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Summary

The subject of interlevel relations concerns the connection between items described by the different sciences, from fundamental-level physics to high-level human sciences. Philosophers analyze these relations in terms of concepts like reduction, or emergence, or supervenience, or realization. The subject is essential to any broad picture of the sciences and the world. 

Key works Most of the works in philosophy divide along the aforementioned views. For reduction, important ideas includes reduction as a derivation by bridge principles (Nagel 1961), approximate reduction (Schaffner 1967), an expanded continuum of strong to weak reduction that advertises no bridge laws (Churchland 1979; Hooker 1981; Bickle 1997), compositional or mechanistic reduction (Wimsatt 1976; Rosenberg 2006; Bechtel 2007), and functional reduction (Kim 1998). For emergence, there are views that involve epistemic, metaphysical, synchronic, and diachronic ideas (McLaughlin 1992; Wimsatt 1997; Humphreys 2008), as well as issues about actual cases in the sciences (Batterman 2002; Davies 2006). For supervenience, there are weak, strong, global, and mereological varieties (Kim 1993; Horgan 1993; McLaughlin 1995), as well as debates over their significance for issues of explanation and dependence (Grimes 1988; Bennett 2004) and their adequacy to express a doctrine of physicalism (Wilson 2005). For realization, the are accounts in terms of parts and wholes (Cummins 1983; Gillett 2002), functional roles and occupation (Papineau 1993; Melnyk 1994; Kim 1998), determinables and determinates (Macdonald & Macdonald 1986; Yablo 1992), and subsets of causal powers (Wilson 1999, 2011; Shoemaker 2001, 2007). There are also questions about the resulting broad picture of the sciences and how it is unified (Oppenheim & Putnam 1958; Rosenberg 1994).
Introductions Some works have a fairly broad scope, encompassing several of the views just mentioned. See Beckermann et al 1992; van Gulick 2001; and Kim 2003.
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  1. Takehisa Abe & Fusako Kobayashi (2002). Eastern Determinism Reconsidered From a Scientific Point of View. In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton Uk: Imprint Academic. pp. 485.
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  2. David Barnett (2002). Hempel On Intertheoretic Reduction Winner Of The Gerritt And Edith Schipper Undergraduate Award For Outstanding Undergraduate Paper. Florida Philosophical Review 2 (1):26-40.
    The question of whether all living things are really just complex physical ones, or whether instead there are biological entities or characteristics that cannot be fully characterized in physical terms, has historical roots buried centuries deep. Carl Hempel considers this question as an empirical one for modern science to address. Hempel’s concern is not with the answer to the question, but rather with the methods by which it may be evaluated. He considers the position of those he calls “mechanists,” that (...)
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  3. William Bechtel (1984). Reconceptualizations and Interfield Connections: The Discovery of the Link Between Vitamins and Coenzymes. Philosophy of Science 51 (2):265-292.
    The discovery that some B vitamins are constituents of respiratory coenzymes led to the development of an interfield theory of the kind discussed by Darden and Maull. In this paper it is shown that the development of a useful interfield connection was made possible by two reconceptualizations: a reconceptualization that united two then-distinct fields giving rise to the concept of vitamins as dietary substances; and another reconceptualization that united two approaches to respiratory metabolism producing the idea that coenzymes are transport (...)
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  4. William Bechtel & Adele Abrahamsen (2008). From Reduction Back to Higher Levels. In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 559--564.
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  5. Mark H. Bickhard (2012). 9 The Emergent Ontology of Persons. In Jack Martin & Mark H. Bickhard (eds.), The Psychology of Personhood: Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental and Narrative Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 165.
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  6. Daniel A. Bonevac (1982). Reduction in the Abstract Sciences.
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  7. Alban Bouvier (2011). Individualism, Collective Agency and The “Micro–Macro Relation”. In Ian Jarvie Jesus Zamora Bonilla (ed.), The Sage Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences. pp. 199.
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  8. Ingo Brigandt (2013). Integration in Biology: Philosophical Perspectives on the Dynamics of Interdisciplinarity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):461-465.
    This introduction to the special section on integration in biology provides an overview of the different contributions. In addition to motivating the philosophical significance of analyzing integration and interdisciplinary research, I lay out common themes and novel insights found among the special section contributions, and indicate how they exhibit current trends in the philosophical study of integration. One upshot of the contributed papers is that there are different aspects to and kinds of integration, so that rather than attempting to offer (...)
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  9. C. D. Broad (2002). E. Other Psychophysical Relations. In David J. Chalmers (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings. Oxford University Press. pp. 106.
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  10. Neil Broom (2001). How Blind is the Watchmaker? Nature's Design & the Limits of Naturalistic Science.
  11. Harold Chapman Brown (1916). Structural Levels in the Scientist's World. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 13 (13):337-345.
  12. Richard M. Burian (1993). Unification and Coherence as Methodological Objectives in the Biological Sciences. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):301-318.
    In this paper I respond to Wim van der Steen''s arguments against the supposed current overemphasis on norms ofcoherence andinterdisciplinary integration in biology. On the normative level, I argue that these aremiddle-range norms which, although they may be misapplied in short-term attempts to solve (temporarily?) intractable problems, play a guiding role in the longer-term treatment of biological problems. This stance is supported by a case study of apartial success story, the development of the one gene — one enzyme hypothesis. As (...)
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  13. Ian Burney, David A. Kirby & Neil Pemberton (2013). Introducing ‘Forensic Cultures’. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (1):1-3.
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  14. Jeremy Butterfield & Nazim Bouatta, Emergence and Reduction Combined in Phase Transitions.
    In another paper, one of us argued that emergence and reduction are compatible, and presented four examples illustrating both. The main purpose of this paper is to develop this position for the example of phase transitions. We take it that emergence involves behaviour that is novel compared with what is expected: often, what is expected from a theory of the system's microscopic constituents. We take reduction as deduction, aided by appropriate definitions. Then the main idea of our reconciliation of emergence (...)
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  15. Henry Byerly (1979). Substantial Causes and Nomic Determination. Philosophy of Science 46 (1):57-81.
    I characterize a notion of causal agency that is the causitive component of many transitive verbs. The agency of what I call substantial causes relates objects physically to systems with which they interact. Such agent causation does not reduce to conditionship relations, nor does it cease to play a role in scientific discourse. I argue, contrary to regularity theories, that causal claims do not in general depend for their sense on generalities nor do they entail the existence of laws. Clarification (...)
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  16. Werner Callebaut (1995). Réduction et explication mécaniste en biologie. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 93 (1):33-66.
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  17. Richard L. Cartwright (1956). Comments on Dr. Hochberg's Paper. Philosophy of Science 23 (3):260-265.
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  18. Robert L. Causey (1981). Reduction and Ontological Unification: Reply to McCauley. Philosophy of Science 48 (2):228-231.
  19. Robert L. Causey (1976). Identities and Reduction: A Reply. Noûs 10 (3):333-337.
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  20. Anjan Chakravartty (2013). Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum Getting Causes From Powers. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axt007.
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  21. R. M. Chisholm (1991). The Bearers of Psychological Properties. Daimon: Revista de Filosofia 3:7.
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  22. C. W. Churchman & T. A. Cowan (1945). A Challenge. Philosophy of Science 12 (3):219-220.
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  23. F. Cizek (1979). Biology, Physics and Reductionism. Filosoficky Casopis 27 (4):488-503.
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  24. Steve Clarke (1998). Metaphysics and the Disunity of Scientific Knowledge.
    The central current of ideas in modern philosophy - through Hume, Kant and Hegel, to the present - can be understood as a reaction to the percieved threat of disorder. Against this background, the author argues for acceptance of a metaphysics of disorder, and outlines a number of important philosophical consequences of such an acceptance. When appropriately constrained by empiricist concern, such a metaphysics allows us to make sense of ourselves as as knowers who must make do in a world (...)
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  25. Earl Conee (1982). D. M. Armstrong's "The Nature of Mind and Other Essays". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42 (4):622.
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  26. Michael C. Corballis (1988). Psychology's Place in the Science of the Mind/Brain? Biology and Philosophy 3 (3):363-373.
  27. Marcel Crabbé (1983). On the Reduction of Type Theory. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 29 (4):235-237.
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  28. Carl Frederick Craver (1998). Neural Mechanisms: On the Structure, Function, and Development of Theories in Neurobiology. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Reference to mechanisms is virtually ubiquitous in science and its philosophy. Yet, the concept of a mechanism remains largely unanalyzed; So too for its possible applications in thinking about scientific explanation, experimental practice, and theory structure. This dissertation investigates these issues in the context of contemporary neurobiology. ;The theories of neurobiology are hierarchically organized descriptions of mechanisms that explain functions. Mechanisms are the coordinated activities of entities by virtue of which that function is performed. Since the activities composing mechanisms are (...)
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  29. Suzanne Cunningham (1983). The Nature of Mind and Other Essays. By David M. Armstrong. Modern Schoolman 60 (2):124-125.
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  30. Paul Davies, Emergent Biological Principles and the Computational Properties of the Universe.
    T he term emergence is used to describe the appearance of new properties that arise when a system exceeds a certain level of size or complexity, properties that are absent from the constituents of the system. It is a concept often summed up by the phrase that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” and it is a key notion in the burgeoning field of complexity science. Life is often cited as a classic example of an emergent (...)
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  31. R. S. de Freitas (1994). Cognitive Constraints as Stylistic Unities: The Emergence of Methodological Principles in Scientific Endeavour. Social Science Information 33 (1):129-147.
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  32. Carlos Ruiz de la Cuesta (2011). Reduction, Supervenience, Emergence and Naturalistic Truth: Reductionism, Holism and the Description of Human Nature. Pensamiento 67 (254):799-804.
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  33. de Zavala Víctor Sanchez (1985). En Memoria de Manuel Sacristán. Theoria 1 (2):611-612.
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  34. Daniel C. Dennett (2004). Commentary on John Dupré's Human Nature and the Limits of Science. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):473–483.
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  35. Zoltan Domotor (1982). Reduction of Macrotheories to Micro-Theories. Erkenntnis 17 (1):3 - 21.
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  36. M. V. Dougherty (2012). The Problem of Negligent Omissions. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):161-163.
  37. Reinaldo Elugardo (2004). Skidmore on Properties. Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (2):189-193.
  38. Markus I. Eronen (2013). No Levels, No Problems: Downward Causation in Neuroscience. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1042-1052.
    I show that the recent account of levels in neuroscience proposed by Craver and Bechtel is unsatisfactory since it fails to provide a plausible criterion for being at the same level and is incompatible with Craver and Bechtel’s account of downward causation. Furthermore, I argue that no distinct notion of levels is needed for analyzing explanations and causal issues in neuroscience: it is better to rely on more well-defined notions such as composition and scale. One outcome of this is that (...)
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  39. James K. Feibleman (1950). Class-Membership and the Ontological Problem. Philosophy of Science 17 (3):254-259.
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  40. Rita Finkbeiner (2012). Emergent Contexts. In Rita Finkbeiner, Jörg Meibauer & Petra Schumacher (eds.), What is a Context?: Linguistic Approaches and Challenges. John Benjamins. pp. 196--153.
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  41. Jerry Fodor & Martin Davies (1986). Individualism and Supervenience. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 60 (1):235-283.
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  42. Jeffrey E. Foss (1995). Materialism, Reduction, Replacement, and the Place of Consciousness in Science. Journal of Philosophy 92 (8):401-429.
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  43. Harry A. Fozzard (1985). Intracellular Calcium: Its Universal Role as Regulator By Anthony K. Campbell. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (4):638-639.
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  44. Bas C. Van Fraassen & Karel Lambert (1967). On Free Description Theory. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 13 (15):225-240.
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  45. James Gaa (1975). The Replacement of Scientific Theories: Reduction and Explication. Philosophy of Science 42 (4):349-372.
    An examination of earlier views yields an account of theoretic change on which changes in theory which do involve changes in meanings of terms are classified as a special (and by no means exhaustive) case of theoretic change which, latter, is construed as a more general phenomenon. Only the general problem is given detailed consideration here. The account given considers the problem of how replacement of intensional theories by extensional ones may be treated within the general framework provided. Among its (...)
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  46. Manuel Garc?A.-Carpintero (1994). The Supervenience of Mental Content. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 94:117 - 135.
  47. Raoul Gervais (2014). A Framework for Inter-Level Explanations: Outlines for a New Explanatory Pluralism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:1-9.
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  48. Alfred Gierer (1996). Organisms-Mechanisms: Stahl, Wolff, and the Case Against Reductionist Exclusion. Science in Context 9 (4).
    Unlike Aristotelian physics with its teleological notions, modern physics was developed exclusively in relation to the nonliving domain. This raised the question as to whether mechanics applies to organisms, and if so, to what extent. From the seventeenth century on, mechanistic ideas became prominent in biological and medical theory. Contemporary biology explains essential features of life on the basis of physical laws and processes. This does not prove, however, that the early mechanists were essentially right. In the eighteenth century, following (...)
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  49. Norman Chase Gillespie (1983). Response: Subvenient Identities and Supervenient Differences. Southern Journal of Philosophy 22 (Supplement):111-116.
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  50. Sander L. Gilman (1998). The Ovary of Eve: Egg and Sperm and Preformation By Clara Pinto-Correia. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (1):145-146.
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