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  1. added 2020-06-03
    Collective Complicity in War Crimes. Some Remarks on the Principle of Moral Equality of Soldiers.Adam Cebula - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-20.
    The article critically analyzes one of the central assumptions of Michael Walzer’s version of just war theory, as presented in his main work devoted to war ethics. As requested by the author of Just and Unjust Wars, the controversial nature of the principle of the moral equality of soldiers is revealed by discussing the actual course of events of a historical military conflict – namely, the outbreak of World War II, one of the main issues dealt with in Walzer’s book. (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-07
    Sharing the Costs of Fighting Justly.Sara Van Goozen - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):233-253.
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  3. added 2020-03-25
    The Moral Argument for a Policy of Assassination.Stephen Kershnar - 2004 - Reason Papers 27:43-66.
    In some cases, the U.S. should adopt a policy of assassinating national leaders. On just war theory, national leaders are sometimes combatants. This is because some leaders are both causal and logical agents of an unjust military campaign. Such leaders occupy this logical role because in some cases their position has an essential link to their nation’s military projects. In addition, such a policy aligns with some of the policies that motivate just war theory in that assassination does not target (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-25
    The Structure of Rights Forfeiture.Stephen Kershnar - 2002 - Philosophia 29 (1-4):57.
    A person deserves a punishment if and only if he did a culpable wrongdoing and in virtue of this it is other-things-being intrinsically good that he receive punishment and if he were to receive that punishment then it would be through a non-deviant causal chain that includes the culpable wrongdoing. The wrongdoing may be institutional or pre-institutional depending on whether the moral right that the wrongdoer trespasses upon is dependent on a political institution’s goal. Desert in general, and punitive desert (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-24
    Consequentialism and the Case of Symmetrical Attackers.Stephen Kershnar - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (4):395-413.
    There are puzzle cases that forfeiture theory has trouble handling, such as the issue of what happens to the rights of two qualitatively identical people who simultaneously launch unprovoked attacks against the other. Each person either has or lacks the right to defend against the other. If one attacker has the right, then the other does not and vice versa. Yet the two are qualitatively identical so it is impossible for one to have the right if the other does not. (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-24
    Forfeiture Theory and Symmetrical Attackers.Stephen Kershnar - 2017 - Criminal Justice Ethics 36 (2):224-245.
    In this paper, I defend the following thesis: The Problem of Symmetrical Attackers does not falsify forfeiture theory. The theory asserts that except in the case where violence is necessary to avoid a catastrophe, only those who forfeit their rights are liable for defensive violence. The problem focuses on the following sort of case. Symmetrical Attacker Case Al and Bob are doppelgangers. They both mistakenly but justifiably think that the other is about to attack him. They both respond with violence (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-24
    Extremely Harsh Treatment.Stephen Kershnar - 2011 - Reason Papers 33:60-81.
    Extremely harsh treatment (for example, unanesthetized tooth, branding with a hot iron, violent shaking, repeated beatings, and car-battery shocks to the genitalia) is often considered unjust. On different accounts, extremely harsh treatment fails to respect persons because it infringes on an absolute right, fails to respect a person’s dignity, constitutes cruel or inhumane treatment, violates rules that rational persons would choose under fair and equal choosing conditions, or results in a person losing his agency to another. Others respond that in (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-04
    Nanotechnologically Enhanced Combat Systems: The Downside of Invulnerability.Robert Mark Simpson & Robert Sparrow - 2014 - In Bert Gordijn & Anthony Mark Cutter (eds.), In Pursuit of Nanoethics. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 89-103.
    In this paper we examine the ethical implications of emerging Nanotechnologically Enhanced Combat Systems (or 'NECS'). Through a combination of materials innovation and biotechnology, NECS are aimed at making combatants much less vulnerable to munitions that pose a lethal threat to soldiers protected by conventional armor. We argue that increasing technological disparities between forces armed with NECS and those without will exacerbate the ethical problems of asymmetric warfare. This will place pressure on the just war principles of jus in bello, (...)
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  9. added 2020-02-21
    Doing Away with “Legitimate Authority”.Uwe Steinhoff - 2020 - Journal of Military Ethics 18 (4):314-332.
    I argue in this paper that traditional just war theory did allow private, indeed even individual war, and that arguments in support of a legitimate authority criterion, let alone in support of the “priority” of this criterion, fail. I further argue that what motivates the insistence on “legitimate authority” is the assumption that doing away with this criterion will lead to chaos and anarchy. I demonstrate that the reasoning, if any, underlying this assumption is philosophically profoundly confused. The fact of (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-16
    The Indispensable Mental Element of Justification and the Failure of Purely Objectivist (Mostly “Revisionist”) Just War Theories.Uwe Steinhoff - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie.
    The “right intention” requirement, in the form of a requirement that the agent must have a justified true belief that the mind-independent conditions of the justification to use force are fulfilled, is not an additional criterion, but one that constrains the interpretation of the other criteria. Without it, the only possible interpretation of the mind-independent criteria is purely objectivist, that is, purely fact-relative. Pure objectivism condemns self-defense and just war theory to irrelevance since it cannot provide proper action guidance: it (...)
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  11. added 2020-02-11
    War and Self-Defense.Christopher Woodard - 2005 - Mind 114 (454):453-457.
    A review of David Rodin's Book, War and Self-Defense.
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  12. added 2020-01-16
    Toward a Collectivist National Defense.Jeremy Davis - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-22.
    Most philosophers writing on the ethics of war endorse “reductivist individualism,” a view that holds both that killing in war is subject to the very same principles of ordinary morality (reductivism); and that morality concerns individuals and their rights, and does not treat collectives as having any special status (individualism). I argue that this commitment to individualism poses problems for this view in the case of national defense. More specifically, I argue that the main strategies for defending individualist approaches to (...)
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  13. added 2019-12-09
    Instrumental Authority and Its Challenges: The Case of the Laws of War.Jonathan Parry & Daniel Viehoff - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):548-575.
    Law and Morality at War offers a broadly instrumentalist defense of the authority of the laws of war: these laws serve combatants by helping them come closer to doing what they have independent moral reason to do. We argue that this form of justification sets too low a bar. An authority’s directives are not binding, on instrumental grounds, if the subject could, within certain limits, adopt an alternative, and superior, means of conforming to morality’s demands. It emerges that Haque’s argument (...)
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  14. added 2019-10-26
    The Secret to the Success of the Doctrine of Double Effect : Biased Framing, Inadequate Methodology, and Clever Distractions.Uwe Steinhoff - 2018 - The Journal of Ethics 22 (3-4):235-263.
    There are different formulations of the doctrine of double effect, and sometimes philosophers propose “revisions” or alternatives, like the means principle, for instance. To demonstrate that such principles are needed in the first place, one would have to compare cases in which all else is equal and show that the difference in intuitions, if any, can only be explained by the one remaining difference and thus by the principle in question. This is not the methodology defenders of the DDE and (...)
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  15. added 2019-09-25
    Assassination and the Immunity Theory.Stephen Kershnar - 2005 - Philosophia 33 (1-4):129-147.
    This paper argues for a policy of assassination. Foreign leaders causing unjust wars forfeit their rights against being killed. Killing them also satisfies the conditions on defensive violence that accompany forfeiture (consider, for example, imminence, necessity, and proportionality). Assassination sometimes maximizes the good. In some cases, then, assassination is right and good. A separate issue is whether it is good policy. To the extent that traditional just war theory disallows assassination, it should be revised or rejected.
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  16. added 2019-09-14
    Is Obedience a Virtue?Jessica Wolfendale - 2019 - In Michael Skerker, Donald G. Carrick & David Whetham (eds.), Military Virtues. Havant, UK: Howgate Publishing Limited. pp. 62-69.
  17. added 2019-09-12
    Gerechte Gewalt? Zum Begriff interpersonaler Gewalt und ihrer moralischen Bewertung.Daniel Messelken - 2012 - mentis.
  18. added 2019-09-12
    Terrorismus - Philosophische und politikwissenschaftliche Essays.Igor Primoratz & Daniel Messelken (eds.) - 2011 - mentis.
  19. added 2019-09-09
    Engaging in a Cover-Up: The “Deep Morality” of War.Jennifer Kling - 2019 - In Pacifism, Politics, and Feminism: Intersections and Innovations. The Netherlands: pp. 96-116.
    This chapter examines whether, as Jeff McMahan argues, we should not integrate what he refers to as the “deep morality” of war into our military and international public policies and laws, because of the possible negative consequences of doing so. On the basis of feminist epistemology, I argue that McMahan is wrong to think that publicizing and legalizing the deep morality of war will have the negative consequences that he claims. Through a comparison with the Women's Suffrage Movement in the (...)
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  20. added 2019-09-09
    War Refugees: Risk, Justice, and Moral Responsibility.Jennifer Kling - 2019 - New York, USA: Lexington Books.
    Jennifer Kling argues that war refugees suffer a series of wrongs and oppressions and so are owed restitution and aid—as a matter of justice—by socio political institutions. She makes the case that they should be viewed differently than migrants but that their circumstances do not wholly alleviate their own moral responsibilities.
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  21. added 2019-09-09
    Humanitarian Intervention and the Problem of Genocide and Atrocity.Jennifer Kling - 2018 - In Andrew Fiala (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 327-346.
    We tend to think that mass atrocities and attempted genocides call for humanitarian intervention by other states. (Nonviolent intervention if possible, military intervention if need be.) In this chapter, I discuss these two related claims in turn. What, if anything, justifies humanitarian intervention in certain states by other states? Ought such interventions, if justified, be pacifist in nature, or is it legitimate in some cases to intervene violently? To discuss these questions, I draw primarily on principles and arguments found in (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-14
    Why Did Aquinas Hold That Killing is Sometimes Just, But Never Lying?John Skalko - 2016 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 90:227-241.
    Aquinas held that lying is always a sin, an evil action. In later terminology it falls under what would be called an intrinsically evil action. Under no circumstances can it be a good action. Following Augustine, Aquinas held that even if others must die, one must still never tell a lie. Yet when it comes to self-defense and capital punishment Aquinas’s reasoning seems at odds with itself. One may kill a man in self-defense. Similarly, just as a diseased limb may (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Differences in Dangerousness: The Moral Inequality of Soldiers And Non-State Combatants.Jacoby Adeshei Carter - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):81-91.
    This article begins with a consideration of the standard argument for the moral equality of soldiers; namely, that soldiers are morally equal because they pose similar dangers to one another. Next, arguments for the equal application of the rules of war to both sides are considered and ultimately rejected. In the end, it is argued that if the justice of the cause for war is attributable to the warriors on either side, then modifying or unequally applying the rules of war (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Revolutionary War and Absolute Enemy: Rereading Schmitt's Theory of the Partisan.Peter Uwe Hohendahl - 2011 - Constellations 18 (4):529-544.
  25. added 2019-06-06
    Reconsidering “Supreme Emergencies”: Michael Walzer and His Critics.William R. Lund - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):654-678.
    Michael Walzer has argued that nations fighting a just war may be permitted indiscriminate attacks on enemy noncombatants if they are genuinely necessary to avoid an imminent and morally disastrous defeat. Critics often challenge this "supreme emergency" exemption from just war principles by arguing that it is inconsistent with his critiques of utilitarianism, realism, and sub-state terrorism. While morally troubling, I argue that Walzer's doctrine is both tightly cabined and consistent with his meta-ethical pluralism, his emphasis on the value of (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    The Earliest Christian War: Second‐ and Third‐Century Martyrdom and the Creation of Cosmic Warriors.Jonathan Koscheski - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (1):100-124.
    ABSTRACTMany Christian historians and theologians hold the opinion that the early church condemned wholesale an active involvement in bloodshed. However, in light of evidence drawn from early Christian texts, most notably literature dealing with martyrdom, one finds that stance overly simplified. In fact, forms of early Christianity not only glorified war and violence in certain contexts but actively sought it out. This article enters into this conversation by applying a theory championed by Mark Juergensmeyer's Terror in the Mind of God. (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    A State to Call Their Own: Insurrection, Intervention, and the Communal Integrity Thesis.Ned Dobos - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):26-38.
    abstractMany reasons have been given as to why humanitarian intervention might not be justified even where rebellion with similar aims would be a morally legitimate option. One of them is that intervention involves the imposition of alien values on the target society. Michael Walzer formulates this objection in terms of a people's right to a state that ‘expresses their inherited culture’ and that they can truly ‘call their own’. I argue that this right can plausibly be said to extend sovereignty (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Reluctant Soldiers: The Moral Dilemma of an Unjust War: Montrose Reluctant Soldiers.Jeffrey Montrose - 2010 - Think 9 (26):119-127.
    If called upon would you fight in a war you thought unjust? This article attempts to explain why the majority of military officers and soldiers when faced with this question do fight despite moral misgivings they may have. I will explain why on one hand officers are morally obligated to refuse unjust orders in jus in bello cases, but on the other hand it can be argued that they are also obligated to follow orders they believe to be unjust concerning (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Moral Responsibilities and the Conflicting Demands of Jus Post Bellum.Mark Evans - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (2):147-164.
    The inclusion of jus post bellum in just war theory may be justified. But, according to Evans, it becomes problematic when confronted with tenets of "just occupation," namely that sovereignty or self-determination should be restored to the occupied people as soon as is reasonably possible.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Pirates and PMCs.George R. Lucas - 2009 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):87-94.
    Originally presented at a forum sponsored by Concerned Philosophers for Peace at the Eastern Division annual meeting of the American Philosophical Association, this essay discusses two ethical challenges in foreign policy likely to be confronted by the new U.S. presidential administration. The increased reliance on private military contractors, including security contractors, poses a number of difficulties, the most troubling of which is the erosion of civil-military relations. Modern military campaigns cannot be waged without some degree of reliance on the logistical (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    The Moral Standing of States Revisited.Charles R. Beitz - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (4):325-347.
    "The Moral Standing of States" is the title of an essay Michael Walzer wrote in response to four critics of the theory of nonintervention defended in "Just and Unjust Wars." It states a theme to which he has returned in subsequent work. Beitz offers four sets of comments.
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    Gandhi’s Nonviolent Resistance: A Justified Use of Force?Lloyd Steffen - 2008 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (1):69-81.
    Just war theory has been criticized since it so often is employed by governments and political leadership to justify uses of violent force for nationalistic, political self-serving or otherwise non-moral reasons. This paper acknowledges that reality but argues that just war thinking exemplifies a nonabsolutist mode of moral thinking that actually sets a high bar for morally justifying any use of force. The paper argues that just war thinking must be based on the presumption that force ordinarily ought not be (...)
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    Practical Pacifism,Jus in Bello, and Citizen Responsibility.Andrew Fiala - 2006 - Ethical Perspectives 13 (4):673-697.
    This article discusses how ordinary citizens might apply principles of jus in bello. It reaches a sceptical conclusion about citizens’ capacity to apply these principles and connects this with a practical approach to pacifism or, what might also be called, just-war pacifism.This discussion is oriented around events in the war in Iraq including the use of cluster bombs and the commission of war crimes. It uses these events to discuss the question of jus in bello and to also address the (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Killing Naked Soldiers: Distinguishing Between Combatants and Noncombatants.Larry May - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3):39-53.
    The categories of "civilian" or "soldier,” “combatant" or “noncombatant,” are thought to be stable. Yet, the case of the naked soldier taking a bath challenges such stability in a way that illustrates the serious conceptual and normative problems with identifying such social groups.
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    To Fight or Not to Fight?: The Ethics of Military Desertion.William Patterson - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):11-25.
    Many controversial issues have come under discussion regarding the recent war in Iraq. The justifications given for the war itself, the way the war was prosecuted, and the handling of the post-war situation have all been hotly contested matters. This paper focuses on an aspect of the war that has not drawn much attention—the decisions made by members of the Iraqi military to either fight or not to fight. From the very beginning of hostilities the United States made concerted efforts, (...)
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  36. added 2019-06-06
    Against the New Utopianism: Response to "Against the New Internationalism".Jean Bethke Elshtain - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (2):91–96.
    There is much that is interesting in Anthony Burke’s essay. Unfortunately, Burke is unable to resist hyperbolic language and too readily substitutes rhetorical onslaught for compelling argument.
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    On the So‐Called War on Terrorism.Tom Rockmore - 2004 - Metaphilosophy 35 (3):386-401.
    : Since the terrorist attacks on the United States in September 2001, the country has embarked on a so‐called war on terrorism. This essay argues that so‐called war on terrorism has used the pretext of responding to terrorist attacks in the U.S. in September 2001 to wage wars in Afghanistan and Iraq that have objectives other than stamping out terrorism. It further argues that war requires a moral justification that cannot be provided for either the war in Afghanistan or the (...)
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  38. added 2019-06-06
    Terrorism and Collective Responsibility: A Response to Narveson and Rosenbaum.Seumas Miller - 2004 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):263-281.
    In this paper I consider the general view of terrorism put forward by Jan Narveson in his “Pacificism and Terrorism: Why We Should Condemn Both” and by Alan Rosenbaum in his “On Terrorism and the Just War: Some Philosophical Reflections.” This is the view that terrorism is morally indefensible. Contra Narveson and Rosenbaum, I argue that some forms of terrorism are morally defensible in some circumstances.In the first section of the paper I will discuss the definition of terrorism, including the (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-06
    If Not Combatants, Certainly Not Civilians.Steven R. David - 2003 - Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):138-140.
    So long as the Palestinian Authority is incapable or unwilling to halt terrorist attacks, most interpretations of international law, Israeli law, and just war tradition support Israel’s efforts to stop these murderous attacks before they can be carried out.
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    International Justice as Equal Regard and the Use of Force.Jean Bethke Elshtain - 2003 - Ethics and International Affairs 17 (2):63-75.
    Have we any obligations beyond our own borders? What form do these take? These questions are addressed through a concept of comparative justice indebted to the just war tradition and the equal moral regard of persons.
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  41. added 2019-06-06
    Fight Club.RaphaËl Mcneil - 2001 - Phares 1 (3).
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  42. added 2019-06-06
    Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control: Ethical Issues for the 1980s: ROBERT L. PFALTZGRAFF, JR.Robert L. Pfaltzgraff - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (1):74-92.
    The threat of atomic destruction has heightened the criminal irresponsibility of aggression, the employment of war as an instrument of national or bloc policy. Correspondingly, the moral obligation to discourage such a crime or, if it occurs, to deny it victory, has been underscored. The consequences of a successful defense are fearful to contemplate, but the consequences of a successful aggression, with tyrannical monopoly of the weapons of mass destruction, are calculated to be worse. While the avoidance of excessive and (...)
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  43. added 2019-06-06
    It Makes Good Sense To Talk About A “Just: War”.Joseph Wellbank - 1975 - Journal of Social Philosophy 6 (3):1-3.
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  44. added 2019-06-05
    The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force. Edited by Howard M. Hensel. Pp. Vii, 283, Farnham, Ashgate, 2010, £55.00. Just War as Christian Discipleship: Recentering the Tradition in the Church Rather Than the State. By Daniel M. Bell Jr. Pp. 267, Grand Rapids, Brazos Press, 2009, £14.99. [REVIEW]Kyle Gingerich Hiebert - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (5):841-842.
  45. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewsDavid Rodin,, and Henry Shue,, Eds. Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers.New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Pp. 320. $100.00. [REVIEW]Saba Bazargan - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):602-606.
    Book Reviews:Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers.
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  46. added 2019-06-01
    The Mozi and Just War Theory in Pre-Han Thought.Chris Fraser - 2016 - Journal of Chinese Military History 5 (2):135–175.
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  47. added 2019-05-31
    Preventive Wars, Just War Principles, and the United Nations.John W. Lango - 2005 - Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):247-268.
    This paper explores the question of whether the United Nations should engage in preventive military actions. Correlatively, it asks whether UN preventive military actions could satisfy just war principles. Rather than from the standpoint of the individual nation state, the ethics of preventive war is discussed from the standpoint of the UN. For the sake of brevity, only the legitimate authority, just cause, last resort, and proportionality principles are considered. Since there has been disagreement about the specific content of these (...)
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  48. added 2019-05-30
    Just and Unjust Wars.Michael Walzer - 1977 - New York: Basic Books.
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  49. added 2019-05-15
    Ethiek voor Cyberkrijg en Cyberkrijgers.Peter Olsthoorn - 2019 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 111 (1):95-109.
    Although some claim that the term cyber war is merely metaphorical, there are good reasons to see cyber war as a form of warfare ‐ even if it is not war as we have hitherto known it. This poses the question whether the principles of the Just War Tradition, which claims to offer an alternative for pacifism and realism, apply to this specific kind of war too. This article argues that the jus in bello principles of discrimination and proportionality are (...)
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  50. added 2019-04-29
    Renegotiation of the Just War Tradition and the Right to War in the Twenty-First Century, Cian O'Driscoll , 244 Pp., $85 Cloth. [REVIEW]John W. Lango - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (2):219-220.
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