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  1. An Eight-Year Follow-Up National Study of Medical School and General Hospital Ethics Committees in Japan.Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato - 2007 - BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-8.
    Background Ethics committees and their system of research protocol peer-review are currently used worldwide. To ensure an international standard for research ethics and safety, however, data is needed on the quality and function of each nation's ethics committees. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and developments of ethics committees established at medical schools and general hospitals in Japan. Methods This study consisted of four national surveys sent twice over a period of eight years to two separate (...)
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  2. Akira Akabayashi, MD, Ph. D., is Professor in the Department of Biomedical Ethics at the School of Health Science and Nursing at the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, and Professor at the School of Public Health, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. [REVIEW]Rachel A. Ankeny, M. L. S. Bette Anton, Alister Browne, Nuket Buken, Murat Civaner, Arthur R. Derse, Brent Dickson, Dan Eastwood, Todd Gilmer & Michael L. Gross - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12:229-231.
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  3. Medical Decisions Concerning the End of Life: A Discussion with Japanese Physicians.A. Asai, S. Fukuhara, O. Inoshita, Y. Miura, N. Tanabe & K. Kurokawa - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):323-327.
    OBJECTIVES: Life-sustaining treatment at the end of life gives rise to many ethical problems in Japan. Recent surveys of Japanese physicians suggested that they tend to treat terminally ill patients aggressively. We studied why Japanese physicians were reluctant to withhold or withdraw life-support from terminally ill patients and what affected their decisions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study design was employed, using a focus group interview with seven physicians, to gain an in-depth understanding of attitudes and rationales in Japan regarding (...)
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  4. Medical Decisions Concerning the End of Life: A Discussion with Japanese Physicians.A. Asai, S. Fukuhara, O. Inoshita, Y. Miura & N. Tanabe - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):323-327.
    OBJECTIVES: Life-sustaining treatment at the end of life gives rise to many ethical problems in Japan. Recent surveys of Japanese physicians suggested that they tend to treat terminally ill patients aggressively. We studied why Japanese physicians were reluctant to withhold or withdraw life-support from terminally ill patients and what affected their decisions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study design was employed, using a focus group interview with seven physicians, to gain an in-depth understanding of attitudes and rationales in Japan regarding (...)
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  5. Survey of Japanese Physicians' Attitudes Towards the Care of Adult Patients in Persistent Vegetative State.A. Asai, M. Maekawa, I. Akiguchi, T. Fukui, Y. Miura, N. Tanabe & S. Fukuhara - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):302-308.
  6. What Ethical Dilemmas Are Japanese Physicians Faced With?Atsushi Asai - 1997 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (6):162-165.
    Each country may face some distinctive ethical problems. Little is known about what kind of ethical problems exist and how often physicians are faced with them in clinical settings in Japan. The authors conducted both retrospective and prospective studies to identify ethical dilemmas at a general medical ward of a university hospital in Japan. In the first phase of the study, retrospective chart reviews were conducted for 61 patients who had been admitted to our general medical ward. It revealed that (...)
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  7. Unanswered Questions About Medical Ethics Education in Japan.Atsushi Asai - 1996 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (6):160-162.
    Patients and physicians have confronted many ethical dilemmas in Japan and more complete medical ethics education should be developed to cope with them. We have to be cautious, however, when adopting ethical guidelines and decision-making priorities utilized in Western countries and expert ethicists' opinions without critical deliberation. Accepting them as absolute norms would fail to resolve ethical problems deeply rooted in the idiosyncratic Japanese human relationship and value system. Traditional ethical attitudes in Japan should be also criticized because they have (...)
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  8. Arguments Against Promoting Organ Transplants From Brain-Dead Donors, and Views of Contemporary Japanese on Life and Death.Atsushi Asai, Yasuhiro Kadooka & Kuniko Aizawa - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):215-223.
    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain- death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives.In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was (...)
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  9. Criticism of "Brain Death" Policy in Japan.Alireza Bagheri - 2003 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):359-372.
    : The 1997 Japanese organ transplantation law is the fruit of a long debate on "brain death" and organ transplantation, which involved the general public and experts in the relevant fields. The aim of this paper is to trace the history of the implementation of the law and to critique the law in terms of its consistency and fairness. The paper argues that the legislation adopts a double standard regarding the role of the family. On the one hand, the legislation (...)
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  10. Experts' Attitudes Towards Medical Futility: An Empirical Survey From Japan. [REVIEW]Alireza Bagheri, Atsushi Asai & Ryuichi Ida - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundThe current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility.MethodsTo examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% were healthcare professionals (...)
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  11. Brain Death And Organ Transplantation: Knowledge, Attitudes And Practice Among Japanese Students.Alireza Bagheri, Takamasa Tanaka, Hideto Takahashi & Shin'ichi Shoji - 2003 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 13 (1):3-6.
    Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of Japanese students regarding brain death and organ transplantation.Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was handed out among 383 Japanese students during the 2002 academic year. The data was finally analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences, SPSS.Results Most students knew that organ transplantation can save a life 97%, while only 38% of the students were aware that there is no treatment for brain dead patients. Overall, 60% of the respondents believed brain death (...)
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  12. Medical Treatment and Buddhism – Reflections From the Discussion on Brain Death and Organ Transplantation in Japanese Buddhism.Tobias Bauer - 2010 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 20 (2):58-64.
  13. The Japan Healthcare Debate: Diverse Perspectives.Mark A. Colby - 2004 - Global Oriental.
    Driven by the demographic tsunami of a rapidly aging population, costs of universal healthcare in Japan have grown at an unprecedented rate. These trends are mirrored elsewhere, so industrialized countries are asking if Japan will become a global test case for healthcare delivery.
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  14. A Pilot Study of Selected Japanese Nurses' Ideas on Patient Advocacy.Anne J. Davis, Emiko Konishi & Marie Tashiro - 2003 - Nursing Ethics 10 (4):404-413.
    This pilot study had two purposes: (1) to review recent Japanese nursing literature on nursing advocacy; and (2) to obtain data from nurses on advocacy. For the second purpose, 24 nurses at a nursing college in Japan responded to a questionnaire. The concept of advocacy, taken from the West, has become an ethical ideal for Japanese nurses but one that they do not always understand, or, if they do, they find it difficult to fulfil. They cite nursing leadership support as (...)
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  15. AI in Medicine: A Japanese Perspective. [REVIEW]Dr Toshiyuki Furukawa - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (3):196-213.
    This article is concerned with the history and current state of research activities into medical expert systems (MES) in Japan. A brief review of expert systems' work over the last ten years is provided and here is a discussion on future directions of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medicine, which we expect the Japanese AI community in medicine (AIM) to undertake.
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  16. Response of Buddhism and Shintō to the Issue of Brain Death and Organ Transplant.Helen Hardacre - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (4):585.
    Japan has no law recognizing the condition of brain death as the standard for determining that an individual has died. Instead, it is customary medical practice to declare a person dead when three conditions have been met: cessation of heart beat, cessation of respiration, and opening of the pupils. Of the developed nations, only Japan and Israel do not recognize brain death as the death of the human person.
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  17. Hiv + /Aids Related Bioethical Issues in Japan.Kazumasa Hoshino - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (3):303–308.
    Annual and cumulative incidences of HIV+ and AIDS in patients reported by the AIDS Surveillance Committee of the Ministry of Health and Welfare are cited to illustrate some characteristics in Japan: nearly 59% of either HIV+ or AIDS patients were infected through injection of blood products or by blood transfusion. A number of plaintiffs have sued the Japanese government and pharmaceutical companies since 1989, but no judicial decisions have yet been made. The incidence of HIV decreases for each of the (...)
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  18. Legal Status of Brain Death in Japan: Why Many Japanese Do Not Accept "Brain Death" as a Definition of Death.Kazumasa Hoshino - 1993 - Bioethics 7 (2-3):234-238.
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  19. Legal Status of Brain Death in Japan: Why Many Japanese Do Not Accept “Brain Death” as a Definition of Death.Kazumasa Hoshino - 1993 - Bioethics 7 (2-3):234-238.
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  20. Japanese and Western Bioethics Studies in Moral Diversity.Kazumasa Hoshino & United States-Japan Bioethics Congress - 1997
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  21. Japanese Buddhist Hospice and Shunko Tashiro.Fuki Ikeuchi & Alison Freund - 1995 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 15:61.
  22. A Comparative Case Study of American and Japanese Medical Care of a Terminally Ill Patient.Hisako Inaba - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 5:19-31.
    How is a terminally ill patient treated by the surrounding people in the U.S. and Japan? How does a terminally ill patient decide on his or her own treatment? These questions will be examined in a study of intensive medical care, received by a terminally ill Japanese cancer patient in the U.S. and Japan. This casereflects the participant observation by a Japanese anthropologist for about 8 years in the United States and Japan on one patient who was hospitalized in both (...)
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  23. The Physician–Patient Relationship and Medical Ethics in Japan.Ryuji Ishiwata & Akio Sakai - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (1):60.
    In April 1991, a general meeting of the Japanese Medical Conference was held in Kyoto and attracted 32,500 participants, the largest number ever. The theme of the meeting was “Medicine and Health Care in Transition,” and the program Included panel discussions on “How to Promote the Quality of Health Care” and “How Terminal Care Should Be Provided” and symposia on “Diagnosis of Brain Death and Its Problems,” “The Propriety of Organ Transplantation,” and “Brain Death and Organ Transplantation.” These titles reveal (...)
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  24. Ethical Practice in End-of-Life Care in Japan.Shigeko Izumi - 2010 - Nursing Ethics 17 (4):457-468.
    Nurses are obliged to provide quality nursing care that meets the ethical standards of their profession. However, clear descriptions of ethical practice are largely missing in the literature. Qualitative research using a phenomenological approach was conducted to explicate ethical nursing practice in Japanese end-of-life care settings and to discover how ethical practices unfold in clinical situations. Two paradigm cases and contrasting narratives of memorable end-of-life care from 32 Japanese nurses were used to reveal four levels of ethical practice: ethical, distressed, (...)
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  25. The Ambiguity About Death in Japan: An Ethical Implication for Organ Procurement.3rd J. R. Mcconnell - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):322-324.
    In the latter half of the twentieth century, developed countries of the world have made tremendous strides in organ donation and transplantation. However, in this area of medicine, Japan has been slow to follow. Japanese ethics, deeply rooted in religion and tradition, have affected their outlook on life and death. Because the Japanese have only recently started to acknowledge the concept of brain death, transplantation of major organs has been hindered in that country. Currently, there is a dual definition of (...)
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  26. Three Level Structure Analysis of End of Life Care in Japan.Sawa Kato - 2012 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 22 (2):53-57.
    This paper is one part of the group research into “Bioethics in Asia Based on Three Level Structure Analysis” and aims to explore the Japanese structure of end-of-life care according to the analysis way Takahashi provided. This follows research by Asai who considered about the quite different responses for artificial nutrition and hydration , extracted the different concepts, SOL and QOL, which support for each response and then analyzed the more basic ideas which underlie those concepts . We will share (...)
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  27. Bioethics as a Prescription for Civic Action: The Japanese Interpretation.Rihito Kimura - 1987 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (3):267-277.
    This paper reports on recent developments in the rise of bioethics in Japan. Much of the recent interest in bioethics in Japan is seen as a response to various civic movements. The women's liberation movement, access to equal opportunity, and the recognition of patients' rights and the importance of informed consent are among some of the movements influencing the development of bioethics in Japan. The author argues that this movement is to be encouraged and fostered by health care professionals, public (...)
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  28. The Current State of Surrogate Conception in Japan and the Ethical Assessment of Dr. Yahiro Netsu: An Ethical Investigation of Japanese Reproductive Medicine.Masayuki Kodama - 2014 - Asian Bioethics Review 6 (1):55-65.
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  29. Nurses' Attitudes Towards Developing a Do Not Resuscitate Policy in Japan.E. Konishi - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (3):218-227.
    Two questionnaire surveys are reported describing the attitudes of 127 Japanese nurses towards developing a do not resuscitate (DNR) policy. The background information features the Japanese health care situations: a lack of policies for end-of-life care decisions; frequent life-prolonging treatments initiated without the patient’s knowledge or consent; ethical dilemmas confronting nurses in relation to such treatments; and the public’s growing concern over end-of-life care. A hypothetical DNR policy was used in which a health professional asked patients about their decision regarding (...)
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  30. Organtransplantation und Vorstellungen über Leben und Tod in Japan.Uwe Körner, Kyoichi Ozaki & Takao Suzuki - 1999 - Ethik in der Medizin 11 (3):195-204.
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  31. From Agape to Organs: Religious Difference Between Japan and America in Judging the Ethics of the Transplant.William R. LaFleur - 2002 - Zygon 37 (3):623-642.
    This essay argues that Japan's resistance to the practice of transplanting organs from persons deemed “brain dead” may not be the result, as some claim, of that society's religions being not yet sufficiently expressive of love and altruism. The violence to the body necessary for the excision of transplantable organs seems to have been made acceptable to American Christians at a unique historical “window of opportunity” for acceptance of that new form of medical technology. Traditional reserve about corpse mutilation had (...)
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  32. Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan.William R. LaFleur - 1994 - Princeton University Press.
    Why would a country strongly influenced by Buddhism's reverence for life allow legalized, widely used abortion? Equally puzzling to many Westerners is the Japanese practice of mizuko rites, in which the parents of aborted fetuses pray for the well-being of these rejected "lives." In this provocative investigation, William LaFleur examines abortion as a window on the culture and ethics of Japan. At the same time he contributes to the Western debate on abortion, exploring how the Japanese resolve their conflicting emotions (...)
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  33. Commentary on Masahiro Morioka, "Bioethics and Japanese Culture", EJAIB 5 , 87-91.Margaret Lock - 1995 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5 (5):120-121.
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  34. Bioethical Attitudes Of Japanese University Doctors, And Members Of Japan Association Of Bioethics.Darryl Macer - 1996 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (2):33-48.
    This paper presents the results of two mail response surveys conducted in Japan in 1995 among academics. The fundamental question asked is whether the attitudes of these academics differ from those of the public and other groups that have been surveyed in 1991 and 1993 . Some of those questions from those surveys were used in 1995, and the results show some differences with the acceptance of fetal diagnosis and gene therapy despite a positive view towards science.
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  35. Japanese Bioethics.Darryl R. J. Macer - forthcoming - The Annuals of Bioethics Regional Perspectives in Bioethics. Swets andZeitlinger.
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  36. Bioethical Concerns of Medical Genetics: Global Standards and Japanese Consideration of Culture and Value.Ichiro Matsuda - 2011 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 21 (1-2):8-17.
    To comprehend bioethics of genetic medicine two viewpoints are crucial; the first is based on global insight, such as the UNESCO Declaration. In the second, bioethics depends to a great degree on the culture and the values of the people living in each country. Japanese is known to have a rather unique culture and civilization according to the words of Watsuji, Nakamura and Huntington. The unique features reflected in Japan are heteronomy rather than autonomy, seeking for harmony rather than conflict, (...)
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  37. The Ambiguity About Death in Japan: An Ethical Implication for Organ Procurement.J. R. McConnell - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (4):322-324.
    In the latter half of the twentieth century, developed countries of the world have made tremendous strides in organ donation and transplantation. However, in this area of medicine, Japan has been slow to follow. Japanese ethics, deeply rooted in religion and tradition, have affected their outlook on life and death. Because the Japanese have only recently started to acknowledge the concept of brain death, transplantation of major organs has been hindered in that country. Currently, there is a dual definition of (...)
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  38. 4.6. Internationalization in Japanese Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - forthcoming - Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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  39. Feminism, Disability, and Brain Death :Alternative Voices From Japanese Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (1):19-41.
    Japanese bioethics has created a variety of important ideas that have not yet been reflected on mainstream bioethics discourses in the English-speaking world, which include “the swaying of the confused self” in the field of feminism, “inner eugenic thought” concerning disability, and “human relationship-oriented approaches to brain death.” In this paper, I will examine them more closely, and consider what bioethics in Japan can contribute to the development of an international discussion on philosophy of life.
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  40. How a Japanese Philosopher Encountered Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2013 - In Frank Rövekamp & Friederike Bosse (eds.), Ethics in Science and Society: German and Japanese Views. IUDICIUM Verlag. pp. 27-41.
    In this essay I will illustrate how a Japanese philosopher reacted to a newly imported discipline, “bioethics,” in the 1980s and then tried to create an alternative way of looking at “life” in the field of philosophy. This essay might serve as an interesting case study in which a contemporary “western” way of thinking succeeded in capturing, but finally failed to persuade, a then-young Japanese researcher’s mind.
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  41. The Concept of Life in Contemporary Japan.Masahiro Morioka - 2012 - The Review of Life Studies 2:23-62.
    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international discussions on life and scientific technology by examining the images and concepts of life in contemporary Japan. In English the word Inochi can be rendered as "life". However, the nuances of the Japanese term differ in certain cases, and therefore I have chosen to use the term much as is. I first discuss the linguistic meanings of the word, and then consider several important features of the images of inochi (...)
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  42. Cross-Cultural Approaches to the Philosophy of Life in the Contemporary World.Masahiro Morioka - 2004 - In Margaret Sleeboom (ed.), Genomics in Asia: A Clash of Bioethical Interests? Kegan Paul. pp. 179-199.
    1) In the bioethics literature, there are many examples of the East/West dichotomy and its variations, but this is the trap we sometimes falls into when discussing the cultural dimensions of bioethics. (...) One of the biggest problems with this kind of dichotomy is that it ignores a variety of values, ideas, and movements inside a culture or an area. (...) The East/West dichotomy oversimplifies this internal variation and neglects the common cultural heritage that many people share in various areas (...)
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  43. Current Debate on the Ethical Issues of Brain Death.Masahiro Morioka - 2004 - Proceedings of International Congress on Ethical Issues in Brain Death and Organ Transplantation:57-59.
    The philosophy of our proposal are as follows: (1) Various ideas of life and death, including that of objecting to brain death as human death, should be guaranteed. We would like to maintain the idea of pluralism of human death; and (2) We should respect a child’s view of life and death. We should provide him/her with an opportunity to think and express their own ideas about life and death.
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  44. Report of the Kyoto Bioethics Seminar, and Comments on Comparative Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 1996 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (6):157-157.
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  45. The Concept of Inochi: A Philosophical Perspective on the Study of Life.Masahiro Morioka - 1993 - Global Bioethics 6 (1):35-59.
    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international discussions on life and scientific technology by examining the images and concepts of life in contemporary Japan. In English the word Inochi can be rendered as "life". However, the nuances of the Japanese term differ in certain cases, and therefore I have chosen to use the term much as is. I first discuss the linguistic meanings of the word, and then consider several important features of the images of inochi (...)
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  46. Brain Death as a Form of Human Relationships: Brain Dead Person Chapter.Masahiro Morioka - 1989 - Hozokan.
    This book shifted the Japanese debate on brain death from "brain-centered analysis" to "human relationship oriented analysis." I defined that brain death means a form of human relationships between a comatose patient and the people surrounding him/her in the ICU. I paid special attention to the emotional aspect and the inner reality of the family members of a brain dead person, because sometimes the family members at the bedside, touching the warm body of the patient, express the feeling that the (...)
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  47. Clinical Ethics Consultation: Examining How American and Japanese Experts Analyze an Alzheimeras Case.Noriko Nagao, Mark P. Aulisio, Yoshio Nukaga, Misao Fujita, Shinji Kosugi, Stuart Youngner & Akira Akabayashi - 2008 - BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):2-.
    BackgroundFew comparative studies of clinical ethics consultation practices have been reported. The objective of this study was to explore how American and Japanese experts analyze an Alzheimer's case regarding ethics consultation.MethodsWe presented the case to physicians and ethicists from the US and Japan (one expert from each field from both countries; total = 4) and obtained their responses through a questionnaire and in-depth interviews.ResultsEstablishing a consensus was a common goal among American and Japanese participants. In attempting to achieve consensus, the (...)
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  48. What is Medical According to Japanese Tradition.Koichi Nishida - 2010 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 20 (3):71-71.
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  49. Feminist Issues in Domestic and Transnational Surrogacy: The Case of Japan.Jennifer Parks - 2014 - Ijfab: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):121-143.
    A feminist viewpoint on globalized commercial surrogacy questions what best serves women’s needs/ends and whether the practice is good for women . My interest in this paper is to consider how a feminist account might address the practice of surrogacy in Japan, both domestically and in the transnational context. Japanese culture emphasizes traditional values, family heritage, and communitarian concerns over individual rights. Women’s equality, while formally recognized by the Japanese Constitution, is undercut by actual practices and recent court decisions . (...)
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  50. F17. Buddhism, Prenatal Diagnosis and Human Cloning.Pinit Ratanakul & Buddhist Tenets - forthcoming - Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
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