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  1. Becoming Animal: An Essay on Wonder.David Abram - 2010 - Pantheon Books.
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  2. Epilogue: The Epistemic and Practical Circle in an Evolutionary, Ecologically Sustainable Society.Donato Bergandi - 2013 - In The Structural Links between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Springer. pp. 151-158.
    Abstract In a context of human demographic, technological and economic pressure on natural systems, we face some demanding challenges. We must decide 1) whether to “preserve” nature for its own sake or to “conserve” nature because nature is essentially a reservoir of goods that are functional to humanity’s wellbeing; 2) to choose ways of life that respect the biodiversity and evolutionary potential of the planet; and, to allow all this to come to fruition, 3) to clearly define the role of (...)
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  3. Biodiversité.Donato Bergandi - 2001 - In Gilbert Hottois & Jean-Noël Missa (eds.), Nouvelle encyclopédie de bioéthique. Médecine, environnement, biotechnologie. De Boeck Université. pp. 104-112.
  4. A Way Out From the Wrongful Environmental Mindset: The Origins and Possible Solutions to the Tragedy of the Commons.Paweł Bernat - 2013 - Philosophy and Practice of Sustainable Development.
    The paper indicates and discusses three phenomena identified as the main origins of the mindset responsible for the tragedy of the global commons, namely (1) Cornucopianism, (2) rationality of self-interest and egoism, and (3) the presupposed instrumental value of nature. It is demonstrated that all those theses can be philosophically and ethically dismissed and thus, the wrongful environmental mindset built around them should be rejected. It is further argued that the up-to-date solutions to the tragedy are unsatisfactory. Moreover, the tragedy (...)
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  5. On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.H. Bernstein Mark - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  6. Moral Considerability and Universal Consideration.Thomas H. Birch - 1993 - Environmental Ethics 15 (4):313-332.
    One of the central, abiding, and unresolved questions in environmental ethics has focused on the criterion for moral considerability or practical respect. In this essay, I call that question itself into question and argue that the search for this criterion should be abandoned because (1) it presupposes the ethical legitimacy of the Western project of planetary domination, (2) the philosophical methods that are andshould be used to address the question properly involve giving consideration in a root sense to everything, (3) (...)
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  7. Understanding Environmental Philosophy.Andrew Brennan & Y. S. Lo - 2010 - Acumen Publishing.
    Key ideas of environmental philosophy are explained and placed in their broader cultural, religious, historical, political ad philosophical context.
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  8. The Greening of Heart and Mind: A Love Story.Roman Briggs - 2009 - Environmental Ethics 31 (2):155-168.
    Some environmentalists have argued that an effective ecological conscience may be rooted in a perspective that is either anthropocentric or sentiocentric. But, neither seems to have had any substantial effect on the ways in which our species treats nature. In looking to successfully awaken the ecological conscience, the focus should be on extending moral consideration to the land (wherein doing so includes all of the soils, waters, plants, animals, and the collectivity of which these things comprise) by means of coming (...)
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  9. How Not to Save the Planet.Thom Brooks - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):119-135.
    Climate change presents us with perhaps the most pressing challenge today. But is it a problem we can solve? This article argues that existing conservationist and adaptation approaches fail to satisfy their objectives. A second issue that these approaches disagree about how best to end climate change, but accept that it is a problem that can be solved. I believe this view is mistaken: a future environmental catastrophe is an event we might at best postpone, but not avoid. This raises (...)
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  10. Fitting-Attitude Analyses and the Relation Between Final and Intrinsic Value.C. Dussault Antoine - 2014 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 9 (2):166-189.
    This paper examines the debate as to whether something can have final value in virtue of its relational (i.e., non-intrinsic) properties, or, more briefly put, whether final value must be intrinsic. The paper adopts the perspective of the fitting-attitude analysis (FA analysis) of value, and argues that from this perspective, there is no ground for the requirement that things may have final value only in virtue of their intrinsic properties, but that there might be some grounds for the alternate requirement (...)
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  11. Rolston on Intrinsic Value: A Deconstruction.J. Baird Callicot - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  12. Rolston on Intrinsic Value.J. Baird Callicott - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  13. Nature’s Legacy: On Rohwer and Marris and Genomic Conservation.Richard Christian - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):265-267.
    Rohwer & Marris claim that “many conservation biologists” believe that there is a prima facie duty to preserve the genetic integrity of species. (A prima facie duty is a necessary pro tanto moral reason.) They describe three possible arguments for that belief and reject them all. They conclude that the biologists they cite are mistaken, and that there is no such duty: duties to preserve genetic integrity are merely instrumental: we ought act to preserve genetic integrity only because doing so (...)
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  14. Value Pluralism and Consistency Maximization in the Writings of Aldo Leopold: Moving Beyond Callicott’s Interpretations of the Land Ethic.Ben Dixon - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
    The 70th anniversary of Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac (1949) approaches. For philosophers—environmental ethicists in particular—this text has been highly influential, especially the ‘Land Ethic’ essay contained therein. Given philosophers’ acumen for identifying and critiquing arguments, one might reasonably think a firm grasp of Leopold’s ideas to have emerged from such attention. I argue that this is not the case. Specifically, Leopold’s main interpreter and systematiser, philosopher J. Baird Callicott, has shoehorned Aldo Leopold’s ideas into differing monistic moral theories (...)
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  15. Deriving Moral Considerability From Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac.Ben Dixon - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):196-212.
    I argue that a reasonable understanding of Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ is one that identifies possession of health as being a sufficient condition for moral consideration. With this, Leopold extends morality not only to biotic wholes, but to individual organisms, as both can have their health undermined. My argument centers on explaining why Leopold thinks it reasonable to analogize ecosystems both to an organism and to a community: both have a health. My conclusions undermine J. Baird Callicott’s rhetorical dismissal of the (...)
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  16. Nietzsche and the Paradox of Environmental Ethics.Martin Drenthen - 2002 - New Nietzsche Studies 5 (1/2):12-25.
    In this paper, I offer a systematic inquiry into the significance of Nietzsche's philosophy to environmental ethics. Nietzsche's philosophy of nature is, I believe, relevant today because it makes explicit a fundamental ambiguity that is also characteristic of our current understanding of nature. I show how the current debate between traditional environmental ethics and postmodern environmental philosophy can be interpreted as a symptom of this ambiguity. I argue that, in light of Nietzsche's critique of morality, environmental ethics is a highly (...)
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  17. Het Zwijgen van de Natuur - Een Respectvolle Houding ten Opzichte van de Natuur Houdt Noodzakelijkerwijs Ook Een Zekere Distantie In.Martin Drenthen - 1996 - Filosofie En Praktijk 17:187-199.
    Milieufilosofisch Nederland wordt momenteel verdeeld door een controverse naar aanleiding vanrecente publicaties van de Wageningse filosofen Keulartz en Korthals. In dit artikel wil ik - aande hand van een analyse van het gebruik van het natuurbegrip bij Wim Zweers - laten zien dat Keulartz op een tot nu toe onderbelicht probleem wijst: het probleem van de veelheid vannatuurbeelden. Tegelijkertijd wil ik echter aantonen dat Keulartz' eigen, 'post-naturalistische' positie op een tegenspraak berust. Tenslotte geef ik aan hoe deze controverses zijn terug (...)
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  18. In Search of Ecocentric Sentiments: Insights From the CAD Model in Moral Psychology.Antoine C. Dussault - 2013 - Environmental Ethics 35 (4):419-437.
    One aspect of J. Baird Callicott’s foundational project for ecocentrism consists in explaining how moral consideration for ecological wholes can be grounded in moral sentiments. Some critics of Callicott have objected that moral consideration for ecological wholes is impossible under a sentimentalist conception of ethics because, on both Hume and Smith’s views, sympathy is our main moral sentiment and it cannot be elicited by holistic entities. This conclusion is premature. The relevant question is not whether such moral consideration is compatible (...)
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  19. L’écocentrisme et ses appels normatifs à la nature : sont-ils nécessairement fallacieux ?Antoine C. Dussault - 2013 - In É Litalien (ed.), Peut-on tirer une éthique de l'étude de la nature ? Les Cahiers d'Ithaque. pp. 43-76.
  20. Le rôle de la science dans l'écocentrisme humien de Callicott.Antoine C. Dussault - 2010 - Revue Phares 10:103-123.
  21. Intrinsic Value, Naturalness and Environmental Obligation.R. Elliot - 1992 - Monist: An International Quarterly of General Philosophical Inquiry 75:138-160.
  22. Communicative Ethics and Moral Considerability.Richard J. Evanoff - 2007 - Environmental Ethics 29 (3):247-266.
    Although nonhuman entities are indeed incapable of entering into contractual relations with humans or of participating in social dialogue on ethical norms, they can nonetheless become the objects of moral consideration on the part of humans. Moral consideration need not be extended universally to all nonnatural entities, but only to those entities with which humans interact. Rather than regard some or all of the natural world as having “intrinsic value,” considered judgments must be made regarding which parts of nature can (...)
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  23. Two Views of Animals in Environmental Ethics.Comstock Gary - 2016 - In David Schmidtz (ed.), Philosophy: Environmental Ethics. Boston: Gale. pp. 151-183.
    This chapter concerns the role accorded to animals in the theories of the English-speaking philosophers who created the field of environmental ethics in the latter half of the twentieth century. The value of animals differs widely depending upon whether one adopts some version of Holism (value resides in ecosystems) or some version of Animal Individualism (value resides in human and nonhuman animals). I examine this debate and, along the way, highlight better and worse ways to conduct ethical arguments. I explain (...)
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  24. Liberty and Valuing Sentient Life.John Hadley - 2013 - Ethics and the Environment 18 (1):87-103.
    In “Do Animals have an Interest in Liberty?” Alasdair Cochrane brings some much needed attention to the ethics of animal confinement (2009a). Of particular significance is the question of whether confinement in itself is bad for nonhuman animal (hereafter, animal) well-being. If confinement conditions cause animals to suffer or frustrate their preferences it is safe to assume that liberty or freedom (following Cochrane, I use the terms interchangeably) would be instrumentally good for them. But, what about seemingly benign conditions of (...)
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  25. Confining 'Disenhanced'Animals.John Hadley - 2012 - NanoEthics 6 (1):41-46.
    Abstract Drawing upon evolutionary theory and the work of Daniel Dennett and Nicholas Agar, I offer an argument for broadening discussion of the ethics of disenhancement beyond animal welfare concerns to a consideration of animal “biopreferences”. Short of rendering animals completely unconscious or decerebrate, it is reasonable to suggest that disenhanced animals will continue to have some preferences. To the extent that these preferences can be understood as what Agar refers to as “plausible naturalizations” for familiar moral concepts like beliefs (...)
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  26. Critique of Callicott's Biosocial Moral Theory.John Hadley - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (1):67-78.
    : J. Baird Callicott's claim to have unified environmentalism and animal liberation should be rejected by holists and liberationists. By making relations of intimacy necessary for moral considerability, Callicott excludes from the moral community nonhuman animals unable to engage in intimate relations due to the circumstances of their confinement. By failing to afford moral protection to animals in factory farms and research laboratories, Callicott's biosocial moral theory falls short of meeting a basic moral demand of liberationists. Moreover, were Callicott to (...)
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  27. Animal Ethics and Philosophy: Questioning the Orthodoxy.John Hadley & Elisa Aaltola (eds.) - 2014 - Rowman and Littlefield International.
    Bringing together new theory and critical perspectives on a broad range of topics in animal ethics, this book examines the implications of recent developments in the various fields that bear upon animal ethics. Showcasing a new generation of thinkers, it exposes some important shortcomings in existing animal rights theory.
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  28. On Moral Considerability.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):730-733.
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  29. Technology, the Environment, and the Moral Considerability of Artifacts.Benjamin Hale - 2008 - In Evan Selinger, Jan Kyrre Berg Olson & Soren Riis (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Technology. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  30. The Moral Considerability of Invasive Transgenic Animals.Benjamin Hale - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):337-366.
    The term moral considerability refers to the question of whether a being or set of beings is worthy of moral consideration. Moral considerability is most readily afforded to those beings that demonstrate the clearest relationship to rational humans, though many have also argued for and against the moral considerability of species, ecosystems, and “lesser” animals. Among these arguments there are at least two positions: “environmentalist” positions that tend to emphasize the systemic relations between species, and “liberationist” positions that tend to (...)
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  31. Universal Consideration as a Deontological Principle.Tim Hayward - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (1):55-63.
    A major problem that skeptical critics have identified with the project of environmental ethics as it is often conceived is that it involves the search for a criterion of moral considerability, and some claim that this search has not only been unsuccessful, but it is in principle mistaken. Birch has recently argued that this whole problem can be avoided through his proposal of universal consideration in a “root sense,” which applies to all beings, with no exceptions marked by any of (...)
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  32. Are Mere Things Morally Considerable?W. Murray Hunt - 1980 - Environmental Ethics 2 (1):59-65.
    Kenneth Goodpaster has criticized ethicists like Feinberg and Frankena for too narrowly circumscribing the range of moral considerability, urging instead that “nothing short of the condition of being alive” is a satisfactory criterion. Goodpaster overlooks at least one crucial objection: that his own “condition of being alive” may aIso be too narrow a criterion of moral considerability, since “being in existence” is at least as plausible and nonarbitrary a criterion as is Goodpaster’s. I show that each of the arguments that (...)
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  33. Avatar Vs Mononoke.Alejandra Mancilla - 2011 - Philosophy Now 85:44-46.
    "Avatar" and "Princess Mononoke" as representative of radically different positions in environmental ethics.
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  34. Allen Carlson and Sheila Lintott (Eds.): Nature, Aesthetics and Environmentalism: From Beauty to Duty. [REVIEW]Alejandra Mancilla - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (3):449-452.
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  35. Aristotle’s Powers and Responsibility for Nature.Stephan Millett - 2011 - Peter Lang.
    This book addresses what 'nature' is and humans' obligations toward the natural world. Beginning with ideas traced from Aristotle through some of the significant figures in European philosophy, the author shows that each living thing is a unique source of value. This value puts humans under an obligation and adopting an attitude of responsibility to living things is an essential part of what it means to be human.
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  36. Environmental Ethics and Agricultural Intensification. Palmer - 2008 - In Paul Thompson (ed.), The Ethics of Intensification: Agricultural Development and Cultural Chang. Springer. pp. 131-148.
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  37. Value Conflicts in Feral Cat Management: Trap-Neuter-Return or Trap-Euthanize.Clare Palmer - 2014 - In Michael Appleby, Dan Weary & Peter Sandoe (eds.), Dilemmas in Animal Welfare. CABI International. pp. 148-168.
    This chapter explores the key values at stake in feral cat management, focusing on the debate over whether to use trap-neuter-return or trap-euthanize as management tools for cat populations. The chapter provides empirical background on unowned cats, sketches widely used arguments in favour of reducing cat populations and considers how these arguments relate to important and widely held values including the value of lives, subjective experiences and species. The chapter promotes critical understanding of the diverse value positions that may be (...)
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  38. Does Nature Matter? The Place of the Non-Human in the Ethics of Climate Change.Clare Palmer - 2011 - In Denis Arnold (ed.), The Ethics of Global Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. pp. 272-291.
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  39. Stewardship.Clare Palmer - 1992 - In Ian Ball, Margaret Goodall, Clare Palmer & John Reader (eds.), The Earth Beneath. SPCK. pp. 67-87.
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  40. The Moral Status of Extraterrestrial Life.Erik Persson - 2012 - Astrobiology 12:976-984.
    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial—and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? -/- In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these (...)
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  41. What is Wrong with Extinction?Erik Persson - 2008 - Dissertation, Lund University
  42. Humility and Environmental Virtue Ethics.Matthew Pianalto - 2013 - In Michael Austin (ed.), Virtues in Action: New Essays in Applied Virtue Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  43. Epistemology and Intrinsic Values: Norton and Callicott's Critiques of Rolston.Christopher J. Preston - 1998 - Environmental Ethics 20 (4):409-428.
    Debates over the existence of intrinsic value have long been central to professional environmental ethics. Holmes Rolston, III’s version of intrinsic value is, perhaps, the most well known. Recently, powerful critiques leveled by Bryan G. Norton and J. Baird Callicott have suggested that there is an epistemological problem with Rolston’s account. In this paper, I argue first that the debates over intrinsic value are as pertinent now as they have ever been. I then explain the objections that Norton and Callicott (...)
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  44. Anthropocentric Indirect Arguments and Anthropocentric Moral Attitudes.Duncan Purves - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (3):267-270.
    Anthropocentric indirect arguments , which call for specific policies or actions because of human benefits that are correlated with but not caused by benefits to the environment, are gaining increasing traction with those who take a pragmatic approach to environmental protection. I contend that nonanthropocentrists might remain justifiably uneasy about AIAs because such arguments fail to challenge prevailing speciesist moral attitudes. I close by considering whether Elliott can address this concern of nonanthropocentrists by appealing to the ability of AIAs to (...)
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  45. Ecosystem Moral Considerability: A Reply to Cahen.Stanley N. Salthe & Barbara M. Salthe - 1989 - Environmental Ethics 11 (4):355-361.
    Appeals to science as a help in constructing policy on complex issues often assume that science has relatively clear-cut, univocal answers. That is not so today in the environmentally crucial fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The social role of science has been as a source of information to be used in the prediction and domination of nature. Its perspectives are finely honed for such purposes. However, other more conscientious perspectives are now appearing within science, and we provide an example (...)
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  46. The Ethics of Terraforming.Robert Sparrow - 1999 - Environmental Ethics 21 (3):227-245.
    I apply an agent-based virtue ethics to issues in environmental philosophy regarding our treatment of complex inorganic systems. I consider the ethics of terraforming: hypothetical planetary engineering on a vast scale which is aimed at producing habitable environments on otherwise “hostile” planets. I argue that the undertaking of such a project demonstrates at least two serious defects of moral character: an aesthetic insensitivity and the sin of hubris. Trying to change whole planets to suit our ends is arrogant vandalism. I (...)
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  47. Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic.Toby Svoboda - 2015 - Routledge.
    In this book, Toby Svoboda develops and defends a Kantian environmental virtue ethic, challenging the widely-held view that Kant's moral philosophy takes an instrumental view toward nature and animals and has little to offer environmental ethics. On the contrary, Svoboda posits that there is good moral reason to care about non-human organisms in their own right and to value their flourishing independently of human interests, since doing so is constitutive of certain virtues. Svoboda argues that Kant’s account of indirect duties (...)
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  48. The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis.Toby Svoboda - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the same (...)
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  49. Why There is No Evidence for the Intrinsic Value of Non-Humans.Toby Svoboda - 2011 - Ethics and the Environment 16 (2):25-36.
    The position of some environmental ethicists that some non-humans have intrinsic value as a mind-independent property is seriously flawed. This is because human beings lack any evidence for this position and hence are unjustified in holding it. For any possible world that is alleged to have this kind of intrinsic value, it is possible to conceive an observationally identical world that lacks intrinsic value. Hence, one is not justified in inferring the intrinsic value of some non-human from any set of (...)
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  50. Anthropocentrism.Julia Tanner - 2012 - In Craig W. Allin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Issues.
    Definition: considering human beings to be of central importance; the source of value.
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