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  1. Marshall Abrams, Toward a Mechanistic Interpretation of Probability.
    I sketch a new objective interpretation of probability, called "mechanistic probability", and more specifically what I call "far-flung frequency (FFF) mechanistic probability". FFF mechanistic probability is defined in terms of facts about the causal structure of devices and certain sets of collections of frequencies in the actual world. The relevant kind of causal structure is a generalization of what Strevens (2003) calls microconstancy. Though defined partly in terms of frequencies, FFF mechanistic probability avoids many drawbacks of well-known frequency theories. It (...)
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  2. D. Albert (1997). On the Character of Statistical-Mechanical Probabilities'. Philosophy of Science 64.
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  3. Lennart Åqvist (2007). An Interpretation of Probability in the Law of Evidence Based on Pro-Et-Contra Argumentation. Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):391-410.
    The purpose of this paper is to improve on the logical and measure-theoretic foundations for the notion of probability in the law of evidence, which were given in my contributions Åqvist [ (1990) Logical analysis of epistemic modality: an explication of the Bolding–Ekelöf degrees of evidential strength. In: Klami HT (ed) Rätt och Sanning (Law and Truth. A symposium on legal proof-theory in Uppsala May 1989). Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, pp 43–54; (1992) Towards a logical theory of legal evidence: semantic analysis (...)
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  4. A. J. Ayer (1972). Probability and Evidence. [London]Macmillan.
    A. J. Ayer was one of the foremost analytical philosophers of the twentieth century, and was known as a brilliant and engaging speaker. In essays based on his influential Dewey Lectures, Ayer addresses some of the most critical and controversial questions in epistemology and the philosophy of science, examining the nature of inductive reasoning and grappling with the issues that most concerned him as a philosopher. This edition contains revised and expanded versions of the lectures and two additional essays. Ayer (...)
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  5. Arnold Baise (2013). Probability, Objectivity, and Induction. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 13 (2):81-95.
    The main purpose of this article is to use Ayn Rand’s analysis of the meaning of objectivity to clarify the much-discussed question of whether probability is “objective” or “subjective.” This results in a classification of probability theories as frequentist, subjective Bayesian, or objective Bayesian. The work of objective Bayesian E. T. Jaynes is emphasized, and is used to provide a formal definition of probability. The relation between probability and induction is covered briefly, with probability theory presented as the basis of (...)
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  6. Darlene Bay & Alexey Nikitkov (2011). Subjective Probability Assessments of the Incidence of Unethical Behavior: The Importance of Scenario-Respondent Fit. Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (1):1-11.
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  7. Joseph Berkovitz, The World According to De Finetti.
    Bruno de Finetti is one of the founding fathers of the subjectivist school of probability, where probabilities are interpreted as rational degrees of belief. His work on the relation between the theorems of probability and rationality is among the corner stones of modern subjective probability theory. De Finetti maintained that rationality requires that degrees of belief be coherent, and he argued that the whole of probability theory could be derived from these coherence conditions. De Finetti’s interpretation of probability has been (...)
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  8. Dimitri P. Bertsekas & John N. Tsitsiklis (2002). Introduction to Probability Vol. 1. Athena Scientific Belmont, Ma.
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  9. E. Beth (1946). On the Interpretation of Probability Calculi Ernest Nagel. Synthese 5 (1-2):92-95.
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  10. Arthur Boutwood (1902). III.—The Philosophy of Probability. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 2 (1):74-104.
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  11. Craig Callender (2007). The Emergence and Interpretation of Probability in Bohmian Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):351-370.
    A persistent question about the deBroglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics concerns the understanding of Born’s rule in the theory. Where do the quantum mechanical probabilities come from? How are they to be interpreted? These are the problems of emergence and interpretation. In more than 50 years no consensus regarding the answers has been achieved. Indeed, mirroring the foundational disputes in statistical mechanics, the answers to each question are surprisingly diverse. This paper is an opinionated survey of this literature. While acknowledging (...)
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  12. J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas (1970). The Concept of Probability. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
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  13. Rick Durrett (2005). Probability: Theory and Examples. Thomson.
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  14. Ward Edwards (1962). Subjective Probabilities Inferred From Decisions. Psychological Review 69 (2):109-135.
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  15. Ronald A. Fisher (1922). Probability. The Eugenics Review 14 (1):46.
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  16. Branden Fitelson, Alan Hajek & Ned Hall (2006). Probability. In Jessica Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.
    There are two central questions concerning probability. First, what are its formal features? That is a mathematical question, to which there is a standard, widely (though not universally) agreed upon answer. This answer is reviewed in the next section. Second, what sorts of things are probabilities---what, that is, is the subject matter of probability theory? This is a philosophical question, and while the mathematical theory of probability certainly bears on it, the answer must come from elsewhere. To see why, observe (...)
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  17. Roman Frigg, Probability in Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics.
    In two recent papers Barry Loewer (2001, 2004) has suggested to interpret probabilities in statistical mechanics as Humean chances in David Lewis’ (1994) sense. I first give a precise formulation of this proposal, then raise two fundamental objections, and finally conclude that these can be overcome only at the price of interpreting these probabilities epistemically.
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  18. Roman Frigg & Carl Hoefer (2007). Probability in GRW Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (2):371-389.
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  19. Richard Fumerton (2004). Epistemic Probability. Philosophical Issues 14 (1):149–164.
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  20. Maria Carla Galavotti, Kinds of Probabilism.
    The first part of the article deals with the theories of probability and induction put forward by Hans Reichenbach and Rudolf Carnap. It will be argued that, despite fundamental differences, Carnap's and Reichenbach's views on probability are closely linked with the problem of meaning generated by logical empiricism, and are characterized by the logico-semantical approach typical of this philosophical current. Moreover, their notions of probability are both meant to combine a logical and an empirical element. Of these, Carnap over the (...)
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  21. Maria Carla Galavotti (1989). Anti-Realism in the Philosophy of Probability: Bruno de Finetti's Subjectivism. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 31 (2-3):239--261.
    Known as an upholder of subjectivism, Bruno de finetti (1906-1985) put forward a totally original philosophy of probability. This can be qualified as a combination of empiricism and pragmatism within an entirely coherent antirealistic perspective. The paper aims at clarifying the central features of such a philosophical position, Which is not only incompatible with any perspective based on an objective notion, But cannot be assimilated to other subjective views of probability either.
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  22. Donald Gillies (2012). Philosophical Theories of Probability. Routledge.
    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. _Philosophical Theories of Probability_ is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
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  23. Donald Gillies (2010). An Objective Theory of Probability. Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should (...)
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  24. Donald Gillies (2000). Philosophical Theories of Probability. Routledge.
    This book presents a comprehensive and systematic account of the various philosophical theories of probability and explains how they are related. It covers the classical, logical, subjective, frequency, and propensity views of probability. Donald Gillies even provides a new theory of probability -the intersubjective-a development of the subjective theory. He argues for a pluralist view, where there can be more than one valid interpretation of probabiltiy, each appropriate in a different context. The relation of the various interpretations to the Bayesian (...)
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  25. Daniel Greco (2013). 4. Probability and Prodigality. Oxford Studies in Epistemology 4:82.
    I present a straightforward objection to the view that what we know has epistemic probability 1: when combined with Bayesian decision theory, the view seems to entail implausible conclusions concerning rational choice. I consider and reject three responses. The first holds that the fault is with decision theory, rather than the view that knowledge has probability 1. The second two try to reconcile the claim that knowledge has probability 1 with decision theory by appealing to contextualism and sensitive invariantism, respectively. (...)
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  26. Geoffrey R. Grimmett (1986). Probability: An Introduction. Oxford University Press.
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  27. Charles Charles Miller Grinstead & James Laurie Snell (1997). Introduction to Probability. American Mathematical Soc..
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  28. Alan Hájek (2008). Interpretations of Probability. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  29. Alan Hájek (2007). The Reference Class Problem is Your Problem Too. Synthese 156 (3):563--585.
    The reference class problem arises when we want to assign a probability to a proposition (or sentence, or event) X, which may be classified in various ways, yet its probability can change depending on how it is classified. The problem is usually regarded as one specifically for the frequentist interpretation of probability and is often considered fatal to it. I argue that versions of the classical, logical, propensity and subjectivist interpretations also fall prey to their own variants of the reference (...)
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  30. Charles D. Hardie (2006). Probability and Education. Educational Studies 3 (3):227-234.
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  31. William Harper & Gregory Wheeler (2007). Probability and Inference: Essays in Honour of Henry E. Kyburg, Jr. College Publications.
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  32. Michael Heidelberger (2001). Origins of the Logical Theory of Probability: Von Kries, Wittgenstein, Waismann. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (2):177 – 188.
    The physiologist and neo-Kantian philosopher Johannes von Kries (1853-1928) wrote one of the most philosophically important works on the foundation of probability after P.S. Laplace and before the First World War, his Principien der Wohrscheinlich-keitsrechnung (1886, repr. 1927). In this book, von Kries developed a highly original interpretation of probability, which maintains it to be both logical and objectively physical. After presenting his approach I shall pursue the influence it had on Ludwig Wittgenstein and Friedrich Waismann. It seems that von (...)
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  33. Carsten Held, Can Quantum Mechanics Be Shown to Be Incomplete in Principle?
    The paper presents an argument for the incompleteness in principle of quantum mechanics. I introduce four principles (P0–P3) concerning the interpretation of probability, in general and in quantum mechanics, and argue that the defender of completeness must reject either P0 or all of P1–P3, which options both seem unacceptable. The problem is shown to be more fundamental than the measurement problem and to have implications for our understanding of quantum-mechanical contextuality.
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  34. Matthias Hild (2000). Trends in the Philosophy of Probability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31 (3):419-422.
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  35. Michael Huemer (2011). Does Probability Theory Refute Coheretism? Journal of Philosophy 108 (1):35-54.
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  36. Jürgen Humburg (1986). Foundations of a New System of Probability Theory. Topoi 5 (1):39-50.
    The aim of my book is to explain the content of the different notions of probability.Based on a concept of logical probability, which is modified as compared with Carnap, we succeed by means of the mathematical results of de Finetti in defining the concept of statistical probability.
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  37. Edwin T. Jaynes (2003). Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
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  38. Johns Richard (ed.) (2002). A Theory of Physical Probability. University of Toronto Press.
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  39. Jacintho Del Vecchio Junior (2016). Chance and Probability in Poincaré’s Epistemology. Philosophia Scientae 20:177-196.
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  40. Seifedine Kadry (2014). History of the Modern Probability Philosophy. Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):130-133.
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  41. Mark Kaplan & Isaac Levi (1983). The Enterprise of Knowledge: An Essay on Knowledge, Credal Probability, and Chance. Philosophical Review 92 (2):310.
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  42. Max Kölbel (2002). Truth Without Objectivity. Routledge.
    The mainstream view in the philosophy of language holds that every meaningful sentence has a truth-condition. This view, however, runs into difficulties with non-objective sentences such as sentences on matters of taste or value: these do not appear to be either true or false, but are generally taken to be meaningful. How can this conflict be resolved? -/- Truth Without Objectivity examines various ways of resolving this fundamental problem, before developing and defending its own original solution, a relativist theory of (...)
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  43. Dave Leal (2016). Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Philosophical Quarterly 66 (264):652-655.
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  44. Hugues Leblanc (1962). Statistical and Inductive Probabilities. Dover Publications.
    This evenhanded treatment addresses the decades-old dispute among probability theorists, asserting that both statistical and inductive probabilities may be treated as sentence-theoretic measurements, and that the latter qualify as estimates of the former. Beginning with a survey of the essentials of sentence theory and of set theory, the author examines statistical probabilities, showing that statistical probabilities may be passed on to sentences, and thereby qualify as truth-values. An exploration of inductive probabilities follows, demonstrating their reinterpretation as estimates of truth-values. Each (...)
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  45. Aidan Lyon (forthcoming). Vague Credence. Synthese:1-24.
    It is natural to think of precise probabilities as being special cases of imprecise probabilities, the special case being when one’s lower and upper probabilities are equal. I argue, however, that it is better to think of the two models as representing two different aspects of our credences, which are often vague to some degree. I show that by combining the two models into one model, and understanding that model as a model of vague credence, a natural interpretation arises that (...)
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  46. Donald MacKenzie (1989). Probability and Statistics in Historical PerspectiveThe Probabilistic Revolution. Volume I: Ideas in HistoryLorenz Kruger Lorraine J. Daston Michael HeidelbergerThe Probabilistic Revolution. Volume II: Ideas in ScienceLorenz Kruger Gerd Gigerenzer Mary S. MorganClassical Probability in the EnlightenmentLorraine J. Daston. [REVIEW] Isis 80 (1):116-124.
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  47. Charles R. McCann Jr (2004). 22 Conceptions of Probability. In John Bryan Davis & Alain Marciano (eds.), The Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy. Edward Elgar.
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  48. D. H. Mellor (2004). Probability: A Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    _Probability: A Philosophical Introduction_ introduces and explains the principal concepts and applications of probability. It is intended for philosophers and others who want to understand probability as we all apply it in our working and everyday lives. The book is not a course in mathematical probability, of which it uses only the simplest results, and avoids all needless technicality. The role of probability in modern theories of knowledge, inference, induction, causation, laws of nature, action and decision-making makes an understanding of (...)
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  49. David Miller (1986). Some Recent Work on Probability. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 36 (45):536.
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  50. Peter Milne (1986). Can There Be a Realist Single-Case Interpretation of Probability? Erkenntnis 25 (2):129 - 132.
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