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  1. added 2020-06-24
    Introduction: Microbes, Networks, Knowledge—Disease Ecology and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Time of COVID-19.Mark Honigsbaum & Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-9.
    This is an introduction to the topical collection Microbes, Networks, Knowledge: Disease Ecology in the twentieth Century, based on a workshop held at Queen Mary, University London on July 6–7 2016. More than twenty years ago, historian of science and medicine Andrew Mendelsohn asked, “Where did the modern, ecological understanding of epidemic disease come from?” Moving beyond Mendelsohn’s answer, this collection of new essays considers the global history of disease ecology in the past century and shows how epidemics and pandemics (...)
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  2. added 2020-06-23
    Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética.Agueda Muñoz del Carpio-Toia, Héctor Sánchez, Claude Vergès de López, María Angélica Sotomayor, Luis López Dávila & Patricia Sorokin - 2019 - Persona y Bioética 22 (2):331-357.
    Tuberculosis en América Latina y el Caribe: reflexiones desde la bioética Tuberculose na América Latina e no Caribe: reflexões da bioética The objective of this article is to analyze the conditions of access to health services by people with tuberculosis in Latin America and the Caribbean, reflecting on the public health aspects involved from a bioethical perspective. A literature review of the context of tuberculosis in LAC based on epidemiological data was performed. The results were analyzed from its relationship with (...)
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  3. added 2020-06-23
    Zika, Contraception and the Non‐Identity Problem.Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (3):173-204.
    The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome. This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of conception alter which people will exist in (...)
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  4. added 2020-06-22
    Nurses' Professional Care Obligation and Their Attitudes Towards SARS Infection Control Measures in Taiwan During and After the 2003 Epidemic.Huey-Ming Tzeng - 2004 - Nursing Ethics 11 (3):277-289.
    This study investigated the relationship between hospital nurses’ professional care obligation, their attitudes towards SARS infection control measures, whether they had ever cared for SARS patients, their current health status, selected demographic characteristics, and the time frame of the data collection (from May 6 to May 12 2003 during the SARS epidemic, and from June 17 to June 24 2003 after the SARS epidemic). The study defines 172 nurses’ willingness to provide care for SARS patients as a professional obligation regardless (...)
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  5. added 2020-06-21
    Cholera: history of a great calamity of the humanity.Rita María Sánchez Lera & Pérez Vázquez - 2014 - Humanidades Médicas 14 (2):547-569.
    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de profundizar los conocimientos sobre el cólera y su historia. Se tratan aspectos relacionados con la etiología de la enfermedad, patogenia, cuadro clínico, tratamiento, epidemiología y prevención. El cólera es una enfermedad de origen multicausal donde intervienen factores biológicos, ambientales, sociales, políticos y culturales, la cual está resurgiendo como un problema sanitario de primera magnitud en muchos países. Para su erradicación es necesario desarrollar una fuerte promoción de salud en el seno de (...)
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  6. added 2020-06-16
    Fear, Anger, and Media-Induced Trauma During the Outbreak of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic.Radek Trnka & Radmila Lorencova - 2020 - Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 12.
    Fear, anger and hopelessness were the most frequent traumatic emotional responses in the general public during the first stage of outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic (N = 1,000). The four most frequent categories of fear were determined: (a) fear of the negative impact on household finances, (b) fear of the negative impact on the household finances of significant others, (c) fear of the unavailability of health care, and (d) fear of an insufficient food supply. The pessimistic (...)
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  7. added 2020-06-16
    Risk Overgeneralization in Times of a Contagious Disease Threat.Spike W. S. Lee, Julie Y. Huang & Norbert Schwarz - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  8. added 2020-06-15
    Factors Predicting Nurses' Consideration of Leaving Their Job During the Sars Outbreak.Judith Shu-Chu Shiao, David Koh, Li-Hua Lo, Meng-Kin Lim & Yueliang Leon Guo - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (1):5-17.
    Taiwan was affected by an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in early 2003. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine (1) the perceptions of risk of SARS infection in nurses; (2) the proportion of nurses considering leaving their job; and (3) work as well as non-work factors related to nurses' consideration of leaving their job because of the SARS outbreak. Nearly three quarters (71.9%) of the participants believed they were 'at great risk of exposure to SARS', 49.9% felt'an (...)
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  9. added 2020-06-12
    Consideration of Health Capability Paradigm to Ensure Equitable Protection Through Indian National Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Program.Rhyddhi Chakraborty - 2016 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 26 (1):18-26.
    Tuberculosis, caused by bacteria, usually affects the lung. Being airborne, TB has been one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases. In spite of being curable and preventable, the disease has always been a continuous threat to human population. Moreover, there are cases of multidrug resistant, extremely drug resistant as well as HIV associated forms. Recognizing this grave threat, the World Health Organization urged every country to have a national program for tuberculosis prevention and control. After incidences of involuntary detentions of (...)
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  10. added 2020-06-08
    The 1925 Diphtheria Antitoxin Run to Nome - Alaska: A Public Health Illustration of Human-Animal Collaboration.Basil H. Aboul-Enein, William C. Puddy & Jacquelyn E. Bowser - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (3):287-296.
    Diphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated superficial infection of the respiratory tract or skin caused by the aerobic gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The epidemiology of infection and clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different parts of the world. Historical accounts of diphtheria epidemics have been described in many parts of the world since antiquity. Developed in the late 19th century, the diphtheria antitoxin played a pivotal role in the history of public health and vaccinology prior to the advent of the (...)
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  11. added 2020-06-08
    Beyond the Lab: Eh!Woza and Knowing Tuberculosis.Bianca Masuku, Nolwazi Mkhwanazi, Ed Young, Anastasia Koch & Digby Warner - 2018 - Medical Humanities 44 (4):285-292.
    Eh!woza is a public engagement initiative that explores the biomedical and social aspects of tuberculosis in South Africa. The project is a collaboration between scientists based in an infectious disease research institute, a local conceptual/visual artist, a youth-based educational non-governmental organization and young learners from a high-burden TB community. The learners participate in a series of interactive science and media production workshops: initially presented with biomedical knowledge about TB and, in later sessions, are trained in creating documentary films and engage (...)
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  12. added 2020-06-08
    Self-State of Nurses in Caring for Sars Survivors.Hsien-Hsien Chiang, Mei-Bih Chen & I.-Ling Sue - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (1):18-26.
    The aim of this study was to analyze nurses' experiences of role strain when taking care of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We adopted an interpretive/constructivist paradigm. Twenty-one nurses who had taken care of SARS patients were interviewed in focus groups. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The self-state of nurses during the SARS outbreak evolved into that of professional self as: (1) self-preservation; (2) self-mirroring; and (3) self-transcendence. The relationship between self-state and reflective practice is discussed.
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  13. added 2020-06-08
    New Developments in the Problem of the Athenian Plague.A. J. Holladay - 1988 - Classical Quarterly 38 (1):247-250.
    The first of these is not a single disease but a group of three: ‘all the clinical and epidemiological evidence described by Thucydides’ ‘can be attributed to infection with influenza virus complicated by a toxin-producing strain of noninvasive staphylococcus’. This initial analysis is in fact supplemented by bullous impetigo in an attempt to explain the marked skin symptoms which are not ascribable to the other two diseases: streptococci produce flushes of the skin that end in desquamation – something which Langmuir (...)
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  14. added 2020-06-08
    New Developments in the Problem of the Athenian Plague.A. J. Holladay - 1988 - Classical Quarterly 38 (01):247-.
    The first of these is not a single disease but a group of three: ‘all the clinical and epidemiological evidence described by Thucydides’ ‘can be attributed to infection with influenza virus complicated by a toxin-producing strain of noninvasive staphylococcus’ . This initial analysis is in fact supplemented by bullous impetigo in an attempt to explain the marked skin symptoms which are not ascribable to the other two diseases: streptococci produce flushes of the skin that end in desquamation – something which (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-22
    Research and Global Health Emergencies: On the Essential Role of Best Practice.Nayha Sethi - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (3):237-250.
    This article addresses an important, overlooked regulatory challenge during global health emergencies. It provides novel insights into how, and why, best practice can support decision makers in interpreting and implementing key guidance on conducting research during GHEs. The ability to conduct research before, during and after such events is crucial. The recent West-African Ebola outbreaks and the Zika virus have highlighted considerable room for improvement in meeting the imperative to research and rapidly develop effective therapies. A means of effectively capturing (...)
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  16. added 2020-05-22
    Zika Virus.Dilinie Herbert - 2015 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 21 (2):12.
    Herbert, Dilinie The Zika virus has dominated the news media and captured the attention of the international community. Epidemic disease has become the mainstay of public health emergencies in our recent past with Ebola virus in West Africa and now Zika virus in Latin America. An unexpected and troubling feature of this current outbreak is the high incidence of birth defects and neurological health complications. As scientists investigate a possible causal link, health authorities as well as Catholic Church leaders are (...)
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  17. added 2020-05-22
    One Health as a Collective Responsibility.M. F. Verweij & F. L. B. Meijboom - unknown
    In spite of the fact that in recent years many steps have been taken in the control of zoonotic diseases, we are still confronted with recent outbreaks of, for example Ebola and Avian Flu and with public debates on the preferred way to deal with zoonoses. Such debates can easily get polarised. Therefore, we argue that a more integrated approach is needed. In this paper we propose an integration on three levels. First, the One Health initiative could serve a fruitful (...)
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  18. added 2020-05-21
    Ethics and Public Health Emergencies: Restrictions on Liberty.Matthew K. Wynia - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):1 – 5.
    Responses to public health emergencies can entail difficult decisions about restricting individual liberties to prevent the spread of disease. The quintessential example is quarantine. While isolating sick patients tends not to provoke much concern, quarantine of healthy people who only might be infected often is controversial. In fact, as the experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) shows, the vast majority of those placed under quarantine typically don't become ill. Efforts to enforce involuntary quarantine through military or police powers also (...)
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  19. added 2020-05-21
    Ethical Considerations in Presymptomatic Testing for Variant CJD.R. E. Duncan, M. B. Delatycki, S. J. Collins, A. Boyd & C. L. Masters - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):625-630.
    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnostic tests. Research into such tests is well advanced. In this article the ethical implications of (...)
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  20. added 2020-05-21
    Ethical Considerations in Presymptomatic Testing for Variant CJD.R. E. Duncan - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):625-630.
    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnostic tests. Research into such tests is well advanced. In this article the ethical implications of (...)
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  21. added 2020-05-18
    When Slaughter Makes Sense.Peter Singer & Karen Dawn - unknown
    For the past month, the nightly television news has been showing us animals being slaughtered. Governments in 10 Asian countries have killed more than 25 million ducks and chickens to stem the spread of avian flu. China has drowned thousands of civet cats suspected of spreading Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, the often-lethal disease usually abbreviated to SARS. Here in the United States, more than 700 dairy cows, so far, have been killed in order to contain any possible spread of mad (...)
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  22. added 2020-05-15
    Ethical and Legal Challenges Posed by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Lawrence O. Gostin, Ronald Bayer & Amy L. Fairchild - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics: Theory, Policy, and Practice.
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  23. added 2020-05-15
    Infectious Milk: Issues of Pathogenic Certainty Within Ideational Regimes and Their Biopolitical Implications.Stephen W. Speake - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):530-541.
    Throughout the 19th century and early decades of the 20th century, milk was a dangerous food that required state intervention to make it safe. Throughout this period, the germ theory of contagious disease came to prominence, but could not explicitly determine the causal relationships linking germs, milk, and human illness. Using the notion of an ideational regime, I examine how (1) knowledge claims move from uncertainty to certainty and become privileged claims within ideational regimes that (2) result in an unintended, (...)
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  24. added 2020-05-15
    Turning Crisis Into Opportunity: Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry as Illustrated in the Scientific Research on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Siu Ling Wong, Jenny Kwan, Derek Hodson & Benny Hin Wai Yung - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (1):95-118.
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  25. added 2020-05-15
    Quarantine in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases.Jane Speakman, Fernando Gonzalez-Martin & Tony Perez - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4_suppl):63-64.
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  26. added 2020-05-15
    Quarantine in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases.Jane Speakman, Fernando Gonzalez-Martin & Tony Perez - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (s4):63-64.
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  27. added 2020-05-15
    Changing Patterns of Communicable Disease: Who is Turning the Kaleidoscope?David Waltner-Toews - 1994 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (1):43-55.
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  28. added 2020-04-30
    Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases.Marie Darrason - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  29. added 2020-04-30
    A Case Study in Explanatory Power: John Snow’s Conclusions About the Pathology and Transmission of Cholera.Dana Tulodziecki - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (3):306-316.
    In the mid-1800s, there was much debate about the origin or 'exciting cause' of cholera. Despite much confusion surrounding the disease, the so-called miasma theory emerged as the prevalent account about cholera's cause. Going against this mainstream view, the British physician John Snow inferred several things about cholera's origin and pathology that no one else inferred. Without observing the vibrio cholerae, however,-data unavailable to Snow and his colleagues-, there was no way of settling the question of what exactly was causing (...)
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  30. added 2020-04-30
    Robert Koch and the Invention of the Carrier State: Tropical Medicine, Veterinary Infections and Epidemiology Around 1900.Christoph Gradmann - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):232-240.
    This paper reassesses Robert Koch’s work on tropical infections of humans and cattle as being inspired by an underlying interest in epidemiology. Such an interest was developed from the early 1890s when it became clear that an exclusive focus on pathogens was insufficient as an approach to explain the genesis and dynamics of epidemics. Koch, who had failed to do so before, now highlighted differences between infection and disease and described the role of various sub-clinical states of disease in the (...)
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  31. added 2020-04-30
    “Fighting an Unseen Enemy”: The Infectious Paradigm in the Conquest of Pellagra. [REVIEW]Chris Leslie - 2002 - Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (3-4):187-202.
    This essay is concerned with popular and biomedical accounts of the appearance of pellagra at the turn of the last century. Many of these accounts portrayed the disease as communicable despite early evidence to the contrary, which suggested it was attributable to nutritional factors. The nonspecific nature of its symptom profile, along with the enormous range of cure-alls offered to the public, made the etiology of pellagra open to a variety of interpretations. However, as the author shows, the infection paradigm (...)
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  32. added 2020-04-30
    The Evolution of Germs and the Evolution of Disease: Some British Debates, 1870-1900.William F. Bynum - 2002 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (1):53 - 68.
    The germ theory of disease famously brought a new notion of specificity into concepts of disease. At the same time, the work of Pasteur, Koch and their colleagues was developed during the same decades as Charles Darwin's theories of evolutionary biology challenged traditional notions of the essentialism of biological species. This essay examines some of the ways in which Darwin's work was invoked by British doctors seeking to explain clinical or epidemiological anomalies, in which infectious diseases did not appear to (...)
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  33. added 2020-04-30
    Demonic Affliction or Contagious Disease? Changing Perceptions of Smallpox in the Late Edo Period.Hartmut Rotermund - 2001 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 28 (3-4):373-398.
  34. added 2020-04-30
    Linking Cause and Disease in the Laboratory: Robert Koch's Method of Superimposing Visual and 'Functional' Representations of Bacteria.Thomas Schlich - 2000 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (1):43 - 58.
    Robert Koch based his claim that specific microorganisms cause particular diseases on laboratory studies. This paper examines how Koch set up a plausible line of argument by using special methods of representing bacteria. One kind of representation consisted in making the bacteria visible; the other mode of representation was based on disease phenomena. Using a range of techniques of isolating and controlling microorganisms, Koch combined these different modes of representation in a way that made his claims convincing. Thus, the microorganism (...)
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  35. added 2020-04-30
    The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France.David S. Barnes & Ann Dally - 1998 - History of Science 36 (1):115-121.
  36. added 2020-04-30
    The Discovery of Chagas' Disease and the Formation of the Early Chagas' Disease Concept.Matthias Perleth - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (2):211 - 236.
    This paper attempts to show how leading contemporary disciplines influenced the discovery of Chagas' disease and the formation of the early disease concept. Chagas was among the first generation of Brazilian trained scientists who incorporated modern principles of tropical medicine in its research. Thus, Chagas was familiar with characteristics of vector borne tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. The detection of a hitherto unknown trypanosome in the gut of a reduviid bug prompted him to search for a related (...)
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  37. added 2020-04-30
    Pandora's Box and the History of the Respiratory Viruses: A Case Study of Serendipity in Research.Edwin D. Kilbourne - 1992 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (2):299 - 308.
    As fastidious human parasites, the respiratory viruses other than influenza viruses have been among the last of the human viruses to be isolated. Their recognition has been dependent upon the evolving technology of cell culture and equally upon a series of fortuitous observations by astute investigators. Adenoviruses were discovered independently by two different groups of scientists, one utilizing explantation of ostensibly normal human tissues and the other recovering virus directly from epidemics of acute disease. In other studies, a technique developed (...)
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  38. added 2020-04-30
    Die Wechselfieber bei Galen.Renate Wittern - 1989 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 11 (1):3 - 22.
    In his comprehensive Oeuvre, Galen of Pergamon, who interpreted and perfected Hippocratic medicine, made many times and in various contexts mention of the intermittent fevers, among which malaria undoubtedly held a prominent position. The following article gives an outline of Galen's theoretical concept of this infectious disease, which was of utmost importance for the history of Italy. Galen describes three different types of intermittent fevers, of which, according to his theory of humoural pathology, each one is caused by a special (...)
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  39. added 2020-04-30
    The Causes of Infectious Disease.Ferdinand Hueppe - 1898 - The Monist 8 (3):384-414.
    THE WISH "to know the cause of things" is as old as man- kind itself. In medicine the scientific period dawned at the moment when the question as to the connexion of disease with environment was clearly propounded by Diodorus and by Hippo- crates, "the father of medicine." In former times men were generally satisfied, and they are fre- quently satisfied to-day, with the vaguest conceptions of things, conceptions based on the common ground of a search after animate causes or (...)
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  40. added 2020-04-29
    Malaria--Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.G. V. Brown & G. J. Nossal - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (1):65-76.
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