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  1. On Reading Newton as an Epicurean: Kant, Spinozism and the Changes to the Principia.Eric Schliesser - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):416-428.
  2. Newton’s Action at a Distance – Different Views.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Different authors have attempted to clarify the aspects of remote action and God's involvement on the basis of textual investigations, mainly from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, (Newton, 1999b) Newton's correspondence with Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) and Queries that Newton introduced at the end of the Opticks book in the first three editions (between 1704 and 1721). (Newton 1952) DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12870.11844/1.
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  3. Euristica gravitației newtoniene.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Exemplul clasic al unui program de cercetare de succes este teoria gravitațională a lui Newton, probabil cel mai de succes program de cercetare lakatosian. Inițial, teoria gravitațională a lui Newton s-a confruntat cu o mulțime de "anomalii" ("contraexemple"), și a contrazis teoriile observaționale care susțineau aceste anomalii. Dar suporterii programului de cercetare a gravitației newtoniene au transformat fiecare anomalie în cazuri coroborante. Mai mult, au evidențiat ei înșiși contraexemple pe care le-au explicat apoi prin teoria newtoniană. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25794.32969.
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  4. Newton’s Action at a Distance.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Different authors have attempted to clarify the aspects of remote action and God's involvement on the basis of textual investigations, mainly from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, (Newton, 1999b) Newton's correspondence with Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) and Queries that Newton introduced at the end of the Opticks book in the first three editions (between 1704 and 1721). (Newton 1952).
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  5. Isaac Newton vs Robert Hooke sur la loi de la gravitation universelle.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'une des controverses les disputées sur la priorité des découvertes scientifiques est celle de la loi de la gravitation universelle, entre Isaac Newton et Robert Hooke. Hooke a accusé Newton de plagiat, de reprendre ses idées exprimées dans des travaux antérieurs. J'essaie de montrer, sur la base d'une analyse précédente, que tous les deux scientifiques avaient tort: Robert Hooke parce que sa théorie n'était fondamentalement que des idées qui ne se seraient jamais matérialisées sans l'appui mathématique d'Isaac Newton; et ce (...)
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  6. Epistemology of Newtonian Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The first edition of Newton's Principia contains only two additional comments on the methodology: the notification that the purpose of the paper is to explain "how to determine the true motions from their causes, effects, and apparent differences, and, conversely, how to determine from motions, whether true or apparent, their causes and effects"; and, in the Scholium at the end of Book 1, Section 11, Newton asserts that his distinctive approach makes possible a safer argumentation in natural philosophy. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35946.88003 (...)
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  7. Newton-Hooke Controversy in the Opinion of Scientists.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    A presentation of Hooke’s 1674 monograph introducing the idea of universal gravity was included in the Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society 1775) and subsequently several letters containing observations, including one of Huygens. But obviously, after the publication of Principia in 1687, Hooke’s priority in proposing universal gravitation was forgotten. Hooke, considered as a “mechanical genius” rather than a scientist, was often at a social disadvantage to Newton, the noble theorist, or Huygens. Hooke’s inferior social status did not allow him to identify (...)
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  8. La controverse Newton-Hooke dans l'opinion des scientifiques contemporains.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Une présentation de la monographie de 1674 de Hooke présentant l'idée de la gravitation universelle est apparue dans Philosophical Transactions de 1674, et puis plusieurs lettres contenant des observations, dont celle de Huygens. Mais évidemment, après la publication du Principia en 1687, la priorité de Hooke dans la proposition de la gravitation universelle a été oubliée. Après avoir entendu parler de la demande de Hooke de reconnaître sa priorité, Newton a supprimé les nombreuses références à Hooke dans Principia. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27734.40009.
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  9. Gravitația în interogările din Optica lui Newton.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Newton a sugerat, în timp, mai multe tipuri de eter care ar putea media acțiunea la distanță. Dar, consecvent ideii sale că nu va născoci ipoteze care nu se bazează pe dovezi experimentale, nu a promovat niciodată aceste sugestii la nivelul unor ipoteze științifice. Trebuia să împace mecaniciștii, astfel încât a mers pe ideea unui eter din particule atât de fine încât masa e neglijabilă (practic, un eter imaterial). Mediul pe care Newton l-a introdus în Interogarea 21 constă din corpuri (...)
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  10. Newton's Principia on God-Mediated Action.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    As John Henry states, Newton simply wants to reaffirm the truth of God's omnipresence without directly involving him in the physics of the world system. Newton simply wants to distance himself from a Cartesian concept of God and convince the atheists that God is a real presence extended in the world. God must exist in space for the space to exist, but God does not only act through contact. Henry believes that Andrew Janiak and Hylarie Kochiras give us a wrong (...)
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  11. Action à distance de Newton - Différents points de vue.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'interprétation des textes d'Isaac Newton a suscité une controverse à ce jour. L'un des débats les plus animés a trait à l'action entre deux corps distants l'un de l'autre (l'attraction gravitationnelle), et à la mesure dans laquelle Newton a impliqué Dieu dans ce cas. Pratiquement, la plupart des articles traitent quatre types d’attractions gravitationnelles dans le cas des corps distants : l’action directe à la distance en tant que propriété intrinsèque des corps au sens épicurien du terme ; action directe (...)
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  12. L'action à distance dans la correspondance d'Isaac Newton avec Richard Bentley et les questions d'Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans sa correspondance avec Richard Bentley, Newton a rejeté la possibilité d'une action à distance, bien qu'il l'ait acceptée en Principia. L’environnement introduit par Newton à la question 21 d'Opticks se compose d’une part de corps matériels extrêmement petits, séparés dans l’espace, et d’un principe actif non mécanique produisant et médiatisant les forces de répulsion entre ces corps. À la question 28, il a clairement fait valoir qu'un environnement mécanique devrait être rejeté. L'éther traverse les corps, il est donc sans (...)
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  13. Hooke's Claim on the Law of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Based on Galileo's experiments, Newton develops the theory of gravity in his first book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Principia") of 1686. Immediately after, Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, claiming that he unduly assumed his "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". But, according to Edmond Halley, Hooke agreed that "the demonstration of the curves generated by it" belongs entirely to Newton.
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  14. Épistémologie de la gravité newtonienne.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La première édition de Principia de Newton ne contient que deux remarques supplémentaires sur la méthodologie: la notification que le but de l'article est d'expliquer « comment déterminer les véritables mouvements de leurs causes, les effets et les différences apparents et, au contraire, comment déterminer à partir des hypothèses si elles sont vraies ou apparentes, leurs causes et leurs effets »; et, dans le Scholium à la fin du Livre 1, Section 11, Newton affirme que son approche distinctive permet une (...)
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  15. About God in Newton's Correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley, Newton rejected the possibility of remote action, even though he accepted it in the Principia. Practically, Newton’s natural philosophy is indissolubly linked to his conception of God. The knowledge of God seems to be essentially immutable, unlike the laws of nature that can be subjected to refining, revision and rejection procedures. As Newton later states in Opticks, the cause of gravity is an active principle in matter, but this active principle is not an essential (...)
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  16. L'heuristique de la gravité newtonienne.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'exemple classique d'un programme de recherche réussi est la théorie gravitationnelle de Newton, probablement le programme de recherche lakatosien le plus réussi. Initialement, la théorie gravitationnelle de Newton était confrontée à de nombreuses « anomalies » (« contre-exemples ») et contredisait les théories observationnelles qui soutenaient ces anomalies. Mais les partisans du programme de recherche sur la gravité newtonienne ont transformé chaque anomalie en cas corroborants. De plus, ils ont eux-mêmes indiqué des contre-exemples qu'ils ont ensuite expliqués à travers la (...)
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  17. Isaac Newton despre acțiunea mediată.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Interpretarea textelor lui Isaac Newton a suscitat numeroase controverse, până în zilele noastre. Una din cele mai aprinse dezbateri este legată de acțiunea între două corpuri aflate la distanță unul de celălalt (atracția gravitațională), și în ce măsură Newton a implicat pe Dumnezeu în acest caz. Practic, majoritatea lucrărilor discută patru tipuri de atracții gravitaționale în cazul corpurilor aflate la distanță: acțiunea la distanță directă ca proprietate intrinsecă a corpurilor în sens epicurian; acțiunea la distanță directă mediată divin, de Dumnezeu; (...)
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  18. Principia de Newton sur l'action médiée par Dieu.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Newton veut simplement réaffirmer la vérité sur l'omniprésence de Dieu sans l'impliquer directement dans la physique du système du monde. Newton veut se distancer d'un concept cartésien de Dieu et convaincre les athées que Dieu est une présence réelle dans le monde. Dieu doit exister dans l'espace pour exister l'espace, mais Dieu n'agit pas seulement par contact. Newton a toujours supposé que Dieu agît par le biais de causes secondaires. Dans l'édition de 1687 des Principes mathématiques de la philosophie naturelle, (...)
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  19. Dumnezeul lui Newton.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Practic, Newton vrea pur și simplu să reafirme adevărul omniprezenței lui Dumnezeu, fără să-l implice direct în fizica sistemului mondial. Newton dorește pur și simplu să se distanțeze de un concept cartezian al lui Dumnezeu și să-i convingă pe atei că Dumnezeu este o prezență reală extinsă în lume. Dumnezeu trebuie să existe în spațiu, pentru a exista, dar Dumnezeu nu acționează numai prin contact. Newton a presupus întotdeauna că Dumnezeu a acționat prin cauze secundare. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22468.78720.
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  20. Isaac Newton on the Action at a Distance in Gravity: With or Without God?Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The interpretation of Isaac Newton's texts has sparked controversy to this day. One of the most heated debates relates to the action between two bodies distant from each other (the gravitational attraction), and to what extent Newton involved God in this case. Practically, most of the papers discuss four types of gravitational attractions in the case of remote bodies: direct distance action as intrinsic property of bodies in epicurean sense; direct remote action divinely mediated by God; remote action mediated by (...)
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  21. Teorii alternative la gravitația newtoniană.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Teoreticienii au formulat un set de criterii fundamentale pe care orice teorie a gravitației ar trebui să le satisfacă, două pur teoretice și două care se bazează pe dovezi experimentale. Astfel, o teorie trebuie să fie: 1. completă (capabilă să analizeze din "primele principii" rezultatul oricărui experiment de interes); 2. auto-consistentă (predicția sa pentru rezultatul fiecărui experiment trebuie să fie unică); 3. relativistă (la limită când se neglijează gravitația în comparație cu alte interacțiuni fizice, legile non-gravitaționale ale fizicii trebuie să (...)
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  22. Epistemologia gravitației newtoniene.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Prima ediție a Principia lui Newton conține doar două comentarii suplimentare despre metodologie: notificarea că scopul lucrării este de a explica "cum să determinăm mișcările adevărate din cauzele lor, efectele și diferențele aparente și, dimpotrivă, cum să determinăm din ipoteze dacă sunt adevărate sau aparente, cauzele și efectele lor"; și, în Scholiul de la sfârșitul Cărții 1, Secțiunea 11, Newton afirmă că abordarea sa distinctivă face posibilă argumentarea mai sigură în filosofia naturală. În a doua ediție (1713) Newton introduce secțiuni (...)
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  23. La revendication de Hooke sur la loi de la gravité.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans une note intitulée « Un état vrai de l'affaire et la controverse entre Sr Isaak Newton et le Dr Robert Hooke comme priorité de cette noble hypothèse du mouvement des planètes autour du Soleil en tant que leurs centres » non publié au cours de sa vie, Hooke a décrit sa théorie de la gravité. Pour soutenir sa « priorité », Hooke cite ses conférences sur les mouvements planétaires du 23 mai 1666, « Une tentative de prouver le mouvement (...)
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  24. Isaac Newton sur l'action à distance en gravitation : Avec ou sans Dieu ?Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'interprétation des textes d'Isaac Newton a suscité une controverse à ce jour. L'un des débats les plus animés a trait à l'action entre deux corps distants l'un de l'autre (l'attraction gravitationnelle), et à la mesure dans laquelle Newton a impliqué Dieu dans ce cas. Pratiquement, la plupart des articles traitent quatre types d’attractions gravitationnelles dans le cas des corps distants : l’action directe à la distance en tant que propriété intrinsèque des corps au sens épicurien du terme ; action directe (...)
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  25. Teste și anomalii ale teoriilor clasice ale gravitației non-relativiste.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În mod obișnuit, "laboratorul" testelor gravitaționale a fost corpurile cerești, sistemele astrofizice. Dar astfel de teste sunt perturbate de efecte non-gravitaționale. Cel mai utilizat astfel de "laborator" a fost sistemul solar. De curând, oamenii de știință s-au concentrat pe observarea pulsarilor binari pentru verificarea teoriilor gravitaționale, prin observațiile privind variațiile perioadei orbitale, furnizând astfel dovezi indirecte pentru emisia de radiație gravitațională. Dar experimentatorul nu poate ”aranja laboratorul” după nevoile sale, și nici declanșa anumite evenimente atunci când are nevoie de ele. (...)
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  26. Hume, Newton, & Maclaurin.Charles R. Twardy - manuscript
    Paper presented to the Twenty-seventh Hume Society Conference, 26 July 2000, Williamsburg, Virginia. -/- At the time I thought there was a stronger link between Maclaurin and Hume, but in discussions at and after the meeting, decided Hume was not taking his mechanics out of Maclaurin’s Account. Although I still have found Maclaurin useful in interpreting Hume -- see Sapadin 1997 for a discussion of popular Newtonianism in Hume's day -- I suspect my draft suffers somewhat from ambivalence. There are (...)
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  27. Phenomena in Newton's Principia.Kirsten Walsh - manuscript
    Newton described his Principia as a work of ‘experimental philosophy’, where theories were deduced from phenomena. He introduced six ‘phenomena’: propositions describing patterns of motion, generalised from astronomical observations. However, these don’t fit Newton’s contemporaries’ definitions of ‘phenomenon’. Drawing on Bogen and Woodward’s distinction between data, phenomena and theories, I argue that Newton’s ‘phenomena’ were explanatory targets drawn from raw data. Viewed in this way, the phenomena of the Principia and the experiments from the Opticks were different routes to the (...)
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  28. Newton The Mathematician.José Montesinos - unknown - Existentia 6 (1-4):273-285.
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  29. Newton da Costa on Hypothetical Models in Logic and on the Modal Status of Logical Laws.Jonas Rafael Becker Arenhart - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-21.
    This paper has three aims: first, to present in a clear way Newton da Costa’s argument against the necessity of logical laws. In order to do so, we need to clearly advance his views on the idea that logic is context-relative, and not known a priori. Doing so, however, requires that we present his methodology for the development of counter-examples to logical laws: the use of hypothetical models in logic. Given that this method has been overlooked in most discussions on (...)
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  30. Post-Mechanical Explanation in the Natural and Moral Sciences: The Language of Nature and Human Nature in David Hume and William Cullen.Tamás Demeter - forthcoming - Jahrbuch für Europäische Wissenschaftskultur.
    It is common wisdom in intellectual history that eighteenth-century science of man evolved under the aegis of Newton. It is also frequently suggested that David Hume, one of the most influential practitioners of this kind of inquiry, aspired to be the Newton of the moral sciences. Usually this goes hand in hand with a more or less explicit reading of Hume’s theory of human nature as written in an idiom of particulate inert matter and active forces acting on it, i.e. (...)
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  31. Newton in the Nursery.Adrian Desmond, Eighteenth Century Materialism & Rw Home - forthcoming - History of Science.
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  32. Andrea Strazzoni. Dutch Cartesianism and the Birth of Philosophy of Science: From Regius to ’s Gravesande. [REVIEW]Mihnea Dobre - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  33. The Reception of Isaac Newton in Europe.Mordechai Feingold (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
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  34. Forced Changes Only: A New Take on the Law of Inertia.Daniel Hoek - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-16.
    Newton’s First Law of Motion is typically understood to govern only the motion of force-free bodies. This paper argues on textual and conceptual grounds that it is in fact a stronger, more general principle. The First Law limits the extent to which any body can change its state of motion –– even if that body is subject to impressed forces. The misunderstanding can be traced back to an error in the first English translation of Newton’s Principia, which was published a (...)
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  35. Conference on Computability, Complexity and Randomness: Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge, Uk July 2-6, 2012.Elvira Mayordomo & Wolfgang Merkle - forthcoming - Association for Symbolic Logic: The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
    Elvira Mayordomo and Wolfgang Merkle The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 135-136, March 2013.
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  36. Newton at the Turn of the Century.J. F. Scott - forthcoming - History of Science.
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  37. Newtonianism and the Physics of du Châtelet's Institutions de Physique.Marius Stan - forthcoming - In Gideon Manning & Anna Marie Roos (eds.), Collected Wisdom of the Early Modern Scholar: Essays in Honor of Mordechai Feingold. Springer.
    This paper is about two things that cross paths. One is the many senses of the category ‘Newtonian,’ and their uses for exegesis. The other is the physics that Emilie du Châtelet grounded philosophically around 1740 in her book, Institutions de physique.
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  38. “In Nature as in Geometry”: Du Châtelet and the Post-Newtonian Debate on the Physical Significance of Mathematical Objects.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - In Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant, Second Edition. Springer.
    Du Châtelet holds that mathematical representations play an explanatory role in natural science. Moreover, things proceed in nature as they do in geometry. How should we square these assertions with Du Châtelet’s idealism about mathematical objects, on which they are ‘fictions’ dependent on acts of abstraction? The question is especially pressing because some of her important interlocutors (Wolff, Maupertuis, and Voltaire) denied that mathematics informs us about the properties of real things. After situating Du Châtelet in this debate, this chapter (...)
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  39. Shedding new light on Newton's optical writings: Alan Shapiro ed.: The optical papers of Isaac Newton. Volume 1. The optical lectures 1670–1672. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, 627 pp, £38.99 PB Alan Shapiro ed.: The optical papers of Isaac Newton. Volume 2. The Opticks (1704) and related papers ca.1688–1717. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021, 423 pp, £150.00 HB.Niccolò Guicciardini - 2022 - Metascience 31 (1):11-15.
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  40. The Kingdom of Darkness: Bayle, Newton, and the Emancipation of the European Mind From Philosophy.Dmitri Levitin - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    In 1500, speculative philosophy lay at the heart of European intellectual life; by 1700, its role was drastically diminished. The Kingdom of Darkness tells the story of this momentous transformation. Dmitri Levitin explores the structural factors behind this change: the emancipation of natural philosophy from metaphysics; theologians' growing preference for philology over philosophy; and a new conception of the limits of the human mind derived from historical and oriental scholarship, not least concerning China and Japan. In turn, he shows that (...)
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  41. Erik Kwakkel and Francis Newton, Medicine at Monte Cassino: Constantine the African and the Oldest Manuscript of His “Pantegni,” with an Introduction by Eliza Glaze. (Speculum Sanitatis 1.) Turnhout: Brepols, 2019. Pp. Xxxiii, 255; Color Plates and Black-and-White Figures. €80. ISBN: 978-2-5035-7921-4. [REVIEW]Outi Merisalo - 2022 - Speculum 97 (2):528-529.
  42. Newton’s Secrets Revealed. [REVIEW]Elisabeth Moreau - 2022 - Metascience 31 (1):5-10.
  43. Suicidio revolucionario y tradición de resistencia civil: Huey P. Newton.Hernán Neira - 2022 - Araucaria 24 (49).
    Our work analyses revolutionary suicide, as it was conceived by Huey Pierce Newton, founder of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. Its historical-philosophical context is some political revolutionary self-sacrificial theories. These theories underpin both the link and the difference between Newton and other theories of civil resistance. Our method consists in focusing mainly in Newton’s essays entitled To Die for the People and in his autobiography, Revolutionary Suicide. The originality of our proposal is based on the fact that the (...)
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  44. Conceptual Frameworks on the Relationship Between Physics–Mathematics in the Newton Principia Geneva Edition (1822).Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27.
    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to show the principal aspects of the way in which Newton conceived his mathematical concepts and methods and applied them to rational mechanics in his Principia; (2) to explain how the editors of the Geneva Edition interpreted, clarified, and made accessible to a broader public Newton’s perfect but often elliptic proofs. Following this line of inquiry, we will explain the successes of Newton’s mechanics, but also the problematic aspects of his perfect geometrical (...)
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  45. Causation and Gravitation in George Cheyne's Newtonian Natural Philosophy.Patrick J. Connolly - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 85:145-154.
    This paper analyzes the metaphysical system developed in Cheyne’s Philosophical Principles of Religion. Cheyne was an early proponent of Newtonianism and tackled several philosophical questions raised by Newton’s work. The most pressing of these concerned the causal origin of gravitational attraction. Cheyne rejected the occasionalist explanations offered by several of his contemporaries in favor of a model on which God delegated special causal powers to bodies. Additionally, he developed an innovative approach to divine conservation. This allowed him to argue that (...)
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  46. Towards a Comparative Perspective on Newton’s Working Methods.Steffen Ducheyne - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):152-161.
  47. How Important Was Religion to Newton’s “Secular” Studies?Mordechai Feingold - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):181-190.
  48. El papel de las hipótesis en la filosofía natural de Isaac Newton.Jhoan Sebastian David Giraldo - 2021 - Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología En Historia de Las Ideas 15:65-74.
    El campo interpretativo sobre la obra de Newton ha sido ampliamente discutido y, particularmente, el tema de las hipótesis no ha sido la excepción. El objetivo de este texto es mostrar que la filosofía natural de Newton pareciera, en principio, rechazar la hipótesis, pero en realidad no es opuesta a la formulación de estas, si diferenciamos a qué tipo de hipótesis se hace referencia. Así pues, se muestra, en primer lugar, cómo desarrolla Newton su filosofía natural, y cómo es contrapuesta (...)
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  49. Lessons for the Historian of Newtonian Mathematics.Niccolò Guicciardini - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):124-135.
  50. Reassessing the Wider Aspects of Newton’s Thought – A Symposium.John Henry - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 26 (2):117-123.
    After a brief introduction, this “symposium” presents four essay reviews of three recent major studies of Newton’s life and works beyond the mathematics, physics and natural philosophy for which he is principally known: Jed Buchwald’s and Mordechai Feingold’s Newton and the Origin of Civilization, Rob Iliffe’s Priest of Nature: The Religious Worlds of Isaac Newton, and William R. Newman’s Newton the Alchemist ; and they address Newton’s work on history, chronology, theology and alchemy. The four reviewers are leading Newton scholars (...)
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