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Summary Inter-level metaphysics pertains to the question of whether reality has a leveled structure, and if so, what relations underpin this structure. That reality has a leveled structure is often motivated by attention to special scientific entities, features, and laws, which appear to cotemporally depend on lower-level, ultimately physical entities and features, but also to be ontologically and perhaps also causally distinctive as compared to lower-level entities, features, and laws; ordinary experience of dependent macro-entities and features is also seen as motivating leveled structure. Candidate relations offered as connecting goings-on at different levels include supervenience, mereological composition, functional or subset-of-powers-based realization, the determinable-determinate relation, causal mechanism, and primitive Grounding, among others. Deflationary accounts of leveled structure include reductionist approaches, according to which seemingly higher-level goings-on are in fact type or token identical to (typically massively complex) lower-level goings-on, and eliminativist approaches, according to which higher-level goings-on do not exist, even as reducible to lower-level goings-on. 
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  1. Setting the Story Straight: Fictionalism About Grounding.Naomi Thompson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    This paper explores a middle way between realism and eliminativism about grounding. Grounding-talk is intelligible and useful, but it fails to pick out grounding relations that exist or obtain in reality. Instead, grounding-talk allows us to convey facts about what metaphysically explains what, and about the worldly dependence relations that give rise to those explanations.
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  2. Review of Theodore Sider's The Tools of Metaphysics and the Metaphysics of Science. [REVIEW]T. Scott Dixon - 2021 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  3. Natural Cybernetics and Mathematical History: The Principle of Least Choice in History.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Cultural Anthropology (Elsevier: SSRN) 5 (23):1-44.
    The paper follows the track of a previous paper “Natural cybernetics of time” in relation to history in a research of the ways to be mathematized regardless of being a descriptive humanitarian science withal investigating unique events and thus rejecting any repeatability. The pathway of classical experimental science to be mathematized gradually and smoothly by more and more relevant mathematical models seems to be inapplicable. Anyway quantum mechanics suggests another pathway for mathematization; considering the historical reality as dual or “complimentary” (...)
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  4. The Ontology of Mechanisms.Isaac Wilhelm - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (11):615-636.
    I propose a metaphysical theory of mechanisms based on the notion of causation. In particular, I use causation to formulate existence, identity, and parthood conditions for mechanisms. These conditions provide a sound metaphysical basis for accounts of mechanistic explanation, mechanistic organization, and for more restrictive theories of mechanisms.
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  5. Symposium: Are Physical, Biological and Psychological Categories Irreducible?J. S. Haldane, D'Arcy W. Thompson, P. Chalmers Mitchell & L. T. Hobhouse - 1918 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 1 (1):11-74.
  6. XVIII.—Symposium: Are Physical, Biological and Psychological Categories Irreducible?J. S. Haldane, D'Arcy W. Thompson, P. Chalmers Mitchell & L. T. Hobhouse - 1918 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 18 (1):419-478.
  7. Causal and Constitutive Relations, and the Squaring of Coleman’s Diagram: Reply to Vromen. [REVIEW]Nicolai Foss - 2010 - Erkenntnis 73 (3):385-391.
    We respond to Jack Vromen’s (this issue) critique of our discussion of the missing micro-foundations of work on routines and capabilities in economics and management research. Contrary to Vromen, we argue that (1) inter-level relations can be causal, and that inter-level causal relations may also obtain between routines and actions and interactions; (2) there are no macro-level causal mechanisms; and (3) on certain readings of the notion of routines and capabilities, these may be macro causes.
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  1. Power Emergentism and the Collapse Problem.Elanor Taylor - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Strong emergentism is the position that certain higher-level properties display a kind of metaphysical autonomy from the lower-level properties in which they are grounded. The prospect of collapse is a problem for strong emergentism. According to those who press the collapse problem any purportedly strongly emergent feature inheres in the emergence base, and so is not genuinely autonomous from that base. Recently, Umut Baysan and Jessica Wilson have argued that power emergentism avoids the collapse problem. In this paper, I challenge (...)
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  2. Composing Spacetime.Sam Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy.
    According to a number of approaches in theoretical physics spacetime does not exist fundamentally. Rather, spacetime exists by depending on another, more fundamental, non-spatiotemporal structure. A prevalent opinion in the literature is that this dependence should not be analysed in terms of composition. We should not say, that is, that spacetime depends on an ontology of non-spatiotemporal entities in virtue of having them as parts. But is that really right? On the contrary, we argue that a mereological approach to dependent (...)
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  3. Quantum Gravity and Mereology: Not So Simple.Samuel Baron & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly.
    A number of philosophers have argued in favour of extended simples on the grounds that they are needed by fundamental physics. The arguments typically appeal to theories of quantum gravity. To date, the argument in favour of extended simples has ignored the fact that the very existence of spacetime is put under pressure by quantum gravity. We thus consider the case for extended simples in the context of different views on the existence of spacetime. We show that the case for (...)
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  4. Out of Nowhere: Introduction: The Emergence of Spacetime.Nick Huggett & Christian Wuthrich - 2021
    This is a chapter of the planned monograph "Out of Nowhere: The Emergence of Spacetime in Quantum Theories of Gravity", co-authored by Nick Huggett and Christian Wüthrich and under contract with Oxford University Press. (More information at www<dot>beyondspacetime<dot>net.) This chapter introduces the problem of emergence of spacetime in quantum gravity. It introduces the main philosophical challenge to spacetime emergence and sketches our preferred solution to it.
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  5. Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond.Brigitte Falkenburg & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) - 2019 - Dordrecht, Niederlande: Springer.
    This volume offers a broad, philosophical discussion on mechanical explanations. Coverage ranges from historical approaches and general questions to physics and higher-level sciences . The contributors also consider the topics of complexity, emergence, and reduction. Mechanistic explanations detail how certain properties of a whole stem from the causal activities of its parts. This kind of explanation is in particular employed in explanatory models of the behavior of complex systems. Often used in biology and neuroscience, mechanistic explanation models have been often (...)
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  6. The Biosemiotic Implications of 'Bacterial Wisdom'.Felipe-Andres Piedra & Donald R. Frohlich - manuscript
    Eshel Ben-Jacob’s manuscript entitled ‘Bacterial wisdom, Gödel’s theorem and creative genomic webs’ summarizes decades of work demonstrating adaptive mutagenesis in bacterial genomes. Bacterial genomes, each an essential part of a Kantian whole that is a single bacterium, are thus not independent of the environment as sensed; and a single bacterium is therefore a semiotic entity. Ben-Jacob suggests this but errs in 1) assigning autonomy to the genome, and 2) analogizing through computation without making clear whether he is doing so for (...)
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  7. Mario Bunge. Epistemology is Here to Stay.Ricardo J. Gómez - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:online.
    The main claim of this study is that, contrary to Latour’s view about the need to leave aside epistemology to deal with anything valuable about science, Mario Bunge has consistently built up a detailed and thorough epistemology. The argumentative strategy will be to show that (a) it is not true that we have never been modern (b) epistemology is here to stay, and (c) Mario Bunge endorses a strong scientific realism, a brand of materialism, systemism and emergentism, including a moral (...)
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  8. Le monde selon Bunge. De la méthode au modèle à la réalité.Jean Robillard - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:79-102.
    Deux idées centrales sont défendues dans cet article. La première concerne les liens entre les concepts de matérialisme émergentiste et de réalisme critique dans la métaphysique bungéenne. Je défends la thèse que le réalisme critique bungéen doit intégrer épistémologiquement celui de matérialisme afin de se développer en tant que doctrine méthodologique. J’y analyse ce que je considère être les fondements de la méthode de la construction de cette même métaphysique, soit l’affirmation du postulat de l’extériorité du monde concret et son (...)
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  9. Mario Bunge. L’épistémologie est là pour de bon.Ricardo J. Gómez - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:177-198.
    Cette étude défend l’idée que, contrairement à l’opinion de Latour sur la nécessité de laisser de côté l’épistémologie pour traiter de tout ce qui a de la valeur pour la science, Mario Bunge a systématiquement construit une épistémologie détaillée et approfondie. La stratégie argumentative consistera à montrer (a) qu’il est faux que nous n’avons jamais été modernes (b) que l’épistémologie est là pour de bon et (c) que Mario Bunge soutient un réalisme scientifique fort, une version du matérialisme, du systémisme (...)
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  10. The curious case of spacetime emergence.Sam Baron - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 177 (8):2207-2226.
    Work in quantum gravity suggests that spacetime is not fundamental. Rather, spacetime emerges from an underlying, non-spatiotemporal reality. After clarifying the type of emergence at issue, I argue that standard conceptions of emergence available in metaphysics won’t work for the emergence of spacetime. I go on to consider spacetime functionalism as a way to make sense of spacetime emergence. I argue that a functionalist approach to spacetime modelled on mental state functionalism is not a viable alternative to the standard conception (...)
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  11. Человек – это память.Andrej Poleev - 2019 - Enzymes 17.
    Человек – это память. Чтобы понять, что такое человек, необходимо понять, что такое память.
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  12. Humeanism, Best System Laws, and Emergence.Olivier Sartenaer - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (4):719-738.
    In the current article and contrary to a widespread assumption, I argue that Humeanism and ontological emergence can peacefully coexist. Such a coexistence can be established by reviving elements of John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of science, in which an idiosyncratic account of diachronic emergence is associated with extensions of the Humean mosaic and the correlative coming into being of new best system laws, which have the peculiarity of being temporally indexed. Incidentally, this reconciliation of Humeanism and emergence allows for conceiving (...)
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  13. Emergence, Function and Realization.Umut Baysan - forthcoming - In Sophie Gibb, Robin Hendry & Tom Lancaster (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Emergence. London: Routledge.
    “Realization” and “emergence” are two concepts that are sometimes used to describe same or similar phenomena in philosophy of mind and the special sciences, where such phenomena involve the synchronic dependence of some higher-level states of affairs on the lower-level ones. According to a popular line of thought, higher-level properties that are invoked in the special sciences are realized by, and/or emergent from, lower-level, broadly physical, properties. So, these two concepts are taken to refer to relations between properties from different (...)
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  14. Karen Bennett, Making Things Up, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, Ix + 260 Pp., £45 , ISBN: 9780199682683. [REVIEW]Jan Plate - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (3):466-473.
  15. Emergentism and the Contingent Solubility of Salt.Lok-Chi Chan - 2018 - Theoria 84 (4):309-324.
    Alexander Bird (2001; 2002; 2007) offers a powerful argument showing that, regardless of whether necessitarianism or contingentism about laws is true, salt necessarily dissolves in water. The argument is that the same laws of nature that are necessary for the constitution of salt necessitate the solubility of salt. This paper shows that Bird’s argument faces a serious objection if the possibility of emergentism – in particular, C. D. Broad’s account – is taken into account. The idea is (roughly) that some (...)
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  16. Emergence.Olivier Sartenaer - 2017 - L'Encyclopédie Philosophique.
    En tout généralité, le concept d’émergence capture une relation entre deux entités, un « émergent » E et sa « base d’émergence » B, de telle manière que l’on puisse affirmer que E dépend de B et que, malgré cette dépendance, E s’avère irréductible à B. Une façon classique de concrétiser cette idée est de considérer E comme un « tout » et B comme les « parties » de ce tout. Dans l’esprit de la maxime classique selon laquelle « (...)
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  17. Causal Emergence and Epiphenomenal Emergence.Umut Baysan - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (4):891-904.
    According to one conception of strong emergence, strongly emergent properties are nomologically necessitated by their base properties and have novel causal powers relative to them. In this paper, I raise a difficulty for this conception of strong emergence, arguing that these two features are incompatible. Instead of presenting this as an objection to the friends of strong emergence, I argue that this indicates that there are distinct varieties of strong emergence: causal emergence and epiphenomenal emergence. I then explore the prospects (...)
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  18. Structures as Relations.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2018 - Synthese:1-20.
    I shall explore in this article the hypothesis that structures are relations between the components of complex entities. After having introduced hylomorphism, its major advantages and the major views of the nature of structures, I shall introduce the distinctions between external and internal relations and the one between symmetrical and non-symmetrical relations. I shall also describe the theory of non-symmetrical relations that I accept, i.e., the O-Roles theory, as most structures seem to be external and non-symmetrical relations. Later on, I (...)
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  19. Emergent Quasiparticles. Or How to Get a Rich Physics From a Sober Metaphysics.Alexandre Guay & Olivier Sartenaer - 2018 - In Melinda Fagan, Otávio Bueno & Ruey-Lin Chen (eds.), Individuation, Process and Scientific Practices. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 214-235.
    Among the very architects of the recent re-emergence of emergentism in the physical sciences, Robert B. Laughlin certainly occupies a prominent place. Through a series of works beginning as early as his Nobel lecture in 1998, a lecture given after having been awarded, together with Störmer and Tsui, the Nobel prize in physics for its contribution in the elucidation of the fractional quantum Hall effect, Laughlin openly and relentlessly advocated a strongly anti-reductionistic view of physics – and, more particularly, of (...)
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  20. Causal Powers and Social Ontology.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - 2020 - Synthese 197 (3):1357-1377.
    Over the last few decades, philosophers and social scientists have applied the so-called powers ontology to the social domain. I argue that this application is highly problematic: many of the alleged powers in the social realm violate the intrinsicality condition, and those that can be coherently taken to be intrinsic to their bearers are arguably causally redundant. I end the paper by offering a diagnosis of why philosophers and social scientists have been tempted to think that there are powers in (...)
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  21. A Novel Approach to Emergence in Chemistry.Alexandru Manafu - 2015 - In Eric Scerri & L. McIntyre (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry. Growth of a New Discipline. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Volume 306. pp. 39-55.
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  22. Concepts of Emergence in Chemistry.Alexandru Manafu - 2013 - In J. P. Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies and Concepts. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: pp. 659-674.
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  23. Zur Emergenz des Sozialen bei Niklas Luhmann.Simon Lohse - 2011 - Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40:190-207.
    Der Artikel diskutiert Niklas Luhmanns Konzeption von Kommunikation als emergentem Phänomen. Erstens soll gezeigt werden, dass sich Luhmann, entgegen jüngster Einwände, in der Tat als sozialer Emergentist rekonstruieren und als solcher in die aktuelle Debatte um Reduktion und Emergenz des Sozialen einordnen lässt. Zweitens soll dadurch Licht auf die generellen Probleme und Voraussetzungen einer emergentistischen Soziologie geworfen werden. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, wird zunächst geklärt, welche Positionen sich in der Soziologie grundsätzlich gegenüber stehen und auf welcher Grundlage Luhmann als (...)
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  24. Emergence for Nihilists.Richard L. J. Caves - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (1):2-28.
    I defend mereological nihilism, the view that there are no composite objects, against a challenge from ontological emergence, the view that some things have properties that are ‘something over and above’ the properties of their parts. As the nihilist does not believe in composite wholes, there is nothing in the nihilist's ontology to instantiate emergent properties – or so the challenge goes. However, I argue that some simples can collectively instantiate an emergent property, so the nihilist's ontology can in fact (...)
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  25. Book ReviewRobert W. Batterman, The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction and Emergence. Oxford: Oxford University Press , 160 Pp., $35.00 Cloth. [REVIEW]Michael Strevens - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):654-657.
  26. The Emergent Structure of Consciousness (Part II).Cosmin Visan - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 8 (8):628-650.
    Current day Physics and Science in general are based on a computational quantitative-reductionist approach that even though highly successful, they not only still leave consciousness out, but they don’t appear to offer any key of how consciousness is even supposed to be integrated into the current scientific establishment. This delay of integrating consciousness into Science starts to suggest that the current approaches might not be the most suitable tools of tackling consciousness. Therefore, in this paper, an approach that would be (...)
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  27. The Emergent Structure of Consciousness (Part I).Cosmin Visan - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 8 (8):604-627.
    Current day Physics and Science in general are based on a computational quantitative-reductionist approach that even though highly successful, they not only still leave consciousness out, but they don’t appear to offer any key of how consciousness is even supposed to be integrated into the current scientific establishment. This delay of integrating consciousness into Science starts to suggest that the current approaches might not be the most suitable tools of tackling consciousness. Therefore, in this paper, an approach that would be (...)
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  28. Levels: Descriptive, Explanatory, and Ontological.Christian List - 2019 - Noûs 53 (4):852-883.
    Scientists and philosophers frequently speak about levels of description, levels of explanation, and ontological levels. In this paper, I propose a unified framework for modelling levels. I give a general definition of a system of levels and show that it can accommodate descriptive, explanatory, and ontological notions of levels. I further illustrate the usefulness of this framework by applying it to some salient philosophical questions: (1) Is there a linear hierarchy of levels, with a fundamental level at the bottom? And (...)
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  29. Looking for Emergence in Physics.Joana Rigato - 2017 - Phenomenology and Mind 12:174-183.
    Despite its recent popularity, Emergence is still a field where philosophers and physicists often talk past each other. In fact, while philosophical discussions focus mostly on ontological emergence, physical theory is inherently limited to the epistemological level and the impossibility of its conclusions to provide direct evidence for ontological claims is often underestimated. Nevertheless, the emergentist philosopher’s case against reductionist theories of how the different levels of reality are related to each other can still gain from the assessment of paradigmatic (...)
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  30. A Biologically Informed Hylomorphism.Christopher J. Austin - 2017 - In William M. R. Simpson, Robert C. Koons & Nicholas J. Teh (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Contemporary Science. Routledge. pp. 185-210.
    Although contemporary metaphysics has recently undergone a neo-Aristotelian revival wherein dispositions, or capacities are now commonplace in empirically grounded ontologies, being routinely utilised in theories of causality and modality, a central Aristotelian concept has yet to be given serious attention – the doctrine of hylomorphism. The reason for this is clear: while the Aristotelian ontological distinction between actuality and potentiality has proven to be a fruitful conceptual framework with which to model the operation of the natural world, the distinction between (...)
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  31. Strong Emergence as a Defese of Non-Reductive Physicalism.Carl Gillett - 2002 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 6 (1):87-120.
    Jaegwon Kim, and others, have recently posed a powerful challenge to both emergentism and nom-reductive physicalism by providing arguments that these positions are committed to an untenable combination of both ‘upward’ and ‘dounward’ determination. In section 1, I illuminate how the nature of the realization relation underlies such skeptical arguments However, in section 2, I suggest that such conclusions involve a confusion between the implications of physicalism and those of a related thesis the ‘Completeness of Physics' I show that the (...)
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  32. The Re-Emergence of the Emergence Debate.Sami Pihlström - 2002 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 6 (1):133-182.
    This essay provides a critical review of contemporary controversies related to the notion of emergence by discussing, among other recent views, Achim Stephan's defense of the ontological tradition of emergentist thought along the lines of C. D. Broad Stephan's distinctions between various notions of emergence, different in strength, are useful as they clarify the state of discussion. There are, however, several unsettled problems concerning emergence. Some of these have been dealt with by Stephan, Kim, and others, though not entirely satisfactorily, (...)
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  33. Review of Carl Gillett's Reduction and Emergence in Science and Philosophy. [REVIEW]Elanor Taylor - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:N/A.
    Review of Carl Gillett's "Reduction and Emergence in Science and Philosophy.".
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  34. A Clear and Understood Case of Strong Emergence.J. H. Van Hateren - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (1):5-7.
    This Letter to the Editor is a comment on a paper by Rodríguez Higuera (Biosemiotics 9, 155–167, 2016) that refers to a paper by van Hateren (Biosemiotics 8, 403–419, 2015). The comment argues that semiosis (i.e., the making of meaning) has biological roots in an internal process X occurring within all forms of life. This internal process produces, in effect, an approximation (i.e., an estimate) of the fitness of an organism. X subsequently drives a purely stochastic process of structural change (...)
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  35. The Notion of Emergence.E. S. Russell, C. R. Morris & W. Leslie Mackenzie - 1926 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 6 (1):39-68.
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  36. The Search for Ontological Emergence.Michael Silberstein & John Mcgeever - 1999 - Philosophical Quarterly 49 (195):201-214.
    We survey and clarify some recent appearances of the term ‘emergence’. We distinguish epistemological emergence, which is merely a limitation of descriptive apparatus, from ontological emergence, which should involve causal features of a whole system not reducible to the properties of its parts, thus implying the failure of part/whole reductionism and of mereological supervenience for that system. Are there actually any plausible cases of the latter among the numerous and various mentions of ‘emergence’ in the recent literature? Quantum mechanics seems (...)
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  37. Constraints on an Emergent Formulation of Conscious Mental States.Scott Hagan & Masayuki Hirafuji - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):99-121.
    Fundamental limitations constraining the application of emergence to formulations of conscious mental states are explored within the paradigm of classical science. This paradigm includes standard interpretations of functionalism, computationalism and complex systems theories of mind -- theories which are ultimately justified by an appeal to emergentist principles. We define a distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic accounts of emergent conscious states, and examine the prospects for both. Extrinsic accounts are subject to relativities with respect to external observers that must be resolved (...)
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  38. The Emergence of Everything: How the World Became Complex. [REVIEW]C. P. Goodman - 2003 - Tradition and Discovery 30 (1):39-41.
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  39. Emergence, Materialism, and Worldviews: A Review Article.Taede A. Smedes - 2004 - Tradition and Discovery 31 (1):36-41.
    This review article deals with four recent books exploring issues of emergence and self-organization. Three of these also deal with issues of materialism and religious worldviews, while one charts the history and philosophical unerpinnings of emergentist thought.
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  40. Art and the Emergence of Self: Reflections on Some Central Themes in the Work of Alfred Hofstadter.Gary Stahl - 1975 - International Philosophical Quarterly 15 (3):333-351.
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  41. Between Emergence and Possibility: Foucault, Derrida, and Judith Butler on Performative Identity.Jeffrey T. Nealon - 1996 - Philosophy Today 40 (3):430-439.
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  42. The Interpretive Turn: Emergence of an Approach.William Sullivan & Paul Rabinow - 1979 - Philosophy Today 23 (1):29-40.
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  43. Emergence and Ontogenetics: Towards a Communication Without Agent.Sarah Choukah & Philippe Theophanidis - 2016 - Social Science Information 55 (3):286-299.
    In the scientific community, discussions about emergence are motivated by a need to understand the process by which complex systems exhibit novel characteristics that cannot be reduced to those of their parts. The whole is thus said to be greater than the sum of the parts. We borrow from this framework in order to explore a different understanding of communication. Instead of seeing the whole as the result of a communication process between the parts, we take a step back and (...)
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