About this topic
Summary Although its primary interest is the epistemology of intuition, the philosophical study of intuition begins with the question of the nature of intuition, because epistemological accounts of intuition differ significantly depending on what the nature of intuition is held to be. Various conceptions of the nature of intuition have been proposed: for instance, intuitions as judgements, intuitions as beliefs, intuitions as dispositions to judge (or believe) or intuitions as mental states that are prior to judgement (or belief) or the disposition to judge (or believe).
Key works Bealer 1998BonJour 1998 and Sosa 1998 present positive accounts of the epistemic value of intuition, each based on a different theory of the nature of intuition. Cummins 1998, Stich 1988, Weinberg et al 2001 and Williamson 2004 present sceptical arguments regarding the epistemic value of intuition. Sosa 2007 and Williamson 2007 offer responses to some sceptical arguments. (Note: The ongoing philosophical debate on intuition has proceeded in a way that is largely independent of earlier writings on the topic by authors such as Bergson, Husserl, Kant and Spinoza. These earlier writings may still be regarded as key works in at least a historical sense. In any case, they remain valuable resources for anyone interested in the philosophy of intuition.)
Introductions Reading the following three texts in the order given will make for a good introduction: DePaul & Ramsey 1998Gutting 1998 and Pust 2017.
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  1. Die Natur und der epistemische Status von Intuitionen.Martin Grajner - 2012 - Proceedings Zu GAP 7. Nachdenken Und Vordenken: Herausforderungen an Die Philosophie.
    In this paper, I sketch an account of intuitions on which intuitions are seemings. My paper consists of four sections. I the first section, I give an overview of the conceptions of intuitions that are endorsed in the recent literature and examine their interrelations. In the second section of the paper, I present an argument in favour of the view that intuitions are seemings. I argue that this view is backed up by linguistic data. In the third section of the (...)
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  2. Die Natur und der Status von epistemischen Intuitionen.Martin Grajner - 2012 - In Dagmar Borchers Oliver Petersen (ed.), Proceedings zu GAP 7. Nachdenken und Vordenken: Herausforderungen an die Philosophie. Duisburg, Deutschland: pp. 231-242..
    In this paper, I sketch an account of intuitions according to which intuitions are seemings. My paper consists of four sections. I the first section, I give an overview of the conceptions of intuitions that are endorsed in the literature and examine their interrelations. In the second section of the paper, I present an argument in favour of the view that intuitions are seemings. I argue that this view is backed up by certain linguistic data and that there exist linguistic (...)
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  3. Intuitions and the Understanding.Paul Boghossian - 2016 - In Miguel Ángel Fernández Vargas (ed.), Performance Epistemology: Foundations and Applications. OUP. pp. 137-150.
    This chapter assumes that intuitions must play a central role in explaining a priori justification and looks at the conditions under which they would be able to do so. It argues that if an appeal to intuitions is to help, they must provide epistemological resources that go beyond those provided by explanations in terms of epistemological analyticity (appeals to conceptual understanding). Accounts, like Ernest Sosa’s, which reduce intuitions to attractions to assent, and which give the understanding an indispensable role in (...)
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  4. Intuitions in the Ontology of Musical Works.Elzė Sigutė Mikalonytė - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-20.
    An impressive variety of theories of ontology of musical works has been offered in the last fifty years. Recently, the ontologists have been paying more attention to methodological issues, in particular, the problem of determining criteria of a good theory. Although different methodological approaches involve different views on the importance and exact role of intuitiveness of a theory, most philosophers writing on the ontology of music agree that intuitiveness and compliance with musical practice play an important part when judging theories. (...)
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  5. Reference and Intuitions.Daniel Cohnitz & Jussi Haukioja - 2021 - In Stephen Biggs & Heimir Geirsson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Reference. Routledge. pp. 551-559.
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  6. Statistical Resentment, Or: What’s Wrong with Acting, Blaming, and Believing on the Basis of Statistics Alone.David Enoch & Levi Spectre - forthcoming - Synthese:1-32.
    Statistical evidence—say, that 95% of your co-workers badmouth each other—can never render resenting your colleague appropriate, in the way that other evidence (say, the testimony of a reliable friend) can. The problem of statistical resentment is to explain why. We put the problem of statistical resentment in several wider contexts: The context of the problem of statistical evidence in legal theory; the epistemological context—with problems like the lottery paradox for knowledge, epistemic impurism and doxastic wrongdoing; and the context of a (...)
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  7. Copula is an Intuitive Predicate of Consciousness on Fulfilment of Knowing and Judging Acts.Kiran Pala - 2020 - Humanit Soc Sci Commun 121 (7).
    The recent investigations into knowledge and its elements viz facts, skills and objects have become prominent in various subfields of philosophy and other areas like linguistics, cognitive science, neuroscience and artificial intelligence. These investigations have been mainly on understanding the relation between the intentionality and its referential entities to know how they enrich knowledge with their existence. This article starts with an exploration of the fundamental aspects of judgemental sense from the knowledge origins perspective. To explain the consequences of this, (...)
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  8. Debating the a Priori.Paul Boghossian & Timothy Williamson - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    The book records a series of philosophical exchanges between its authors, amounting to a debate extended over more than fifteen years. Its subject matter is the nature and scope of reason. A central case at issue is basic logical knowledge, and the justification for basic deductive inferences, but the arguments range far more widely, at stake the distinctions between analytic and synthetic, and between a priori and a posteriori. The discussion naturally involves problems about the conditions for linguistic understanding and (...)
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  9. Invited Book Review of Stanislas Debaene, The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). [REVIEW]Stephen Palmquist - 2012 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 26 (4):928-930.
    What Stanislas Debaene dubs "the number sense" is a natural ability humans share with other animals, enabling us to "count" to four virtually instantaneously. This so-called "accumulator" provides "a direct intuition of what numbers mean". Beyond four, our ability to perceive numbers becomes approximate, though concepts enable us to move beyond approximation. Because humans typically learn number concepts in early childhood, we easily forget that our brains retain the number sense throughout life. This book examines the biological basis for this (...)
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  10. Epistemic Judgments Are Insensitive to Probabilities.Adam Michael Bricker - 2020 - Metaphilosophy 51 (4):499-521.
    Multiple epistemological programs make use of intuitive judgments pertaining to an individual’s ability to gain knowledge from exclusively probabilistic/statistical information. This paper argues that these judgments likely form without deference to such information, instead being a function of the degree to which having knowledge is representative of an agent. Thus, these judgments fit the pattern of formation via a representativeness heuristic, like that famously described by Kahneman and Tversky to explain similar probabilistic judgments. Given this broad insensitivity to probabilistic/statistical information, (...)
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  11. Ignorance and the Meta-Problem of Consciousness.T. McClelland - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (5-6):108-119.
    Chalmers (2018) considers a wide range of possible responses to the meta-problem of consciousness. Among them is the ignorance hypothesis -- the view that there only appears to be a hard problem because of our inadequate conception of the physical. Although Chalmers quickly dismisses this view, I argue that it has much greater promise than he recognizes. The plausibility of the ignorance hypothesis depends on how exactly one frames the 'problem intuitions' that a solution to the meta-problem must explain. I (...)
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  12. Anti-Realist Pluralism: a New Approach to Folk Metaethics.Thomas Pölzler & Jennifer Cole Wright - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (1):53-82.
    Many metaethicists agree that as ordinary people experience morality as a realm of objective truths, we have a prima facie reason to believe that it actually is such a realm. Recently, worries have been raised about the validity of the extant psychological research on this argument’s empirical hypothesis. Our aim is to advance this research, taking these worries into account. First, we propose a new experimental design for measuring folk intuitions about moral objectivity that may serve as an inspiration for (...)
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  13. Why the Method of Cases Doesn’t Work.Christopher Suhler - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (4):825-847.
    In recent years, there has been increasing discussion of whether philosophy actually makes progress. This discussion has been prompted, in no small part, by the depth and persistence of disagreement among philosophers on virtually every major theoretical issue in the field. In this paper, I examine the role that the Method of Cases – the widespread philosophical method of testing and revising theories by comparing their verdicts against our intuitions in particular cases – plays in creating and sustaining theoretical disagreements (...)
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  14. Zagadnienie intuicji w kontekście współczesnego dyskursu metafizycznego.Karol Lenart - 2015 - Filozoficzne Rozważania o Człowieku, Kulturze I Nowoczesności.
    Istnieje spór w obrębie filozofii sięgający już starożytności i polemiki Platona z Sofistami, dotyczący ugruntowania metafizyki jako dziedziny autonomicznej, która byłaby zdolna do badania swoistych elementów rzeczywistości, przysługujących tylko i wyłącznie metafizyce. We wstępnych rozważaniach przedstawiamy sposób, w jaki ten spór można rozumieć oraz jak można go rozwiązać. Tezą metafilozoficzną naszych analiz będzie stwierdzenie, że w celu ugruntowania metafizyki musimy wskazać na swoiste doświadczenie, które mogłoby zapewnić bezpośredni dostęp poznawczy do abstrakcyjnego przedmiotu metafizyki. W niniejszych badaniach, rolę tego doświadczenia będzie (...)
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  15. Thought Experiments: State of the Art.Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James R. Brown - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 1-28.
    This is the introduction to the Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments.
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  16. LA INTUICIÓN EN JACQUES MARITAIN.Miguel Acosta - 2012 - In Manuel Oriol (ed.), Inteligencia y Filosofía. Madrid, Spain: Marova. pp. 383-400.
    La intuición es un tipo de conocimiento que consiste en captar de modo inmediato la esencia de las cosas y comprenderlas de forma directa sin llevar a cabo un proceso discursivo. Algunas filosofías rechazan este modo de conocer por ser falible, otros la enmarcan dentro de los fenómenos extrasensoriales e incluso paranormales. En este trabajo se considera la intuición en Jacques Maritain, no en su aspecto de fenómeno sobrenatural, sino como una vía de aprehensión de la realidad adquirida por métodos (...)
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  17. Inference and Insight. [REVIEW]Paul Boghossian - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):633-640.
    Review of In Defense of Pure Reason by Laurence Bonjour.
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  18. Intuition in Contemporary Philosophy.D. M. Azraf - 1957 - Pakistan Philosophical Journal 1 (2):17.
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  19. Toward an Understanding of Intuition and its Importance in Scientific Endeavor.Lois D. Isenman - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):395-403.
  20. Linguistic Evidence, Status Of.Carson T. Schütze - 2003 - In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
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  21. Armchair Methodology and Epistemological Naturalism.Janet Levin - 2013 - Synthese 190 (18):4117-4136.
    In traditional armchair methodology, philosophers attempt to challenge a thesis of the form ‘F iff G’ or ‘F only if G’ by describing a scenario that elicits the intuition that what has been described is an F that isn’t G. If they succeed, then the judgment that there is, or could be, an F that is not G counts as good prima facie evidence against the target thesis. Moreover, if these intuitions remain compelling after further (good faith) reflection, then traditional (...)
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  22. Die Funktion von Grenzbegriffen. Symposium zu: Eckart Förster: Die 25 Jahre der Philosophie.Johannes Haag - 2012 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 60 (6):993-1001.
    The discussion of the hermetical §§ 76/77 of Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment is the centerpiece of Eckart Förster’s groundbreaking Die 25 Jahre der Philosophie. The decisive methodological tool employed by Kant in those sections is the use of limiting concepts such as intellectual intuition and intuitive intellect. Förster’s discussion of the use of limiting concepts in those paragraphs is outlined and ultimately – despite some criticism in exegetical detail – assessed as the right way to reconstruct the (...)
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  23. Intuition and Inquiry.Anand Vaidya - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):16.
    Recent work in philosophical methodology by experimental philosophers has brought to light a certain kind of skepticism about the role of intuitions in a priori philosophical inquiry. In this paper I turn attention away from a priori philosophical inquiry and on to the role of intuition in experimental design. I argue that even if we have reason to be skeptical about the role of intuition in a priori philosophical inquiry, we cannot remove intuition from inquiry altogether, because appeals to intuition (...)
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  24. Towards a Non-Rationalist Inflationist Account of Intuitions.Julia Langkau - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):18.
    In this paper, I first develop desiderata for an ontology of intuitions on the basis of paradigmatic cases of intuitions in philosophy. A special focus lies on cases that have been subject to extensive first-order philosophical debates but have been receiving little attention in the current debate over the ontology of intuitions. I show that none of the popular accounts in the current debate can meet all desiderata. I discuss a view according to which intuitions reduce to beliefs, Timothy Williamson's (...)
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  25. Poetic Intuition: Spinoza and Gerard Manley Hopkins.Joshua M. Hall - 2013 - Philosophy Today 57 (4):401-407.
    As one commentator notes, Spinoza’s conception of “the third kind of knowledge”—intuition, has been “regarded as exceptionally obscure. Some writers regard it as a kind of mystic vision; others regard it as simply unintelligible.” For Spinoza, the first kind of knowledge, which he calls “imagination,” is a kind of sense-experience of particulars; the second kind, which he calls “understanding,” involves the rational grasp of universals, and the third, in his words, “proceeds from an adequate idea of the formal essence of (...)
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  26. And Intuitions.Jennifer Saul & Simple Sentences - 2008 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 15 (4):541-545.
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  27. Vilijamsonova kritika filozofskog ekscepcionalizma-Williamson T., 2007: The philosophy of philosophy, Oxford, Blackwell. [REVIEW]Duško Prelević - 2009 - Theoria: Beograd 52 (3):99-119.
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  28. Materialism, Metaphysics, and the Intuition of Distinctness.Michael Pauen - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (7-8):7-8.
    According to many philosophers, an 'explanatory gap' exists between third-person scientific theories and qualitative firstperson experience of mental states like pain feelings or colour experiences such that the former can't explain the latter. Here it is argued that the thought experiments that are invoked by this position are inconsistent, that the position requires a specific kind of first-person privilege which actually does not exist, and that the underlying argument is circular because it is based on the very 'intuition of distinctness'which (...)
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  29. Bursting Bealer’s Bubble: How the Starting Points Argument Begs the Question of Foundationalism Against Quine.Michael J. Shaffer & Jason A. Warnick - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):87-105.
    In his 1993 article George Bealer offers three separate arguments that are directed against the internal coherence of empiricism, specifically Quine’s version of empiricism. In doing so, Bealer identifies three fundamental principles of Quine’s empiricism. First, the principle of empiricism states that.
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  30. Knowing Our Own Concepts: The Role of Intuitions in Philosophy.Péter Hartl - 2011 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (4):488-498.
    Empirical examinations about cross-cultural variability of intuitions, the well-known publication of Stich and his colleagues criticiz-ing thought-experiments and intuitions in philosophical debates, is still a challenge that faces analytical philosophers, as any systematic investigation of the methodology of philosophy must give answers to these basic questions: What is intuition? What role should intuitions play in philosophy? I present and examine the sceptical argument of experimental philosophers, and claim that experimental philosophers misunderstand the role of evidence in philosophy. My argument will (...)
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  31. Access to the Abstract: Intuition as Mental Modelling.Søren Harnow Klausen - 2006 - SATS 7 (2):86-105.
  32. Intuition as Philosophical Evidence.Federico Mathías Pailos - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):17.
    Earlenbaugh and Molyneux’s argument against considering intuitions as evidence has an uncharitable consequence — a substantial part of philosophical practice is not justified. A possible solution to this problem is to defend that philosophy must be descriptive metaphysics. But if this statement is rejected, one can only argue that experts’ intuition does constitute evidence, and that philosophical practice is justified by the overall growth of philosophical knowledge it generates.
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  33. Knowing From the Armchair That Our Intuitions Are Reliable.Ram Neta - 2012 - The Monist 95 (2):329-351.
    In recent years, a growing body of experimental literature has called into question the reliability of our intuitions about hypothetical cases, and thereby called into question the use of intuitions in philosophy. In this paper, I critically assess one prominent example of this challenge, namely, Swain, Alexander, and Weinberg’s recent study of order effects on the Truetemp intuition. I argue that the very data that Swain,Alexander, and Weinberg find do not undermine, but instead support, the reliability of intuition. I also (...)
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  34. Sur le role et la légitimité de l'intuition géométrique.J. Boussinesq - 1879 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 8:357 - 370.
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  35. Sur l'impossibilité d'arriver aux notions géométriques Par une simple condensation d'un grand nombre de résultats de l'expérience addition a une étude concernant le role et la légitimité de l'intuition géométrique.J. Boussinesq - 1880 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 9:444 - 449.
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  36. Understanding Unconscious Intelligence and Intuition: "Blink" and Beyond.Lois Isenman - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):148-166.
    The importance of unconscious cognition is seeping into popular consciousness. A number of recent books bridging the academic world and the reading public stress that at least a portion of decision-making depends not on conscious reasoning, but instead on cognition that occurs below awareness. However, these books provide a limited perspective on how the unconscious mind works and the potential power of intuition. This essay is an effort to expand the picture. It is structured around the book that has garnered (...)
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  37. Intuitions and their Role in Theoretical Construction.Sergi Rosell - 2012 - Ideas Y Valores 61 (150):169-177.
    Se repasa y evalúa la discusión actual acerca del papel que las intuiciones deben desempeñar en la construcción de teorías filosóficas, proponiendo unos desiderata metodológicos que pretenden conciliar las exigencias más razonables de los experimentalistas con aquellas convicciones tradicionales que el autor juzga irrenunciables si se quiere evitar el escepticismo general. The article reviews and evaluates the current discussion regarding the role intuitions should play in the construction of philosophical theories, while, at the same time, proposing some methodological desiderata aimed (...)
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  38. Braude, Hillel. Intuition in Medicine: A Philosophical Defense of Clinical Reasoning.John Safranek - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):358-360.
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  39. Intuition as a Philosophical Argument.Ota Weinberger - 1996 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 52 (1):1-7.
    We experience evidence, but experienced evidence does not entail objective validity of the evident content. There are different kinds of intuitive evidence: logical and analytical evidence, the presuppositions of realism etc.; there is intuitive evidence in the cognitive field as well as in the practical realm. Intuitive evidence is linked with the basic framework of the respective field. Intuition may be replaced by deeper intuition on the basis of new views that evoke a reconstruction of the framework. Value intuition is (...)
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  40. Intuicja Intelektualna W Metafizyce Ogólnej Jakuba Maritaina : Studium Z Historii Metodologii Metafizyki Klasycznej.Edmund Morawiec - 2000 - Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego.
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  41. Fallible Intuitions: The Apriori in Your Mathematics.Charles F. Kielkopf - 1988 - Philosophica 42.
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  42. Replies to Margolis, Lycan, and Henderson.Gary Gutting - 2013 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (1):133-140.
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  43. Venturing Beyond Analytic Philosophy's “Best” Arguments to the Implied Inadequacies of Its Metaphilosophical Intuitions.Joseph Margolis - 2013 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (1):97-111.
    Gary Gutting argues, in his recent book What Philosophers Know, that analytic philosophy provides a sizable collection of exemplary arguments that effectively yield a “disciplinary body of philosophical knowledge”—“metaphilosophy,” he names it—that is, specimens that define in a notably perspicuous way what we should understand as philosophical knowledge itself. He concedes weaknesses in the best-known specimens, and he admits that, generally, even the best specimens do not provide answers to the usual grand questions. I admire his treatment of the matter (...)
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  44. Intuitional Disagreement.Folke Tersman - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (4):639-659.
    Some think that recent empirical research has shown that peoples' moral intuitions vary in a way that is hard to reconcile with the supposition that they are even modestly reliable. This is in turn supposed to generate skeptical conclusions regarding the claims and theories advanced by ethicists because of the crucial role intuitions have in the arguments offered in support of those claims. I begin by trying to articulate the most compelling version of this challenge. On that version, the main (...)
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  45. Issue Introduction.James McBain - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):1-5.
    Introduction to a volume on Philosophical Methodology. Edited by James McBain.
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  46. Variations in Ethical Intuitions.Shaun Nichols & Jennifer L. Zamzow - 2009 - In Ernest Sosa & Enrique Villanueva (eds.), Metaethics. Wiley Periodicals. pp. 368-388.
    Philosophical theorizing is often, either tacitly or explicitly, guided by intuitions about cases. Theories that accord with our intuitions are generally considered to be prima facie better than those that do not. However, recent empirical work has suggested that philosophically significant intuitions are variable and unstable in a number of ways. This variability of intuitions has led naturalistically inclined philosophers to disparage the practice of relying on intuitions for doing philosophy in general (e.g. Stich & Weinberg 2001) and for doing (...)
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  47. The Necessity of Intuition.Pete A. Y. Gunter - 1986 - Southwest Philosophy Review 3:199-207.
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  48. On Intuition and Discursive Reasoning in Aristotle.Lawrence P. Schrenk - 1989 - Review of Metaphysics 42 (4):842-843.
    In this monograph, Victor Kal sets out to challenge the role that induction is traditionally said to play in Aristotle's thought. The author wishes to distinguish sharply between intuition and discursive reasoning and to place induction squarely in the later category. This leaves open the question of the origin of our knowledge of first principles, and here Kal proposes that intuition and experience find their function.
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  49. Intuition and Ideality.John F. Post - 1988 - Review of Metaphysics 42 (2):415-417.
    What distinctive philosophical position unites Whitehead, Heidegger, Carnap, J. L. Austin, Quine, van Fraassen, and Derrida, among many others? According to David Weissman, they all assert or presuppose intuitionism, as he calls it, or the view that "everything real should be present or presentable, in its entirety, to the mind." An implausible set of bedfellows, perhaps, yet Weissman argues persuasively that they are indeed intuitionists, and that "we as philosophers have lost sight of this most fundamental truth about our history (...)
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  50. Book Review. Principles of Intuitionism. Michael Dummett. [REVIEW]Harold T. Hodes - 1982 - Philosophical Review 91 (2):253-62.
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