For a research project I engaged in from 2004-2007, I gathered and analysed statements made by representatives of Islamist terrorist movements on the Internet and compared key themes of their ideology (such as "democracy", "capitalism", "globalization", "colonialism" and "underdevelopment") to the writings and ideology of authors in various traditions of Christian "political theology". In this paper, it is being established that there are clear similarities in the socio-political analysis advanced by Christian political and liberation theologians and representatives of Islamist terrorist (...) movements and radical Islam, respectively. The paper also offers a short history and extended discussion of the concept of "political theology" and elaborates on radical Islam's understanding of theology and politics. Primary and secondary literature on Christian and Islamic political and liberation theologies and radical Islam are being reviewed (including the most recent writings on "political theology" emanating from, mainly leftist, theory circles in Europe and the US). In an attempt to expand the term "political theology" to cover the socio-political analysis, arguments, and ideology of radical Islam, anti-liberalism is revealed as the single most important factor underlying all political theology. The argument is made that being anti-liberal means being (at least potentially) anti-democratic as well. A discussion of future lines of academic inquiry opens up the possibility of a common definition or framework covering all forms of political and liberation theologies and asks whether comparative political theology may be the ultimate political theory. (shrink)
Being bound to the principle of the 'principiality of existence' as one of the most important pillars of Transcendent Philosophy has fundamentally transformed one of the most important issues in Islamic philosophy, i.e., the three modalities of being. Mulla Sadra, on the basis of his specific analysis in which he contrasts possibility of indigence of quiddity with the Necessary Being, divides existents into copulative and non-copulative existents. Unlike preceding philosophers who conceived of all the three modalities of being as modes (...) of quiddity, he maintains that necessity is definitely one of the modes of existence and possibility one of the modes of quiddity. He also asserts that impossibility originates from non-existence. (shrink)
In this paper the writer has first tried to explore the different views in Islamic philosophy, and then propogate the claim that there exists an invaluable and systematic reality called Islamic philosophy, which began by Kindi, Farabi, and Ibn-Sina, was further developed by Shaykh Ishraq and Mulla Sadra, and still continues to exist.Islamic philosophy is a historical reality, one which, like other existing schools of philosophy; has been influenced by Greek philosophy in many respects; however, it has posed some novel (...) questions and, at the same time, suggested a series of innovative answers to the existing problems. (shrink)
If we are to appraise what is called Islamic philosophy, undoubtedly we will have to admit that it is only Sadrean Transcendental Theosophy, which deserves to be called Islamic philosophy, and the other schools of philosophy, such as Peripatetic school and Illuminationist theosophy lack this characteristic. Sadrean theosophy is mainly based on the revealed texts, and the commentaries, received from the infallible Imams.Sadra make uses of Quranic verses, not to confirm his own ideas, but as a foundation, on which he (...) bases his philosophical and theosophical studies. In other words, he does not appraise the Quranic verses with his own philosophical achievements, but in the contrary, he judges about his own achievements by a Quranic criterion. The sciences, contained in the Holy Quran and tradition, are more extensive than a single philosophical school. A philosophical school, however, may make uses of the Holy Quran and traditions as its sources. (shrink)
In this article the author aims to reveal the common grounds between Islamic philosophy and phenomenology. The focus of the paper is on comparing Mirib Sadra's views with those of Edmond Husserl and revealing their commonalities. The writer believes that the issues which can provide the yiiBMl for having this dialogue consist of the following:1. The rational soul in Islamic Philosophy and the intentionality of the mind in western phenomenology;2. Transition from the first disposition to the second in Islamic philosophy (...) and Epoche and transcendental reduction in western phenomenology;3. Man's pre-eternal promise and its renewal with the help of prophets in Islamic philosophy and "bracketing" the existence of things in western phenomenology;4. The simple and composite types of knowledge in Islamic philosophy and the suspension and ceasing of judgment in western phenomenology.5. The Sophia Prennis in Islamic philosophy and the revival of philosophy in western phenomenology. (shrink)
Although a lot of books have been written on medicine, astronomy. mathematics, Islamic philosophy, etc., not much has been written on the history of the development of research in Islamic logic. As a result, this important part of the history of Islamic thought has remained almost intact. In spite of the fact that a general picture of this field has not been portrayed yet, we have enough information to devise a tentative and general view of this discipline. The present paper (...) is devoted to providing the readers with some information concerning the development of Islamic logic. (shrink)
Most Iranian and Eastern researchers working in the field of religion believe that Zoroaster founded Magianism and was killed in an attack made by a foreign ethnic group. Two copies of his religious books were available: one in Takht-e Jamshīd royal Library, which was put to fire by Greek invaders, and the other in Takht-e Suleyman, which was stolen by them.However, according to Islamic traditions, Zoroaster was not a Magian prophet. He claimed to be a prophet and had collected certain (...) verses. Later there were some conflicts among his people and, as a result, some followed him and some disagreed with him. Finally, he was expelled from among people and became prey to beasts.In these traditions, with some disagreements, someone called "Damast" is introduced as the prophet of the Magi, and their religious book has been called "Jamas", "Jamasb", and "Jamast". This prophet was finally murdered by his own people and his religious book was burnt. (shrink)
Seyyed Mustafa Khomeini had been trained in the school of the Transcendent Philosophy and had several innovations in Islamic philosophy. His ideas had been propounded in a big book called al-Qawa'id al-hakamiyyah, which has been lost. The writer of this paper has collected his new theories by reviewing 29 of his books. From among his 50 new philosophical ideas, 32 are related to problems in theology in its general sense which are also discussed in philosophy, existence and quiddity, mental existence, (...) the tripartite division of being, motion, substance and accident, ontology, and cause and effect. This study deals with his theories and also refers to the ideas of philosophers before him, particularly Mulla Sadra, so that, while comparing them with each other, the place of each theory is clearly revealed. The classification of Mulla Sadra's ideas in the table of contents of the book al-Hikmat al-muta'aliyyah is a great step towards compiling the history of contemporary Islamic philosophy. (shrink)
The main question of this paper is whether there exists something called Islamic Philosophy, and whether it possesses a genuine identity and an independent reality.In the first place, this question might appear surprising and almost irrelevant, since the abundance of books and writings on the history of philosophy and philosophical schools in the world of Islam makes such discussions unnecessary; however, if we return to the roots of the discussion, we will find such questions worthy of reflection and scrutiny.The author's (...) main purpose in writing this paper is to explicate the relationship between philosophy as metaphysics and the science of ontology and Islam. (shrink)
Can Muslim values be reconciled with a feminist outlook? The question is pressing on both an individual level—for Muslim feminists—and on a political level—for the project of making Islamic practice compatible with the ideals of a just and liberal society. A version of this question arises specifically for the central Muslim text, the Quran: can the message of the Quran be reconciled with a feminist outlook? There have, broadly speaking, been two approaches to this more specific question. I argue that (...) both are inadequate. I then develop a novel approach to reconciliation that does not threaten the objective and universal normative force Muslims attribute to the Quran. My approach is revolutionary rather than apologetic, and carves out a central role for moral understanding in Islam-as-practiced. (shrink)
This article has begun pondering over the question of Islamic identity by narrating an ancient Muslim philosophers’ quotation. It could also be concluded with a poem from a modern Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938): “I have lived a long, long while,” said a fallen shore; “What I am know as ill as I knew of yore.” Then swiftly advanced wave from the Sea upshot; “If I roll, I am,” it said; “if I rest, I am not.” Both the first and (...) the last narration insist on a mobile and mosaic identity. Another side of Islamic Identity is related to Ummah, which is also flexible. The Quran describes immigration as an inevitable part of civilization. It was concerned with two great events during the prophet’s time – immigration to Ethiopia and emigration to Medina. It tries to connect worldly and spiritual interests in this topic where a kind of unity in plurality, the secular and sacred affairs meet. It notes that Muslims may migrate because of worldly needs but continue on with unworldly demands; and, indeed, it is possible to combine them rationally. So, focusing on story of immigration in the Quran helps one to better understand the Muslims’ mentality as well as help Muslims to deal with non-Muslims. Obviously immigration consists of some risks; sacrifices for immigrants and hospitality for hosts; but it is also full of opportunities as supported by the Quran. It is related to realizing the high capacity of humankind in facing different cultures and traditions; a mirror for self-knowing and other-knowing; the call to reform morally; to redefine and expand ethical values, to improve the social sphere and change the cultural monologue to dialogue. Finally immigration is a new way to look at God and religion; a new search for the definition of piety and reflects significant different perspectives from the light of the Quran, a misunderstood book in the West! (shrink)
Arsalan Khan offers an ethnography of the normative vision that drives Pakistani Muslim men from diverse social and economic backgrounds to participate in a transnational Islamic piety movement: Tablighi Jamaat. Khan examines how Tablighis constitute the domain of religion in ritual and semiotic practice, how they place an ethical commitment to hierarchy at the heart of religion, and how this, in turn, becomes the basis for restructuring domestic and political life.
While prophethood is the backbone of the Islamic tradition and an uncompromised tenet of faith, the impact of modernity with its ambivalent status afforded to the prophet and institution of prophethood shook many Muslim scholars. Through analysis of these modern debates on prophethood in Islam, this book situates Muhammad Iqbal's (1877-1938) and Said Nursi's (1877-1960) discourses within it and assesses their implications on the modern period. This book introduces the 'what, who and how' of the prophets in the Islamic tradition. (...) It unveils the rich Islamic literature of both the classical and modern periods and analyses the construction of their philosophies and theologies. Concise in both historical and textual analysis, this book makes an important contribution to our understanding of contemporary debates on prophecy and prophethood in Islam, and will be of great interest to postgraduate students and researchers of Islam, religious studies, medieval studies and contemporary studies of Islam and religion. (shrink)
Could Christians and Muslims be referring to the same God? For an account of the reference of divine names, I follow Bogardus and Urban (2017) in advocating in favour of using Gareth Evans’s causal theory of reference, on which a name refers to the dominant source of information in the name’s “dossier”. However, I argue further that information about experiences, in which God is simply the object of acquaintance, can dominate the dossier. Thus, this demonstrative use of names offers a (...) promising alternative avenue by which users of the divine names can refer to the same referent despite having different conceptions of God. I also respond to Burling’s (2019) worship-worthiness view. (shrink)
The Turkish market of Qur'an translations and studies is exceedingly oversaturated. Critics find some of these lacking in proper hermeneutical judgement, impelling them to reflect on the conditions of judicious Qur'anic exegesis. These reflections have remained relatively unexplored in English academic literature. In Critical Hermeneutics, Celik explores and compares the hermeneutical philosophies of three Turkish intellectuals, namely Alpyagil, Cündioglu, and Öztürk. By exploring their philosophical views on subjectivity and objectivity in the context of interpreting the Qur'an, Celik draws major implications (...) for reading the Qur'an in new and different ways. (shrink)
Featuring the work of leading contemporary Muslim philosophers and theologians, this book grapples with various forms of evil and suffering in the world today, from COVID-19 and issues in climate change to problems in palliative care and human vulnerability. Rather than walking down well-trodden paths in philosophy of religion which often address questions of evil and suffering by focusing on divine attributes and the God-world relationship, this volume offers another path of inquiry by focusing on human vulnerability, potential, and resilience. (...) Addressing both the theoretical and practical dimensions of the question of evil, topics range from the transformative power of love, virtue ethics in Sufism and the necessity of suffering, to the spiritual significance of the body and Islamic perspectives on embodiment. In doing so, the contributors propose new perspectives based on various pre-modern and contemporary materials that can enrich the emerging field of the global philosophy of religion, thereby radically transforming contemporary debates on the nature of evil and suffering. The book will appeal to researchers in a variety of disciplines, including Islamic philosophy, religious studies, Sufism and theology. (shrink)
Modern biomedical technologies managed to revolutionise the End-of-Life Care in many aspects. The dying process can now be "engineered" by managing the accompanying physical symptoms or by "prolonging/hastening" death itself. Such interventions questioned and problematised long-established understandings of key moral concepts, such as good life, quality of life, pain, suffering, good death, appropriate death, dying well, etc. This volume examines how multifaceted EoLC moral questions can be addressed from interdisciplinary perspectives within the Islamic tradition. Contributors Amir Abbas Alizamani, Beate Anam, (...) Hamed Arezaei, Asma Asadi, Pieter Coppens, Hans Daiber, Khalid Elzamzamy, Mohammed Ghaly, Hadil Lababidi, Shahaboddin Mahdavi, Aasim Padela, Rafaqat Rashid and Ayman Shabana. (shrink)
According to the Ibrahimic religions, a person sent by God, called Imam Mahdi will establish justice and righteousness, and according to the opinion of Christians, he is Jesus Christ. Against these survivors there is an enemy called Antichrist, who is powerful with the help of Satan. The formation of the Bible presents an Antichrist (pseudo Messiah) as a person who denies Jesus Christ. In Islamic sources, the killer of the Antichrist is Imam Mahdi and the minister of the future government (...) of the world is Jesus Christ. (shrink)
A few days before the death of the fourth ambassador, Ali bin Mohammad al-Samri, Imam Mahdi sent a message to his ambassador saying: “In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Merciful, O Ali bin Mohammad al-Samari, the greatest of God; And between six days, gather your command and do not recommend anyone to take your place after your death, for complete occultation has occurred, and there is no reappearance (advent) except after the permission of Allah, the Exalted, (...) stating him, and that is after a long period, hardness of hearts, and the earth being filled with oppression”. (shrink)
The term "Ta'ziyeh" implies an Iranian dramatic genre and is the original drama of the entire Islamic world. This ritual drama has both Islamic and Persian heritage, with the tragic and heroic martyrdom of Imam Husayn as a central theme.
The Essence of Reality consists of one hundred brief chapters interspersed with Qurʾanic verses, prophetic sayings, Sufi maxims, and poetry. The book takes readers on a philosophical journey, with expositions of questions including the problem of the eternity of the world; the nature of God's essence and attributes; the concepts of "before" and "after"; and the soul's relationship to the body.