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  1. Philosophical Approaches to Work and Labor.Michael Cholbi - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Introduction Conceptual Distinctions: Work, Labor, Employment, Leisure The Value of Work and the ‘Anti-Work’ Critique Work, Meaning, and Dignity Work and Distributive Justice Work and Contributive Justice Work and Productive Justice Work and its Future BIBLIOGRAPHY .
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  2. Alienation, Freedom, and Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - forthcoming - Philosophical Topics.
    The topic of alienation has fallen out of fashion in social and political philosophy. It used to be salient, especially in socialist thought and in debates about labor practices in capitalism. Although the lack of identification of people with their working lives—their alienation as workers—remains practically important, normative engagement with it has been set back by at least four objections. They concern the problems of essentialist views, a mishandling of the distinction between the good and the right, the danger of (...)
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  3. Navigating Conflicts of Justice in the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Precision Medicine.G. Owen Schaefer, Tai E. Shyong & Shirley Hsiao-Li Sun - forthcoming - Bioethics (Early View).
    Given the sordid history of injustices linking genetics to race and ethnicity, considerations of justice are central to ensuring the responsible development of precision medicine programmes around the world. While considerations of justice may be in tension with other areas of concern, such as scientific value or privacy, there are also be tensions between different aspects of justice. This paper focuses on three particular aspects of justice relevant to this context: social justice, distributive justice and human rights. The implications of (...)
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  4. Moral Innocence and the Criminal Law: Non-Mala Actions and Non-Culpable Agents.Re'em Segev - forthcoming - Cambridge Law Journal 79.
    According to influential view, using the criminal law against innocent actions or agents is wrong. In this paper, I consider four related arguments against this view: a debunking argument that suggests that the intuitive appeal of this view may be due to a conflation of different ideas; a counterexamples argument that points out that there are many cases in which using the criminal law against innocent actions ("non mala" actions that are not even "mala prohibita") or agents is justified; a (...)
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  5. Review of David Birks and Thomas Douglas, eds., Treatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice: Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018, 384 pp. [REVIEW]Jason Hanna - 2021 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 15 (1):123-129.
    Neurological interventions are sometimes used to prevent criminal behavior. For instance, in some jurisdictions, sex offenders can be compelled to undergo treatment designed to reduce sexual desire. As David Birks and Thomas Douglas observe in their introduction to this volume, “chemical castration” may be just the tip of the iceberg. As neuroscience advances, it could reveal many other ways to control criminality. For instance, pharmacological treatments may help combat violent behavior or drug abuse. Such “crime-preventing neurointerventions” have been controversial. On (...)
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  6. Supersession, Reparations, and Restitution.Caleb Harrison - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 19 (2).
    Jeremy Waldron argues that claims to reparation for historic injustices can be superseded by the demands of justice in the present. For example, justified Maori claims to reparation resulting from the wrongful appropriation of their land by European settlers may be superseded by the claim to a just distribution of resources possessed by the world’s existing inhabitants. However, if we distinguish between reparative and restitutive claims, we see that while claims to restitution may be superseded by changes in circumstance, this (...)
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  7. The Ethical Imperatives of the COVID 19 Pandemic: A Review From Data Ethics.Gabriela Arriagada Bruneau, Vincent C. Müller & Mark S. Gilthorpe - 2020 - Veritas: Revista de Filosofía y Teología 46:13-35.
    In this review, we present some ethical imperatives observed in this pandemic from a data ethics perspective. Our exposition connects recurrent ethical problems in the discipline, such as, privacy, surveillance, transparency, accountability, and trust, to broader societal concerns about equality, discrimination, and justice. We acknowledge data ethics role as significant to develop technological, inclusive, and pluralist societies. - - - Resumen: En esta revisión, exponemos algunos de los imperativos éticos observados desde la ética de datos en esta pandemia. Nuestra exposición (...)
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  8. Health for Whom? Bioethics and the Challenge of Justice for Genomic Medicine.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (S1):S2-S5.
    The guiding premise from which this special report begins is the conviction and hope that justice is at the normative heart of medicine and that it is the perpetual task of bioethics to bring concerns of justice to bear on medical practice. On such an account, justice is medicine's lifeblood, that by which it contributes to life as opposed to diminishing it. It is in this larger, historical, intersectional, critical, and ethically minded context that we must approach pressing questions facing (...)
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  9. Designing Realistic Utopia. Ideal Theory in Practical Political Philosophy.Jürgen Sirsch - 2020 - Baden-Baden, Deutschland: Nomos.
    Building on the work of John Rawls, this book offers a conception of ideal theory which provides practical guidance and a critical perspective on politics, institutions and society. The author develops this approach by discussing recent criticism of ideal theory by authors such as Amartya Sen and Raymond Geuss. Answering Sen’s criticism, the author proposes a novel account of feasibility in relation to ideal theory, especially with regard to ideal institutional design. As a reply to Geuss’ criticism, he discusses constructivist (...)
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  10. Der Unterschied zwischen Töten und Sterbenlassen und die Bedeutung von Handlungssphären.Ralf Stoecker - 2020 - In Jan Christoph Bublitz, Jochen Bung, Anette Grünewald, Dorothea Magnus, Holm Putzke & Jörg Scheinfeld (eds.), Recht - Philosophie - Literatur. Festschrift für Reinhard Merkel zum 70. Geburtstag. Berlin, Deutschland: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 649-666.
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  11. Social Justice and Agricultural Innovation.Cristian Timmermann - 2020 - Cham: Springer.
    Employing a social justice framework, this book examines the effects of innovation incentives and policies in agriculture. It addresses access to the objects of innovation, the direction of science and the type of innovations that are available, opportunities to participate in research and development, as well as effects on future generations. The book examines the potential value of preventive and reconciliatory measures, drawing on concepts from procedural and restorative justice. As such it offers a comprehensive analysis of the main social (...)
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  12. The world is a big network. Pandemic, the Internet and institutions.Constantin Vica - 2020 - Revista de Filosofie Aplicata 3 (Supplementary Issue):136-161.
    2020 is the year of the first pandemic lived through the Internet. More than half of the world population is now online and because of self-isolation, our moral and social lives unfold almost exclusively online. Two pressing questions arise in this context: how much can we rely on the Internet, as a set of technologies, and how much should we trust online platforms and applications? In order to answer these two questions, I develop an argument based on two fundamental assumptions: (...)
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  13. Resistance as Sacrifice: Towards an Ascetic Antiracism.Musa Al-Gharbi - 2019 - Sociological Forum 34 (S1):1197-1216.
    Often described as an outcome, inequality is better understood as a social process -- a function of how institutions are structured and reproduced, and the ways people act and interact within them across time. Racialized inequality persists because it is enacted moment to moment, context to context -- and it can be ended should those who currently perpetuate it commit themselves to playing a different role instead. This essay makes three core contributions: first, it highlights a disturbing parity between the (...)
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  14. Towards a Theory of Pure Procedural Climate Justice.Eric Brandstedt & Bengt Brülde - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (5):785-799.
    A challenge for the theorising of climate justice is that even when the agents whose actions are supposed to be regulated are cooperative and act in good faith, they may still disagree about how the burdens and benefits of dealing with climate change should be distributed. This article is a contribution to the formulation of a useful role for normative theorising in light of this bounded nature of climate justice. We outline a theory of pure procedural climate justice; its content, (...)
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  15. Justice and Public Health.Govind Persad - 2019 - In Anna Mastroianni, Jeff Kahn & Nancy Kass (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics. New York, NY, USA: pp. ch. 4.
    This chapter discusses how justice applies to public health. It begins by outlining three different metrics employed in discussions of justice: resources, capabilities, and welfare. It then discusses different accounts of justice in distribution, reviewing utilitarianism, egalitarianism, prioritarianism, and sufficientarianism, as well as desert-based theories, and applies these distributive approaches to public health examples. Next, it examines the interplay between distributive justice and individual rights, such as religious rights, property rights, and rights against discrimination, by discussing examples such as mandatory (...)
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  16. Wie viel Wohlfahrtsstaat braucht das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen? Eine idealtheoretische Analyse der politischen Stabilität umverteilender Institutionen.Jürgen Sirsch - 2019 - Zeitschrift Für Politische Theorie 10 (2):193-210.
    Often, an unconditional basic income (UBI) is seen as a means for reducing economic inequality. For many of its proponents, UBI is both just and efficient, which potentially makes it an effective means of redistribution. Among other reasons, this has led egalitarian theorists to view UBI as part of an egalitarian ideal society. However, this assessment mostly includes only immediate distributive implications of an implementation of UBI. From the perspective of egalitarian ideal theory, however, long-term distributive implications of institutional designs (...)
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  17. The Institutional Critique of Effective Altruism.Brian Berkey - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (2):143-171.
    In recent years, the effective altruism movement has generated much discussion about the ways in which we can most effectively improve the lives of the global poor, and pursue other morally important goals. One of the most common criticisms of the movement is that it has unjustifiably neglected issues related to institutional change that could address the root causes of poverty, and instead focused its attention on encouraging individuals to direct resources to organizations that directly aid people living in poverty. (...)
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  18. Bodily-Social Copresence Androgyny: Rehabilitating a Progressive Strategy.Joshua M. Hall - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (1).
    Historically, the concept of androgyny has been as problematic as it has been appealing to Western progressives. The appeal clearly includes, inter alia, the opportunity to abandon or ameliorate certain identities. As for the problematic dimension, the central problem seems to be the reduction of otherness to the norms of straight white middle/upper-class Western cismen, particularly because of the consequent worsening of actual others’ marginalization and exclusion from social institutions. Despite these problems, I wish to suggest that androgyny—as evidenced by (...)
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  19. Civic Republican Disability Justice.Tom O'Shea - 2018 - Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability.
    This chapter develops a civic republican approach to disability justice. It begins by articulating a republican account of liberty as nondomination before showing how such domination can shape the relationships of people with disabilities. This leads to a consideration of whether disability justice can be defined in terms of maximizing or sufficient nondomination. Instead, the chapter provides a civic framework within which republican disability justice can be understood, encompassing both the absence of oppressive relationships and the presence of capabilities of (...)
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  20. Contributive Justice: An Exploration of a Wider Provision of Meaningful Work.Cristian Timmermann - 2018 - Social Justice Research 31 (1):85-111.
    Extreme inequality of opportunity leads to a number of social tensions, inefficiencies and injustices. One issue of increasing concern is the effect inequality is having on people’s fair chances of attaining meaningful work, thus limiting opportunities to make a significant positive contribution to society and reducing the chances of living a flourishing life and developing their potential. On a global scale we can observe an increasingly uneven provision of meaningful work, raising a series of ethical concerns that need detailed examination. (...)
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  21. Food Sovereignty and Consumer Sovereignty: Two Antagonistic Goals?Cristian Timmermann, Georges Félix & Pablo Tittonell - 2018 - Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 42 (3):274-298.
    The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty, and vice versa. The aim of this article is to examine the different sets of demands that the two ideals of sovereignty bring about, analyze in how far these different demands can stand in constructive relations with each other (...)
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  22. In Defense of the Progressive Stack: A Strategy for Prioritizing Marginalized Voices During in-Class Discussion.Jake Wright - 2018 - Teaching Philosophy 41 (4):407-428.
    Progressive stacking is a strategy for prioritizing in-class contributions that allows marginalized students to speak before non-marginalized students. I argue that this strategy is both pedagogically and ethically defensible. Pedagogically, it provides benefits to all students (e.g., expanded in-class discourse) while providing special benefits (e.g., increased self-efficacy) to marginalized students, helping to address historic educational inequalities. Ethically, I argue that neither marginalized nor non-marginalized students are wronged by such a policy. First, I present a strategy for self-disclosure that reduces the (...)
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  23. Is the Liberal Defence of Public Schools a Fantasy?Michael Merry & William New - 2017 - Critical Studies in Education 58 (3):373-389.
    In this paper, we offer a Leftist critique of standard liberal defenses of the public school. We suggest that the standard arguments employed by mainstream liberal defenders of the public school are generally inadequate because they fail to provide a credible representation of their historical object, let alone effective remedies to our current problems. Indeed, many of these narratives, in our view, are grounded in fantasies about what public schools, or teaching and learning, are or could be, as much as (...)
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  24. A Moral Theory of Solidarity.Avery Kolers - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Accounts of solidarity typically defend it in teleological or loyalty terms, justifying it by invoking its goal of promoting justice or its expression of support for a shared community. Such solidarity seems to be a moral option rather than an obligation. In contrast, A Moral Theory of Solidarity develops a deontological theory grounded in equity. With extended reflection on the Spanish conquest of the Americas and the US Civil Rights movement, Kolers defines solidarity as political action on others' terms. Unlike (...)
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  25. Gossip and Social Punishment.Linda Radzik - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (1):185-204.
    Is gossip ever appropriate as a response to other people’s misdeeds or character flaws? Gossip is arguably the most common means through which communities hold people responsible for their vices and transgressions. Yet, gossiping itself is traditionally considered wrong. This essay develops an account of social punishment in order to ask whether gossip can serve as a legitimate means of enforcing moral norms. In the end, however, I argue that gossip is most likely to be permissible where it resembles punishment (...)
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  26. Fairness and the Strengths of Agents' Claims.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (3):347-360.
    John Broome has proposed a theory of fairness according to which fairness requires that agents’ claims to goods be satisfied in proportion to the relative strength of those claims. In the case of competing claims for a single indivisible good, Broome argues that what fairness requires is the use of a weighted lottery as a surrogate to satisfying the competing claims: the relative chance of each claimant's winning the lottery should be set to the relative strength of each claimant's claim. (...)
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  27. Finansowanie testów genetycznych ze źródeł publicznych.Olga Dryla - 2015 - Diametros 44:1-19.
    One of the signs of the rapid development of medical genetics is a gradual increase in the number of genetic tests available. Different aspects of this phenomenon have been addressed and debated in the source literature, but so far relatively little has been said about the obligation to provide equal access – in the social context – to selected kinds of tests. In this article, I attempt to reconstruct those few suggestions, dealing with the principles of funding genetic tests from (...)
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  28. Unfinished Adults and Defective Children: On the Nature and Value of Childhood.Anca Gheaus - 2015 - Journal for Ethics and Social Philosophy 9 (1):1-21.
    Traditionally, most philosophers saw childhood as a state of deficiency and thought that its value was entirely dependent on how successfully it prepares individuals for adulthood. Yet, there are good reasons to think that childhood also has intrinsic value. Children possess certain intrinsically valuable abilities to a higher degree than adults. Moreover, going through a phase when one does not yet have a “self of one’s own,” and experimenting one’s way to a stable self, seems intrinsically valuable. I argue that (...)
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  29. From Choice to Chance? Saving People, Fairness, and Lotteries.Tim Henning - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (2):169-206.
    Many authors in ethics, economics, and political science endorse the Lottery Requirement, that is, the following thesis: where different parties have equal moral claims to one indivisible good, it is morally obligatory to let a fair lottery decide which party is to receive the good. This article defends skepticism about the Lottery Requirement. It distinguishes three broad strategies of defending such a requirement: the surrogate satisfaction account, the procedural account, and the ideal consent account, and argues that none of these (...)
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  30. Introducción al problema de la continuidad del tratamiento beneficioso para los sujetos de investigación.Ignacio Mastroleo - 2015 - In Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz (ed.), Ensayos sobre ética de la salud. Ciudad de México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Unidad Xochimilco. pp. 67 - 99.
    ¿Qué ocurre con la continuidad del tratamiento de los sujetos de investigación después de que realizan la última visita del ensayo en el que participan? En algunos casos, la falta de continuidad de atención de la salud apropiada podría poner en peligro la salud de estas personas. Por lo tanto, es probable que los sujetos de investigación que al terminar su participación en un ensayo todavía se encuentran enfermos, necesiten continuar con el tratamiento en estudio u otra atención de la (...)
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  31. Terrorism Unjustified: The Use and Misuse of Political Violence.Vicente Medina - 2015 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    I offer a hopefully compelling defense of the view of those whom I refer to as hard-core opponents of terrorism. For hard-core opponents, terrorism is categorically wrong and, therefore, morally and legally unjustified. I view terrorism as either equivalent to murder or man slaughter in domestic law, or equivalent to crimes against humanity or war crimes in international law. If my argument is compelling, at least two important results follow from it. First, that under no circumstances is terrorism justified. And (...)
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  32. Utilitarianism and Malthus’s Virtue Ethics. Respectable, Virtuous, and Happy.Sergio Cremaschi - 2014 - Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
    1Preface: Malthus the Utilitarian vs. Malthus the Christian moral thinker. The chapter aims at reconstructing the deadlocks of Malthus scholarship concerning his relationship to utilitarianism. It argues that Bonar created out of nothing the myth of Malthus’s ‘Utilitarianism’, which carried, in turn, a pseudo-problem concerning Malthus’s lack of consistency with his own alleged Utilitarianism; besides it argues that such misinterpretation was hard to die and still persists in Hollander’s reading of Malthus’s work. ● -/- 2 Eighteenth-century Anglican ethics. The chapter (...)
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  33. Beneficence, Justice, and Health Care.J. Paul Kelleher - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (1):27-49.
    This paper argues that societal duties of health promotion are underwritten (at least in large part) by a principle of beneficence. Further, this principle generates duties of justice that correlate with rights, not merely “imperfect” duties of charity or generosity. To support this argument, I draw on a useful distinction from bioethics and on a somewhat neglected approach to social obligation from political philosophy. The distinction is that between general and specific beneficence; and the approach from political philosophy has at (...)
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  34. Theories of Distributive Justice and Post-Apartheid South Africa.Carl Knight - 2014 - Politikon 41 (1):23-38.
    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism recommends the maximization of overall societal well-being, a goal which South Africa (...)
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  35. Making Better Sense of Animal Disenhancement: A Reply to Henschke.Marcus Schultz-Bergin - 2014 - NanoEthics 8 (1):101-109.
    In "Making Sense of Animal Disenhancement" Adam Henschke provides a framework for fully understanding and evaluating animal disenhancement. His conclusion is that animal disenhancement is neither morally nor pragmatically justified. In this paper I argue that Henschke misapplies his own framework for understanding disenhancement, resulting in a stronger conclusion than is justified. In diagnosing his misstep, I argue that the resources he has provided us, combined with my refinements, result in two new avenues for inquiry: an application of concepts from (...)
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  36. Making Sense of Discrimination.Re'em Segev - 2014 - Ratio Juris 27 (1):47-78.
    Discrimination is a central moral and legal concept. However, it is also a contested one. Particularly, accounts of the wrongness of discrimination often rely on controversial and particular assumptions. In this paper, I argue that a theory of discrimination that relies on premises that are very general and widely accepted provides a plausible account of the concept of wrongful discrimination. According to the combined theory, wrongful discrimination consists of allocating a benefit that is not supported by a morally significant fact, (...)
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  37. Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - Dissertation, Wageningen University
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
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  38. Global Population and Global Justice: Equitable Distribution of Resources Among Countries.Peter G. N. West-Oram & Heather Widdows - 2012 - The Electronic Library of Science.
    Analysing the demands of global justice for the distribution of resources is a complex task and requires consideration of a broad range of issues. Of particular relevance is the effect that different distributions will have on global population growth and individual welfare. Since changes in the consumption and distribution of resources can have major effects on the welfare of the global population, and the rate at which it increases, it is important to establish meaningful principles to ensure a just distribution (...)
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  39. Self-Legislation, Respect and the Reconciliation of Minority Claims.Emanuela Ceva - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):14-28.
    It is a widely supported claim that liberal democratic institutions should treat citizens with equal respect. I neither dispute nor champion this claim, but investigate how it could be fulfilled. I do this by asking, as a sort of litmus test, how liberal democratic institutions should treat with respect citizens holding minority convictions, and thereby dissenting from a deliberative output. The first step of my argument consists in clarifying the sense in which liberal democracies have a primary concern for the (...)
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  40. Against Shallow Ponds: An Argument Against Singer's Approach to Global Poverty.Scott Wisor - 2011 - Journal of Global Ethics 7 (1):19 - 32.
    For 40 years, Peter Singer has deployed the case of the child drowning in the shallow pond to argue for greater donations in foreign aid. The persistent use of the shallow pond example in theorizing about global poverty ignores morally salient features of the real world, and ignoring such morally salient features can have a variety of harmful implications for anti-poverty work. I argue that the shallow pond example should be abandoned, and defend this claim against possible objections.
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  41. Poverty and Hunger in the Developing World: Ethics, the Global Economy, and Human Survival.Krishna Mani Pathak - 2010 - Asia Journal of Global Studies 3 (2):88-102.
    The large number of hungry people in a global economy based on industrialization, privatization, and free trade raises the question of the ethical dimensions of the worsening food crisis in the world in general and in developing countries in particular. Who bears the moral responsibility for the tragic situation in Africa and Asia where people are starving due to poverty? Who is morally responsible for their poverty - the hungry people themselves? the international community? any particular agency or institution? In (...)
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  42. Legal Mind - From an Ethical Point of View.Yusuke Kaneko - 2009 - Journal of Applied Ethics and Philosophy 4:41-55.
    Although written in Japanese, 法的思考(Legal Mind)pursues a good explanation of how we can apply the so-called practical syllogism to the legal manner of thought.
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  43. Gang-Related Asylum Claims: An Overview and Prescription.Matthew J. Lister - 2008 - University of Memphis Law Review 38 (4).
    Over the last several years asylum cases relating to activities of criminal gangs have greatly increased in frequency. Cases involving Central American gangs, the so-called maras, have attracted the most attention but similar cases have arisen out of South Eastern and Eastern Europe as well. Applicants in such cases face a number of difficulties as their cases do not fit into paradigm categories for asylum claims. These cases almost always involve non-state actors, for example, acting for reasons that are not, (...)
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  44. The Distributive Justice Theory of Self-Defense: A Response to Whitley Kaufman.Re'em Segev - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1).
    In several papers, I have argued for a theory of distributive justice and considered its implications. This theory includes a principle of responsibility that was endorsed by others within an account of defensive force (self-defense and defense of others). Whitley Kaufman criticizes this account which he refers to as the "distributive justice theory of self-defense" (DJ theory). In this paper, I respond to this criticism. I argue that Kaufman presents the theory inaccurately, that his standard of evaluation of the theory (...)
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  45. Lesser Evil and Responsibility: Comments on Jeff McMahan's Analysis of the Morality of War.Re'em Segev - 2007 - Israel Law Review 40 (3):709-729.
    The main aim of Jeff McMahan's manuscript on the morality of war is to answer the question: why and accordingly when is it justified or permissible to kill people in war? However, McMahan argues that the same principles apply to individual actions and to war. McMahan rejects all doctrines of collective responsibility and liability. His claim is that every individual is liable for what he has done and not for the actions of others - even if both are part of (...)
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  46. Well-Being and Fairness in the Distribution of Scarce Health Resources.Re'em Segev - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):231 – 260.
    Based on a general thesis regarding the proper resolution of interpersonal conflicts, this paper suggests a normative framework for the distribution of scarce health resources. The proposed thesis includes two basic ideas. First, individual well-being is the fundamental value. Second, interpersonal conflicts affecting well-being should be resolved in light of several conceptions of fairness, reflecting the independent value of persons and the moral significance of responsibility of individuals for the existence of interpersonal conflicts. These ideas are elaborated in several principles (...)
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  47. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.Kristja´N. Kristja´Nsson - 2003 - Journal of Moral Education 32 (2):183-194.
    This article spells out the way in which normative concerns unavoidably enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions, with special emphasis on Damon's well-known stage theory of such development. Normative considerations provide assumptions not only about what counts as a conception of justice in the first place but also what counts as a better or a worse conception. Damon, for one, relies on the questionable normative premise that all distributive choices are choices (...)
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  48. The Possibility of a Correctional Ethic.Derek R. Brookes - 2001 - In J. Kleinig and M. L. Smith (ed.), Discretion, Community, and Correctional Ethics. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: pp. 39-68.
    In this article, I argue that the kind of suffering that prisons impose upon prisoners both (a) disregards their uniqueness and (b) fails to meet their basic needs in a manner which violates their dignity and worth as human beings. Hence, it cannot be morally justified. But since the imposition of suffering is an integral element of a prison’s central function, it follows that no ‘institutional ethics’ could, logically, be used to adjudicate between its institutional decisions. Hence, a ‘Correctional Ethics’ (...)
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  49. Female Circumcision in Nigeria: Is It Not Time for Government Intervention? A Commentary.Donna Dickenson - 1998 - Health Care Analysis 6 (1):27-30.
    A survey of Nigerian women who have undergone female circumcision (female genital mutilation) revealed a majority in favour of the practice. Are Western feminist bioethicists entitled to condemn it?
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  50. Ethics, Equity, and the Renewal of Who's Health-for-All Strategy: Proceedings of the Xxixth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland 12-14 March 1997. [REVIEW]Zbigniew Bańkowski, John H. Bryant & J. Gallagher (eds.) - 1997 - Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Cioms).
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