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# Interpretation of Probability

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1. Objectivity and the Method of Arbitrary Functions.Chloé de Canson - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (3):663-684.
There is widespread excitement in the literature about the method of arbitrary functions: many take it to show that it is from the dynamics of systems that the objectivity of probabilities emerge. In this paper, I differentiate three ways in which a probability function might be objective, and I argue that the method of arbitrary functions cannot help us show that dynamics objectivise probabilities in any of these senses.

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2. A Third Way to Interpretations of Probability.Kyoung-Eun Yang - 2010 - Korean Journal of Logic 13 (1):53-81.
This essay attempts to suggest a third way to interpret probabilities based on diagnoses of weaknesses and strengths of the objective and the subjective interpretations. While the objective interpretations capture important intuitions in employing probability, it can provide the definitions of probability only in a circular way. Although the subjective interpretations seem to avoid this problem, it also fails to understand how one can extract certain information from the ignorance of a given system. It will be suggested that these problems (...)

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3. Una revisión de la condicionalización bayesiana.Rodrigo Iván Barrera Guajardo - 2021 - Culturas Cientificas 2 (1):24-54.
La epistemología bayesiana tiene como concepto capital la condicionalización simple. Para comprender de buena forma cómo opera esta regla, se debe dar cuenta de la concepción subjetiva de la probabilidad. Sobre la base de lo anterior es posible esclarecer alcances y límites de la condicionalización simple. En general, cuando esta regla enfrenta una dificultad se hacen esfuerzos por resolver dicha particular cuestión, pero no es usual encontrar propuestas unificadas con la intención de resolver varias de las complicaciones subyacentes al bayesianismo (...)

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4. From Physical Possibility to Probability and Back. Reichenbach’s Account of Coordination.Flavia Padovani - 2021 - In Sebastian Lutz & Adam T. Tuboly (eds.), Logical Empiricism and the Physical Sciences. From Philosophy of Nature to Philosophy of Physics. London, UK: pp. 336-353.
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5. Reichenbach and the Problem of Induction.Flavia Padovani - 2021 - In C. Limbeck Lilienau & Thomas Uebel (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Logical Empiricism. London, UK: pp. 229-237.
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6. This multidisciplinary collection brings together original contributions to present the best of current thinking about the nature and place of remorse in the context of criminal justice. Despite the wide-spread and long-standing nature of interest in offender remorse, the topic has until recently been peripheral in academic studies. The authors are scholars from North America, the UK, Europe, South Africa and Australia, from diverse academic disciplines. They reflect on the role of remorse in law, for better or for worse, on (...)

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7. Higher Education Hauntologies considers how higher education might benefit from thinking about Derrida's notion of hauntology and its implications for a justice-to-come. It contributes to the imperative to rethink the university across and with/in global geopolitical spaces and thus, has appeal for both Southern and international contexts. The book includes ideas which push boundaries that previously served higher education teachers and scholars and proposes new imaginaries of higher education. Additionally, the collection makes a contribution to ongoing debates about the epistemological, (...)

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8. Introduction -- The Complexity of Resource Curse -- Resource Curse as a Complex Case of Global Justice -- General Theory of Global Justice -- The Robustness of the General Theory -- Conclusion.

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9. Climate Justice and Collective Action.Angela Kallhoff - 2021 - Routledge.
This book develops a theory of climate cooperation designed for concerted action, emphasising the role and function of collectives in achieving shared climate goals. It will be of great interest to students and scholars of climate action, climate justice, environmental sociology and environmental philosophy and ethics more broadly.

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10. Paradigms of Justice: Redistribution, Recognition, and Beyond.Denise Celentano & Luigi Caranti - 2020 - Routledge India.
"This book explores the relation between two key paradigms in the contemporary discourse on justice. Partly inspired by the debate between Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth, it investigates whether the two paradigms, redistribution and recognition, are complementary, mutually exclusive, insufficient or essentially inadequate accounts of justice. Combining insights from the traditions of critical social theory and analytical political philosophy, the volume offers a multifaceted exploration of this incredibly inspiring conceptual couple from a plurality of perspectives. The chapters engage with concepts (...)

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11. Freedom, Justice, and Decolonization.Lewis R. Gordon - 2020 - Routledge.
The eminent scholar Lewis R. Gordon offers a probing meditation on freedom, justice, and decolonization. What is there to be understood and done when it is evident that the search for justice, which dominates social and political philosophy of the North, is an insufficient approach for the achievements of dignity, freedom, liberation, and revolution? Gordon takes the reader on a journey as he interrogates a trail from colonized philosophy to re-imagining liberation and revolution to critical challenges raised by Afropessimism, theodicy, (...)

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12. This book investigates the broader climate movement to contextualise the role played by its climate justice wing, focusing specifically on the theoretical and practical contributions of ecosocialists. Ecosocialism and Climate Justice provides an account of the shift from the Holocene to the Anthropocene in the context of the global spread of capitalist relations of production. Croeser begins by critically analysing the root causes of anthropogenic climate change and identifies the origins and development of the current climate movement within civil society. (...)

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13. A Contractarian Approach to Law and Justice: Live and Let Live.William E. O'Brian - 2020 - New York, NY: Routledge.
"This book presents a distinctive version of a contractarian approach to law and justice. The work argues that law and justice are social norms that arise from a process of social evolution, and are binding only if and to the extent that they are mutually beneficial. It explicitly rejects accounts of law and justice that are based on morality, on the basis that morality itself is only legitimately founded on mutual advantage, But it also rejects most existing versions of contractarianism, (...)

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14. This book argues that justice often governs apologies. Drawing on examples from literature, politics, and current events, Cohen presents a theory of apology as corrective offers. Many leading accounts of apology say much about what apologies do and why they are important. They stop short of exploring whether and how justice governs apologies. Cohen argues that corrective justice may require apologies as offers of reparation. Individuals, corporations, and states may then have rights or duties regarding apology. Exercising rights to apology (...)

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15. Distributive Justice and Taxation.Jørgen Pedersen - 2020 - Routledge.
"Providing a thorough examination of distributive justice, Distributive Justice and Taxation presents and discusses different theories of what constitutes a just society, and how goods should be distributed in such a society. The distribution of goods in society has direct and serious consequences on the lives of the people. There are therefore important questions to be asked regarding the justice of that distribution: Is it just that some people inherit large fortunes while others inherit nothing? Do rich people have additional (...)

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16. This book offers a unique account of the role imagination plays in advancing the course of freedom's actualization. It draws on Paul Ricoeur's philosophical anthropology of the capable human being as the staging ground for an extended inquiry into the challenges of making freedom a reality within the history of humankind. This book locates the abilities we exercise as capable human beings at the heart of a sustained analysis and reflection on the place of the idea of justice in a (...)

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17. Commutative Justice: A Liberal Theory of Just Exchange.Carl David Mildenberger - 2020 - New York: Routledge.
This book develops a liberal theory of justice in exchange. It identifies the conditions that market exchanges need to fulfill to be just. It also addresses head-on a consequentialist challenge to existing theories of exchange, namely that, in light of new harms faced at the global level, we need to consider the combined consequences of millions of market exchanges to reach a final judgment about whether some individual exchange is just. The author argues that, even if we accept this challenge, (...)

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18. This book examines trade and trafficking in endangered animal species and how the trade increasingly puts large numbers of nonhuman species at risk. Focusing on illegal trafficking, the book also discusses the harmful aspects of the trade and trafficking which is taking place in concordance with laws and regulations. Drawing on the findings of empirical research from Norway and Colombia, the study discusses how this global, transnational trend is addressed, and features of the trade and the ways in which it (...)

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19. Between Deontology and Justice: Chinese and Western Perspectives.Genyou Wu & Yong Li - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
In China, political philosophy is still a comparatively new academic discipline. While there is no such phrase as "political philosophy" in ancient Chinese texts, there are elements within them that could be considered part of that field. Central questions of Chinese ancient political philosophy include the legitimacy of the source of political power, the foundation of moral rationality for the use of political power, and the purpose of political activities. This book explores the ideas of rights, the foundations of law, (...)

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20. Political Pluralism, Disagreement and Justice: The Case for Polycentric Democracy.Julian Muller - 2019 - New York, NY: Routledge.
This book poses the question: How can we organize society in such a way that our disagreement about facts and norms works to the benefit of everyone? In response, it makes the argument for polycentric democracy, a political arrangement consisting of various political units that enjoy different degrees of independence. It is argued that to progress towards justice, we first need to change our attitude towards reasonable disagreement. Theorists have always viewed reasonable disagreement as nuisance, if not as a threat. (...)

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21. "American criminal justice is a dysfunctional mess. The so-called Land of the Free imprisons more people than any other country in the world. Understanding why means focusing on color -- not only on black or white, but also on green. The problem is that nearly everyone involved in criminal justice faces bad incentives. "Injustice for All" systematically diagnoses why and where American criminal justice goes wrong, and offers functional proposals for reform. By changing who pays for what, how people are (...)

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22. Reading Autoethnography situates autoethnographic insights within the context of two fundamental concerns of critical qualitative inquiry: justice and love. Through philosophical engagement, it gives close readings of written passages taken from leading autoethnographers and frames the philosophical project of autoethnography as one that is both political and interpersonal. It does this to highlight how autoethnographic lessons can allow us to think through how we may achieve a flourishing for all -- something that is both related to justice as it pertains (...)

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23. Law and the Passions: Why Emotion Matters for Justice.Julia Shaw - 2019 - New York, NY: Routledge.
Although the connection of law, passion and emotion has become an established focus in legal scholarship, the extent to which emotion has always been, and continues to be, a significant influence in informing legal reasoning, decision-making, decision-avoidance and legal judgment – rather than an adjunct – is still a matter for critical analysis. Engaging with the underlying social context in which emotional states are a motivational force – and have produced key legal principles and controversial judgments, as evidenced in a (...)

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24. This volume engages with questions of justice and equality, and how these can be achieved in modern society. It explores how theory and research can inform policy and practice to bring about real change in people's lives, helping readers understand and interrogate patterns and causes of inequality, while investigating how these might be remedied. Chapters outline ways in which theories of justice inform and are factored into effective actions, programmes and interventions. The book includes an international selection of case studies. (...)

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25. This book will inspire and spark grassroots action to address the inequitable impacts of climate change, by showing how this can be tackled and the many benefits of doing so. With contributions from climate activists and engaged young authors, this volume explores the many ways in which people are proactively working to advance climate justice. The book pays special attention to Canada and the Great Lakes watershed, showing how the effects of climate change span local, regional, and global scales through (...)

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26. Critical Thinking presents, defines and explains the intellectual skills and habits of mind that comprise critical thinking and its relationship to social justice. Each of the sequential chapters includes detailed examples and learning exercises that guide the reader step by step from intellectual competency, to critical thinking, to cultural cognition, and to critical awareness necessary for social justice. The book documents and explains the scope of multiple crises facing society today, including environmental destruction, income and wealth inequality, large-scale human migration, (...)

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27. Philosophy is not usually seen as a guidance for modern housing policy, but in this new book, Dr Helen Taylor argues that there is something innovative, unusual, and worth discussing about the application of philosophy to housing. The philosophical framework used within this book is John Rawls' conception of justice as fairness. The UK has gone through several shifts in housing policy over the past decade, most recently by introducing the controversial 'Bedroom Tax', in an effort to make more cuts (...)

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28. Philosophical interest in disability is rapidly expanding. Philosophers are beginning to grasp the complexity of disability--as a category, with respect to well-being and as a marker of identity. However, the philosophical literature on justice and human rights has often been limited in scope and somewhat abstract. Not enough sustained attention has been paid to the concrete claims made by people with disabilities, concerning their human rights, their legal entitlements and their access to important goods, services and resources. This book discusses (...)

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29. As climate change has increasingly become the main focus of environmentalist activism since the late 1990s, the global economic drivers of CO2 emissions are now a major concern for radical greens. In turn, the emphasis on connected crises in both natural and social systems has attracted more activists to the Climate Justice movement and created a common cause between activists from the Global South and North. In the absence of a pervasive narrative of transnational or socialist economic planning to prevent (...)

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30. Modern approaches to public relations cluster into three camps along a continuum: conflict-oriented egoism, e.g. forms of contingency theory that focus almost exclusively on the wellbeing of an entity; redressed egoism, e.g. subsidies to redress PR's egoistic nature; and forms of self-interested cooperation, e.g. fully functioning society theory. Public Relations, Cooperation, and Justice draws upon interdisciplinary research from evolutionary biology, philosophy, and rhetoric to establish that relationships built on cooperation and justice are more productive than those built on conflict and (...)

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31. Shoma Morita, M.D. was a Japanese psychiatrist-professor who developed a unique four stage therapy process. He challenged psychoanalysts who sanctioned an unconscious or unconsciousness that resides inside the mind. Significantly, he advanced a phenomenal connection between existentialism, Zen, Nature and the therapeutic role of serendipity. Morita is a forerunner of eco-psychology and he equalised the strength between human-to-human attachment and human-to-Nature bonds. This book chronicles Morita's theory of "peripheral consciousness", his paradoxical method, his design of a natural therapeutic setting, and (...)

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32. Partiality and Justice in Nursing Care.Marita Nordhaug - 2017 - New York: Routledge.
Partiality and Justice in Nursing Care examines the conflicting normative claims of partiality and impartiality in nursing care, looking in depth at how to reconcile reasonable concerns for one particular patient with equally important concerns for the maximisation of health-related welfare for all with relevant nursing-care needs, in a resource-limited setting. Drawing on moral philosophy, this book explores how discussions of partiality and impartiality in moral philosophy can have relevance to the professional context of clinical nursing care as well as (...)

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33. Conflict over the extraction of coal and gas resources has rapidly escalated in communities throughout the world. Using an environmental justice lens, this multi-disciplinary book explores cases of land use conflict through the lived experiences of communities grappling with such disputes. Drawing on theories of justice and fairness in environmental decision making, it demonstrates how such land use conflicts concerning resource use can become entrenched social problems, resistant to policy and legal intervention. The author presents three case studies from New (...)

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34. Social justice is a concept which is widely touted and lauded as desirable, yet its meaning differs depending on whether its focus is on the underlying values of social justice, the more specific objectives these entail or the actual practices or policies which aim to achieve social justice. In the current global political context, we need to re-examine what we mean by social justice, and demonstrate that 'making a difference' and contributing to human flourishing is more achievable than this context (...)

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35. Intergenerational justice and democratic theory -- A narrative turn -- Archê, finitude, and community in Aristophanes -- Mothers, powerlessness, and intergenerational agency in Euripides -- Freedom, responsibility, and transgenerational orientation in Aeschylus -- Art, space, and possibilities for intergenerational justice in our time.

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36. Introduction -- Transgression as the big bang of society -- Judicial spaces and ritual of justice : the relation between time and space in the trial -- Contemporary spaces of justice : use and abuse of transparency -- The abolition of the judicial walls : cameras in courts and the reshaping of judicial spaces -- Conclusion.

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37. Hanna Fenichel Pitkin: Politics, Justice, Action.Dean Mathiowetz - 2016 - New York, NY: Routledge. Edited by Dean Mathiowetz.
Hanna Fenichel Pitkin has made key contributions to the field of political philosophy, pushing forward and clarifying the ways that political theorists think about action as the exercise of political freedom. In so doing, she has offered insightful studies of the problems of modern politics that theorists are called to address, and has addressed them herself in a range of theoretical genres.. This collection of her works approaches each of these dimensions of Pitkin's contributions in turn: The Modern Condition and (...)

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38. In this follow-up to Law and the Beautiful Soul, Alan Norrie addresses the split between legal and ethical judgment. Shaped by history, law's formalism both eschews and requires ethics. The first essays consider legal form in its practical aspect, and the ethical problems encountered. The later essays look at the complex underlying relation between law and ethics. In Hegel's philosophy, legal and ethical judgment are brought together in a rational totality. Here, the synthesis remains unachieved, the dialectic systematically 'broken'. These (...)

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39. Democracy and Justice: Reading Derrida in Istanbul.Agnes Czajka - 2016 - Routledge.
Philosophy and politics and theory and practice are neither separate nor separable for Derrida. The relationship between democracy and justice seems of unquestionable importance, with democracy and justice held in tension by deconstruction. This book explores the possibilities offered by Derrida's work on democracy, in particular his reflections on the autoimmunity and aporetic structure of democracy for interpreting contemporary struggles over democracy in Turkey. If recent political upheavals in Turkey were as much about democracy as they were about justice, then (...)

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40. How should we approach the daunting task of renewing the ideal of equality? In this book, Christine Sypnowich proposes a theory of equality centred on human flourishing or wellbeing. She argues that egalitarianism should be understood as seeking to make people more equal in the constituents of a good life. Inequality is a social ill because of the damage it does to human flourishing: unequal distribution of wealth can have the effect that some people are poorly housed, badly nourished, ill-educated, (...)

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41. Political Philosophy, Empathy and Political Justice.Matt Edge - 2015 - New York: Routledge.
In this work, Matt Edge offers an innovative approach to political philosophy. He invites the reader to consider the question of political justice from an empathic perspective - if you were asked to construct a theory of justice acceptable to members of a community you were not yourself a part of, how would you succeed in making your proposal acceptable? What tools would you rely on to construct such a theory, and why? Equally, what would make anyone qualified to write (...)

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42. Justice as Friendship: A Theory of Law.Seow Hon Tan - 2015 - Routledge.
The central argument of this study is that the universal phenomenon of friendship provides us with an inter-subjectively agreeable and rich conception of justice that can be transposed to the context of law. While presented as a theory of law, the work considers and traverses the fields of jurisprudence, tort law, contract law, philosophy, ethics and political theory. In dealing with substantive areas of law, the book draws upon cases from the United States, England, and the Commonwealth.

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43. It is essential for those employed within the justice system to be able to competently and confidently work at the borders between ethics and the law.Criminal Justice Ethics offers a fresh new approach to considering ethical issues in a criminal justice context. Rather than simply offering a range of ethical dilemmas specific to various justice professionals, it provides extensive discussion of how individuals develop their 'moral imaginations' using ethical perspectives and practices, both as citizens of the world and as practitioners (...)

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44. This book brings together academics, legal practitioners and activists with a wide range of pro-choice, pro-life and other views to explore the possibilities for cultural, philosophical, moral and political common ground on the subjects of abortion and reproductive justice more generally. It aims to rethink polarized positions on sexuality, morality, religion and law, in relation to abortion, as a way of laying the groundwork for productive and collaborative dialogue. The book will be valuable to anyone interested in law and society, (...)

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45. In this book, Jeffrey Bercuson presents the immense, and yet for the most part unrecognized, influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel on John Rawls, the most important political philosopher of the 20th century. While the well-documented influence of Immanuel Kant on Rawls is deep and profound, Kantian features and interpretation of justice as fairness do not tell the whole story about that doctrine. Drawing on Rawls's Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy and his Lectures on the (...)

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46. This book applies concepts from ethics, justice, and political philosophy to five sets of contemporary energy problems cutting across time, economics, politics, geography, and technology. In doing so, the authors derive two key energy justice principles from modern theories of distributive justice, procedural justice, and cosmopolitan justice. The prohibitive principle states that "energy systems must be designed and constructed in such a way that they do not unduly interfere with the ability of people to acquire those basic goods to which (...)

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47. In today’s individualized, culturally diverse and globalized society, many sociologists have concluded that the conceptualizations developed by classical sociology are no longer sufficient to promote social cohesion. So what kind of solidarity can achieve this? Engaging with recent thought in social and political theory and philosophy, this book develops a renewed concept of solidarity based on the notion of ‘recognition’ with regard to others. With attention to the implications of such an account for justice and judgement – particularly where competing (...)

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49. This new book reopens the debate on theories of justice between utilitarian theorists and scholars from other camps. John Rawls' 1971 publication of A Theory of Justice put forward a devastating challenge to the long-established dominance of utilitarianism within political and moral philosophy, and until now no satisfactory and comprehensive utilitarian reply has yet been put forward. By expounding John Stuart Mill's system of knowledge and by reconstructing his utilitarianism, Huei-chun Su offers a fresh and comprehensive analysis of Mill's moral (...)