About this topic
Summary

Joint attention involves two (or more) subjects attending to an event or object together, where the attention of each participant is to some degree dependent on the attention of the other. It is sometimes said that joint attention is ‘wholly overt’ or ‘out in the open’ between the participants, where this means that they are both fully aware that they are together attending to the event or object (although so-called 'lean' accounts of joint attention, deny that this is a necessary condition for joint attention).  A canonical example of joint attention would be where two people are sitting opposite each other, discussing and observing an object that lies between them. The phenomena can be contrasted with shared attention where two people are each attending to an object, but are doing so separately, such that the attention of each person is of no relevance to the other, and does not figure in their experience.

Philosophical discussions of joint attention have tended to focus on two questions: firstly, how the apparent epistemic and phenomenological openness of joint attention can be explained without recourse to a complex series of overlapping and embedded mental states. Secondly, how joint attention can be understood as providing a normative and evidential basis for communication and joint action.  Within cognitive science, joint attention has been discussed with relation to the nature of autism, the Theory of Mind debate, the development of communicative intentions and the development of word-learning in infants. 

Key works

There are three edited volumes that contain many of the key texts in this area - Moore & Dunham 1995 Eilan et al 2005 and Seemann 2012. The first is predominantly written by psychologists, while the latter two include a mix of contributions by philosophers, neuroscientists and psychologists. Early discussions in philosophy relating to the topic of joint attention can be found in Husserl 1960, Schutz 1970,Schiffer 1972 and Davidson 1992. Early discussions in the developmental psychology literature can be found in Scaife and Bruner 1975 and Trevarthen 1979.

Introductions

The introductions to Moore & Dunham 1995 Eilan et al 2005, and Seemann 2012 would provide the student with a good starting point on the topic. 

Related categories

146 found
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1 — 50 / 146
  1. added 2020-03-05
    Joint Attention and Perceptual Experience.Lucas Battich & Bart Geurts - forthcoming - Synthese:1-14.
    Joint attention customarily refers to the coordinated focus of attention between two or more individuals on a common object or event, where it is mutually “open” to all attenders that they are so engaged. We identify two broad approaches to analyse joint attention, one in terms of cognitive notions like common knowledge and common awareness, and one according to which joint attention is fundamentally a primitive phenomenon of sensory experience. John Campbell’s relational theory is a prominent representative of the latter (...)
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  2. added 2020-01-10
    Eye Gaze as a Means of Giving and Seeking Information During Musical Interaction.Laura Bishop, Carlos Cancino-Chacón & Werner Goebl - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 68:73-96.
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  3. added 2019-10-20
    Group Flow.Tom Cochrane - 2017 - In Micheline Lesaffre, Pieter-Jan Maes & Marc Leman (eds.), The Routledge Companion of Embodied Music Interaction. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 133-140.
    In this chapter I analyse group flow: a state in which performers report intense interpersonal absorption with the music and each other. I compare group flow to individual flow, and argue that the same essential structure can be discerned. I argue that group flow does not justify an anti-representationalist enactivist interpretation. However, I claim that the cognitive task in which the music is produced is irreducibly collective.
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  4. added 2019-07-27
    Affordances Sociais e a Tese da Mente Estendida.Eros Carvalho - 2018 - Proceedings of the Brazilian Research Group on Epistemology 2018: Social Epistemology.
    A tese da mente estendida alega que ao menos alguns processos cognitivos se estendem para além do cérebro do organismo no sentido de que eles são constituídos por ações realizadas por esse organismo no ambiente ao seu redor. Um movimento mais radical seria alegar que ações sociais realizadas pelo organismo poderiam pelo menos constituir alguns dos seus processos cognitivos. Isso pode ser chamando de tese da mente socialmente estendida. Baseando-me na noção de affordance tal como ela foi desenvolvida na tradição (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    The Role of Affect in Language Development.Stuart G. Shanker & Stanley I. Greenspan - 2005 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 20 (3):329-343.
    This paper presents the Functional/Emotional approach to language development, which explains the process leading up to the core capacities necessary for language ; shows how this process leads to the formation of internal symbols; and how it shapes and is shaped by the child’s development of language. The heart of this approach is that, through a series of affective transformations, a child develops these core capacities and the capacity to form meaningful symbols. Far from being a sudden jump, the transition (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    Joint Attention, Triangulation and Radical Interpretation: A Problem and its Solution.Ingar Brink - 2004 - Dialectica 58 (2):179-206.
    By describing the aim of triangulation as locating the objects of thoughts and utterances, Davidson has given in the double role of accounting for both the individuation of content and the sense in which content necessarily is public. The focus of this article is on how triangulation may contribute to the individuation of content. I maintain that triangulation, interpreted in terms of joint attention, may serve to break into the intentional circle of meaning and belief, yet without forcing us to (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Reference: Grammaticalizing Joint Attention.Clemens Knobloch - 1998 - Pragmatics and Cognition 6 (1):245-264.
    This paper investigates the gradual transformation of prelinguistic joint attention routines into resources of referential communication. It is argued that the child uses linguistic means of reference to recode and re-represent joint attention procedures in various ways. While semanticists stress the fact that pronouns, proper nouns, and definite descriptions may refer to the same entity, various modes of establishing, identifying and tracking discourse referents are considered here to be structural amplifications of joint attention routines, actively reorganized by the child in (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Reports of Discussions at Cardiff 1.George A. Paul - 1934 - Analysis 2 (1-2):25-32.
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  9. added 2019-06-05
    Mead, Joint Attention, and the Human Difference. Cahoone - 2013 - The Pluralist 8 (2):1.
    The struggle between the parties bent on inflating humanity's self-conception and those bent on deflating it continues. Mind, consciousness, soul, reason, free will, language, culture, tool-use—all have been invoked as the unique character of the human, some deriving from Judeo-Christian religion, others from classical philosophy and modern anthropology. Opponents, sometimes motivated by ethical concerns about the treatment of animals, and buoyed by scientific advances in animal and especially primate studies, have either deconstructed these traits or ascribed them to nonhumans. Seeking (...)
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  10. added 2019-05-15
    Monuments as Commitments: How Art Speaks to Groups and How Groups Think in Art.C. Thi Nguyen - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (4):971-994.
    Art can be addressed, not just to individuals, but to groups. Art can even be part of how groups think to themselves – how they keep a grip on their values over time. I focus on monuments as a case study. Monuments, I claim, can function as a commitment to a group value, for the sake of long-term action guidance. Art can function here where charters and mission statements cannot, precisely because of art’s powers to capture subtlety and emotion. In (...)
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  11. added 2018-11-25
    For-Me-Ness, For-Us-Ness, and the We-Relationship.Felipe León - forthcoming - Topoi:1-12.
    This article investigates the relationship between for-me-ness and sociality. I start by pointing out some ambiguities in claims pursued by critics that have recently pressed on the relationship between the two notions. I next articulate a question concerning for-me-ness and sociality that builds on the idea that, occasionally at least, there is something it is like ‘for us’ to have an experience. This idea has been explored in recent literature on shared experiences and collective intentionality, and it gestures towards the (...)
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  12. added 2018-09-28
    Joint Attention: New Developments in Psychology, Philosophy of Mind, and Social Neuroscience by Axel Seemann.James M. Dow - 2013 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
  13. added 2018-09-13
    Co-Subjective Consciousness Constitutes Collectives.Michael Schmitz - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):137-160.
    In this paper I want to introduce and defend what I call the "subject mode account" of collective intentionality. I propose to understand collectives from joint attention dyads over small informal groups of various types to organizations, institutions and political entities such as nation states, in terms of their self-awareness. On the subject mode account, the self-consciousness of such collectives is constitutive for their being. More precisely, their self-representation as subjects of joint theoretical and practical positions towards the world – (...)
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  14. added 2018-06-08
    Lucky Joint Action.Julius Schönherr - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (1):123-142.
    In this paper, I argue that joint action permits a certain degree of luck. The cases I have in mind exhibit the following structure: each participant believes that the intended ends of each robustly support the joint action. This belief turns out to be false. Due to lucky circumstances, the discordance in intention never becomes common knowledge. However, common knowledge of the relevant intentions would have undermined the joint action altogether. The analysis of such cases shows the extent to which (...)
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  15. added 2018-05-25
    The Importance of Being Understood: Folk Psychology as Ethics.Adam Morton - 2002 - L8ndon: Routledge.
    I discussed the ways in which folk psychology is influenced by the need for small-scale cooperation between people. I argue that considerations about cooperation and mutual benefit can be found in the everyday concepts of belief, desire, and motivation. I describe what I call "solution thinking", where a person anticipates another person's actions by first determining the solution to the cooperative problem that the person faces and then reasoning backwards to a prediction of individual action.
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  16. added 2018-05-20
    Joint Attention and Understanding Others.Michael Schmitz - 2014 - Synthesis Philosophica 29 (2):235-251.
    In this paper I criticize theory-biased and overly individualist approaches to understanding others and introduce the PAIR account of joint attention as a pragmatic, affectively charged intentional relation. I argue that this relation obtains in virtue of intentional contents in the minds of the co-attenders, and – against the received understanding of intentional states as propositional attitudes – that we should recognize what I call “subject mode” and “position mode” intentional content. Based on findings from developmental psychology, I propose that (...)
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  17. added 2018-05-19
    A History of Emerging Modes?Michael Schmitz - 2016 - Journal of Social Ontology 2 (1):87-103.
    In this paper I first introduce Tomasello’s notion of thought and his account of its emergence and development through differentiation, arguing that it calls into question the theory bias of the philosophical tradition on thought as well as its frequent atomism. I then raise some worries that he may be overextending the concept of thought, arguing that we should recognize an area of intentionality intermediate between action and perception on the one hand and thought on the other. After that I (...)
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  18. added 2018-04-01
    Socially Extending the Mind Through Social Affordances.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - 2019 - In Steven Gouveia & Manuel Curado (eds.), Automata's Inner Movie: Science and Philosophy of Mind. "Delaware, USA": Vernon Press. pp. 193-212.
    The extended mind thesis claims that at least some cognitive processes extend beyond the organism’s brain in that they are constituted by the organism’s actions on its surrounding environment. A more radical move would be to claim that social actions performed by the organism could at least constitute some of its mental processes. This can be called the socially extended mind thesis. Based on the notion of affordance as developed in the ecological psychology tradition, I defend the position that perception (...)
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  19. added 2018-03-31
    Viewing Others as Equals: The Non-Cognitive Roots of Shared Intentionality.Alejandro Rosas & Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (3):485-502.
    We propose two adjustments to the classic view of shared intentionality as based on conceptual-level cognitive skills. The first one takes into account that infants and young children display this capacity, but lack conceptual-level cognitive skills. The second one seeks to integrate cognitive and non-cognitive skills into that capacity. This second adjustment is motivated by two facts. First, there is an enormous difference between human infants and our closest living primate relatives with respect to the range and scale of goal (...)
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  20. added 2018-02-17
    Social Understanding Through Direct Perception? Yes, by Interacting.Hanne De Jaegher - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):535-542.
    This paper comments on Gallagher’s recently published direct perception proposal about social cognition [Gallagher, S.. Direct perception in the intersubjective context. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 535–543]. I show that direct perception is in danger of being appropriated by the very cognitivist accounts criticised by Gallagher. Then I argue that the experiential directness of perception in social situations can be understood only in the context of the role of the interaction process in social cognition. I elaborate on the role of social (...)
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  21. added 2017-10-18
    We‐Experiences, Common Knowledge, and the Mode Approach to Collective Intentionality.Olle Blomberg - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):183-203.
    According to we-mode accounts of collective intentionality, an experience is a "we-experience"—that is, part of a jointly attentional episode—in virtue of the way or mode in which the content of the experience is given to the subject of experience. These accounts are supposed to explain how a we-experience can have the phenomenal character of being given to the subject "as ours" rather than merely "as my experience" (Zahavi 2015), and do so in a relatively conceptually and cognitively undemanding way. Galotti (...)
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  22. added 2017-02-15
    The Impact of Social Gaze Perception on Attention.Steven Tipper & Andrew Bayliss - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
    This article reviews research into the attention mechanisms underlying a critical behavior in social interactions. It discusses findings from studies that investigate social gaze as a cue to attention and considers the perceptual mechanisms that may underlie these effects and their possible social functions. There is still debate as to whether gaze stimuli are “special” in terms of the attention processes engaged. However, there is evidence for the distinctive nature of gaze cues in their involvement in other aspects of social (...)
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  23. added 2017-02-15
    Verbal Behaviour Development for Children with Autism.Francesca Degli Espinosa - unknown
    The utility of functional accounts of language development in establishing the emergence of generalised verbal behaviour in children with autism was evaluated through a programme of research that also investigated ways in which interactions between speaker and listener behaviour can be manipulated to maximise the effectiveness of language-based interventions. Firstly, the Early Behavioural Intervention Curriculum was developed as a comprehensive framework for delivering Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention to children with autism. Secondly, the effectiveness of the EBIC was evaluated through analysis (...)
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  24. added 2017-02-14
    Intersubjectivity in Interpreted Interactions.Terry Janzen & Barbara Shaffer - 2008 - In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins. pp. 12--333.
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  25. added 2017-02-14
    The Joint Association of Classical Teachers.Américo da Costa Ramalho - 1960 - Humanitas 15.
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  26. added 2017-02-13
    SIG/STAR-SIG/ES Joint Symposium Session Introduction.Chads Pearson - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  27. added 2017-02-13
    Physician Joint Ventures and Self-Referral: An Empirical Perspective.J. M. Mitchell - 1996 - In Roy G. Spece, David S. Shimm & Allen E. Buchanan (eds.), Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Practice and Research. Oxford University Press. pp. 299--317.
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  28. added 2017-02-08
    Verb Sense and Subcategorization: Using Joint Inference to Improve Performance on Complementary Tasks.Christopher Manning - unknown
    We propose a general model for joint inference in correlated natural language processing tasks when fully annotated training data is not available, and apply this model to the dual tasks of word sense disambiguation and verb subcategorization frame determination. The model uses the EM algorithm to simultaneously complete partially annotated training sets and learn a generative probabilistic model over multiple annotations. When applied to the word sense and verb subcategorization frame determination tasks, the model learns sharp joint probability distributions which (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-03
    The Symposia Read at the Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association at University of Aberdeen July 2008.Sarah Broadie (ed.) - 2008 - Aristotelian Society.
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  30. added 2017-01-28
    Theodemir's Victory Over the Byzantines in the Joint Reign of Egica and Witiza: A Reference by the Chronicle of 754.J. Montenegro & A. Del Castillo - 2004 - Byzantion 74 (2):403-415.
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  31. added 2017-01-28
    Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association.Jennifer Todd - 1982 - Radical Philosophy 30:48.
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  32. added 2017-01-27
    Laborious Intersubjectivity: Attentional Struggle and Embodied Communication in an Auto-Shop.Jürgen Streeck - 2008 - In Ipke Wachsmuth, Manuela Lenzen & Günther Knoblich (eds.), Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines. Oxford University Press.
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  33. added 2017-01-25
    Theodemir's Victory Over the Byzantines in the Joint Reign of Egica and Witiza: A Reference by the Chronicle of 754.Julia Montenegro & Arcadio Del Castillo - 2004 - Byzantion 74 (2):403-415.
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  34. added 2017-01-24
    The Attention-Grammar Interface: Eye-Gaze Cues Structural Choice in Children and Adults.Paul Ibbotson, Elena V. M. Lieven & Michael Tomasello - 2013 - Cognitive Linguistics 24 (3).
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  35. added 2017-01-19
    Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association at Bangor 8th to 11th July, 1949.D. A. Rees - 1949 - Mind 58 (230):276-276.
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  36. added 2017-01-16
    Demonstratives, Joint Attention, and the Emergence of Grammar.Holger Diessel - 2006 - Cognitive Linguistics 17 (4).
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  37. added 2017-01-16
    Acquisition of Joint Attention by a Developmental Learning Model Based on Interactions Between a Robot and a Caregiver.Yukie Nagai, Minoru Asada & Koh Hosoda - 2003 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 18:122-130.
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  38. added 2017-01-16
    A Psychophysical Theory of Intensity Proportions, Joint Presentations, and Matches.R. Duncan Luce - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (3):520-532.
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  39. added 2017-01-16
    Joint Attention and the First Person.John Campbell - 1998 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 43:123-136.
    It is sometimes said that ordinary linguistic exchange, in ordinary conversation, is a matter of securing and sustaining joint attention. The minimal condition for the success of the conversation is that the participants should be attending to the same things. So the psychologist Michael Tomasello writes, ‘I take it as axiomatic that when humans use language to communicate referentially they are attempting to manipulate the attention of another person or persons.’ I think that this is an extremely fertile approach to (...)
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  40. added 2017-01-16
    Papers From the 1993 Joint Session: The Place of Language.Michael Morris & Stephen Neale - 1994 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 94 (1):215-228.
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  41. added 2016-12-08
    Folk Psychology and the Biological Basis of Intersubjectivity.Matthew Ratcliffe - 2005 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 56:18-19.
    Recent philosophical discussions of intersubjectivity generally start by stating or assuming that our ability to understand and interact with others is enabled by a ‘folk psychology’ or ‘theory of mind’. Folk psychology is characterized as the ability to attribute intentional states, such as beliefs and desires, to others, in order to predict and explain their behaviour. Many authors claim that this ability is not merely one amongst many constituents of interpersonal understanding but an underlying core that enables social life. For (...)
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  42. added 2016-11-24
    Critical Review of John Campbell: Reference and Consciousness. [REVIEW]Ingar Brinck - 2005 - Theoria 3:266-276.
  43. added 2016-10-03
    Sharing Mental States.Noah Susswein & Timothy P. Racine - 2008 - In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins. pp. 141--162.
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  44. added 2015-09-02
    Simulation and the We-Mode. A Cognitive Account of Plural First Persons.Matteo Bianchin - 2015 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 45 (4-5):442-461.
    In this article, I argue that a capacity for mindreading conceived along the line of simulation theory provides the cognitive basis for forming we-centric representations of actions and goals. This explains the plural first personal stance displayed by we-intentions in terms of the underlying cognitive processes performed by individual minds, while preserving the idea that they cannot be analyzed in terms of individual intentional states. The implication for social ontology is that this makes sense of the plural subjectivity of joint (...)
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  45. added 2015-04-05
    Mutual Understanding Through Conversation: Communication as the Joint Experiential Articulation of Mutual Agency.Joannes Ignatius Maria Kerkhoven - 1995 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    The present work addresses the functional principles underlying conversation, in particular the achievement of mutuality as an irreducibly interpersonal phenomenon. Conversants are posited to cooperatively manage a mutual situation, described in situated, phenomenological terms as a joint experiential involvement with the world. This mutual situation evolves through collaborative acts of grounding . It is proposed that an underlying aim in all grounding is to sustain the overall functional integrity of the mutual situation. This aim also determines conversants' perceptions of mutual (...)
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  46. added 2015-03-30
    Joint Action, Group Minds and Musical Improvisation: A Philosophical Analysis.Kevin Ryan - unknown
    In this thesis, I shall explore the possibility of offering a non-reductive theory of group minds and joint action in performances of IGM. What makes my account distinct from many currently on offer is that I suggest group minds exist as both conceptually and ontologically distinct entities. I follow this particular route of exploration primarily to uncover a rich set of possibilities for theoretical advancements over existing theories of joint action. To be more specific, in exploring the psychological and conceptual (...)
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  47. added 2015-03-30
    Let's Pretend! Joint Action and Young Children.D. Tollefsen - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (1):75-97.
  48. added 2015-03-24
    Control of Robot Manipulator in Joint Space.W. Khalil & E. Dombre - forthcoming - Hermes. France.
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  49. added 2015-03-24
    Perception, Causation, and Objectivity, Edited by Johannes Roessler, Hemdat Lerman, and Naomi Eilan.D. Danks - 2014 - Mind 123 (490):635-639.
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  50. added 2015-03-24
    Why is Joint Attention a Pivotal Skill in Autism? Charman - 2004 - In Uta Frith & Elisabeth Hill (eds.), Autism: Mind and Brain. Oxford University Press.
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