-Martin & Tony Perez - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (s4):63-64.
    SARS and monkeypox have given the public health community a unique opportunity to examine the use of quarantine measures. Until recently, the word “quarantine”was not used in polite conversation, and evoked unsavory images. The recent SARS epidemic illustrated the important role of quarantine and isolation as a public health response to communicable disease.As public health officials in Toronto began to take control of the SARS epidemic, a second wave of the disease emerged. In the first SARS epidemic, approximately 8,200 individuals (...)
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  41. Quarantine in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases.Jane Speakman, Fernando González-Martin & Tony Perez - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (S4):63-64.
    SARS and monkeypox have given the public health community a unique opportunity to examine the use of quarantine measures. Until recently, the word “quarantine”was not used in polite conversation, and evoked unsavory images. The recent SARS epidemic illustrated the important role of quarantine and isolation as a public health response to communicable disease.As public health officials in Toronto began to take control of the SARS epidemic, a second wave of the disease emerged. In the first SARS epidemic, approximately 8,200 individuals (...)
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  42. The Evolution of Germs and the Evolution of Disease: Some British Debates, 1870-1900.William F. Bynum - 2002 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (1):53 - 68.
    The germ theory of disease famously brought a new notion of specificity into concepts of disease. At the same time, the work of Pasteur, Koch and their colleagues was developed during the same decades as Charles Darwin's theories of evolutionary biology challenged traditional notions of the essentialism of biological species. This essay examines some of the ways in which Darwin's work was invoked by British doctors seeking to explain clinical or epidemiological anomalies, in which infectious diseases did not appear to (...)
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  43. “Fighting an Unseen Enemy”: The Infectious Paradigm in the Conquest of Pellagra. [REVIEW]Chris Leslie - 2002 - Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (3-4):187-202.
    This essay is concerned with popular and biomedical accounts of the appearance of pellagra at the turn of the last century. Many of these accounts portrayed the disease as communicable despite early evidence to the contrary, which suggested it was attributable to nutritional factors. The nonspecific nature of its symptom profile, along with the enormous range of cure-alls offered to the public, made the etiology of pellagra open to a variety of interpretations. However, as the author shows, the infection paradigm (...)
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  44. Demonic Affliction or Contagious Disease? Changing Perceptions of Smallpox in the Late Edo Period.Hartmut Rotermund - 2001 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 28 (3-4):373-398.
  45. Linking Cause and Disease in the Laboratory: Robert Koch's Method of Superimposing Visual and 'Functional' Representations of Bacteria.Thomas Schlich - 2000 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (1):43 - 58.
    Robert Koch based his claim that specific microorganisms cause particular diseases on laboratory studies. This paper examines how Koch set up a plausible line of argument by using special methods of representing bacteria. One kind of representation consisted in making the bacteria visible; the other mode of representation was based on disease phenomena. Using a range of techniques of isolating and controlling microorganisms, Koch combined these different modes of representation in a way that made his claims convincing. Thus, the microorganism (...)
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  46. The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France.David S. Barnes & Ann Dally - 1998 - History of Science 36 (1):115-121.
  47. Cannibalism and Contagion: Framing Syphilis in Counter-Reformation Italy.William Eamon - 1998 - Early Science and Medicine 3 (1):1-31.
    The outbreak of syphilis in Europe elicited a variety of responses concerning the disease's origins and cure. In this essay, I examine the theory of the origins of syphilis advanced by the 16th-century Italian surgeon Leonardo Fioravanti. According to Fioravanti, syphilis was not new but had always existed, although it was unknown to the ancients. The syphilis epidemic, he argued, was caused by cannibalism among the French and Italian armies during the siege of Naples in 1494. Fioravanti's strange and novel (...)
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  48. The Discovery of Chagas' Disease and the Formation of the Early Chagas' Disease Concept.Matthias Perleth - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (2):211 - 236.
    This paper attempts to show how leading contemporary disciplines influenced the discovery of Chagas' disease and the formation of the early disease concept. Chagas was among the first generation of Brazilian trained scientists who incorporated modern principles of tropical medicine in its research. Thus, Chagas was familiar with characteristics of vector borne tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. The detection of a hitherto unknown trypanosome in the gut of a reduviid bug prompted him to search for a related (...)
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  49. Changing Patterns of Communicable Disease: Who is Turning the Kaleidoscope?David Waltner-Toews - 1994 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (1):43-55.
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  50. Tuberculosis in Prison: Balancing Justice and Public Health.Robert B. Greifinger, Nancy J. Heywood & Jordan B. Glaser - 1993 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 21 (3-4):332-341.
    During the mid-nineteenth century the annual tuberculosis mortality in the penitentiaries at Auburn, N.Y., Boston, and Philadelphia exceeded 10 percent of the inmate population. At the beginning of the sanatorium era, 80 percent of the prison deaths were attributed to TB. As the mountain air was “commonly known” to be healthful, the first prison sanatorium was opened in the mountains near Dannemora, N.Y. in 1904. It served to isolate contagious prison inmates until the advent of effective chemotherapy for the disease (...)
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