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Summary

Cosmological arguments pick out some general feature of the universe––e.g., its contingency––and argue that this feature lends credence to the existence of God. The Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA), developed originally by Muslim theologians, focuses on the universe’s seeming finitude, arguing that this suggests the existence of a first cause. There are two main variants of the Kalam: one variant, espoused by William Lane Craig, contends that the universe is temporally finite. Another variant, espoused by Alexander Pruss, argues for causal finitism (the thesis that any causal chain must be finite). The Craigian Kalam proceeds by using some causal principle––e.g., “everything which begins to exist has a cause”––to deduce the existence of a cause of the universe from its temporal finitude. Comparatively, the Prussian Kalam has quicker arguments to the existence of a first cause: however, to show that this first cause has divine attributes, this Kalam often also ends up relying on various causal or linking principles. In any variant of the Kalam, there are three main areas of contention: (i) whether the universe really is finite in the way so claimed, (ii) whether the relevant causal or linking principle is cogent, and (iii) whether the first cause which has been deduced exemplifies any of the traditional divine attributes. 

Key works

The original Craigian Kalam is explicated most notably in Craig 1998, and a contemporary defense is found in Craig & Sinclair 2009. The Craigian Kalam uses philosophical and scientific arguments for temporal finitude: Copan & Craig 2017 is a wonderful anthology of essays criticizing and defending the philosophical arguments for temporal finitude, and Craig & Copan 2017 is an anthology on the scientific arguments for temporal finitude. The Prussian Kalam is developed most extensively in Pruss 2018, as well as Koons 2014. Most objections to, and discussions of, the Prussian Kalam build on, or center around, an objection developed in §3 of Shackel 2005. Another source of objection to the Kalam more generally has been that its arguments for finitude can be parodied as (implausible) arguments for a finite future; see Cohen 2015 for Kalam parodies generally, and Schmid forthcoming for parodies of the Prussian Kalam.

Introductions

For a good overview of the Craigian Kalam, see Reichenbach 2004, particularly §7. For a survey on recent work on the Kalam, and certain sub-variants not mentioned herein, see McIntosh 2022, especially §2.

Related

Contents
152 found
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1 — 50 / 152
  1. Grim Reaper Paradoxes and Patchwork Principles: Severing the Case for Finitism.Troy Dana & Joseph C. Schmid - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    Benardete paradoxes involve infinite collections of Grim Reapers, assassins, demons, deafening peals, or even sentences. These paradoxes have recently been used in arguments for finitist metaphysical theses such as temporal finitism, causal finitism, and discrete views of time. Here we develop a new finite Benardete-like paradox. We then use this paradox to defend a companions in guilt argument that challenges recent applications of patchwork principles on behalf of the aforementioned finitist arguments. Finally, we develop another problem for those applications by (...)
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  2. A Modal Condition for the Beginning of the Universe.Daniel Linford - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-33.
    This paper considers two problems -- one in philosophy of religion and another in philosophy of physics -- and shows that the two problems have one solution. Some Christian philosophers have endorsed the views that (i) there was a first finitely long period of time, (ii) God is in time, and yet (iii) God did not have a beginning. If there was a first finitely long period of time and God is in time then there was a first finitely long (...)
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  3. Benardete Paradoxes, Causal Finitism, and the Unsatisfiable Pair Diagnosis.Joseph C. Schmid & Alex Malpass - forthcoming - Mind.
    We examine two competing solutions to Benardete paradoxes: causal finitism, according to which nothing can have infinitely many causes, and the unsatisfiable pair diagnosis (UPD), according to which such paradoxes are logically impossible and no metaphysical thesis need be adopted to avoid them. We argue that the UPD enjoys notable theoretical advantages over causal finitism. Causal finitists, however, have levelled two main objections to the UPD. First, they urge that the UPD requires positing a ‘mysterious force’ that prevents paradoxes from (...)
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  4. Two New Successive Addition Arguments.Ibrahim Dagher - 2024 - Heythrop Journal 65 (2):152-160.
    One of William Lane Craig's key arguments for the finitude of the past is the Successive Addition Argument (SAA). Malpass (2021) has recently developed a novel challenge to the SAA, utilising a thought experiment from the work of Fred Dretske, which is meant to show that it is possible to count to infinity, to argue that there is a counterexample to the SAA's second premise. In this paper, I contend that the Malpass‐Dretske counterexample should not worry advocates of the SAA. (...)
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  5. Benardete paradoxes, patchwork principles, and the infinite past.Joseph C. Schmid - 2024 - Synthese 203 (2):51.
    Benardete paradoxes involve a beginningless set each member of which satisfies some predicate just in case no earlier member satisfies it. Such paradoxes have been wielded on behalf of arguments for the impossibility of an infinite past. These arguments often deploy patchwork principles in support of their key linking premise. Here I argue that patchwork principles fail to justify this key premise.
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  6. Kalām and Cognition.Mahrad Almotahari - 2023 - In Mohammad Saleh Zarepour (ed.), Islamic philosophy of religion: analytic perspectives. New York: Routledge. pp. 41-63.
    An application of some recent work on the science of generic thought.
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  7. An inexplicably good argument for causal finitism.Ibrahim Dagher - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 94 (2):199-211.
    Causal finitism, the view that the causal history of any event must be finite, has garnered much philosophical interest recently—especially because of its applicability to the Kalām cosmological argument. The most prominent argument for causal finitism is the Grim Reaper argument, which attempts to show that, if infinite causal histories are possible, then other paradoxical states of affairs must also be possible. However, this style of argument has been criticized on the grounds of (i) relying on controversial modal principles, and (...)
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  8. Properties, Collections, and the Successive Addition Argument: A Reply to Malpass.Ibrahim Dagher - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (3):1-7.
    The Successive Addition Argument (SAA) is one of the key arguments espoused by William Lane Craig for the thesis that the universe began to exist. Recently, Malpass, Mind, 131(523), 786–804 (2021) has developed a challenge to the SAA by way of constructing a counterexample that originates in the work of Fred Dretske. In this paper, I show that the Malpass-Dretske counterexample is in fact no counterexample to the argument. Utilizing a distinction between properties of members and properties of collections, I (...)
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  9. The Convergence Approach to Benardete’s Paradox.Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (3):1353-1367.
    The paper analyses Benardete's paradox of the gods from a more general perspective (the convergence approach) than several of the most important proposals made to date, but in close relation (and sharp contrast) with them. The new theory, based on the notion of limit, is systematically applicable in different possible scenarios involving a denumerable infinity of objects. In particular, it reveals in what way ω-consistency can be compromised in an otherwise consistent description of such "infinitary" situations.
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  10. The Kalām Cosmological Argument Meets the Mentaculus.Dan Linford - 2023 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 74 (1):91-115.
    According to the orthodox interpretation of bounce cosmologies, the universe was born from an entropy-reducing phase in a previous universe. To defend the thesis that the whole of physical reality was caused to exist a finite time ago, Craig and Sinclair have argued the low-entropy interface between universes should instead be understood as the beginning of two universes. Here, I present Craig and Sinclair with a dilemma. On the one hand, if the direction of time is reducible, as friends of (...)
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  11. Andrew Loke’s indirect defence of the successive addition argument.Alex Malpass - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 94 (1):43-61.
    In this paper, we consider Andrew Loke’s recent contributions to the successive addition argument. Although he claims to develop the discussion, we conclude that he fails to provide anything that goes beyond the position critiqued by Fellipe Leon. When analysing Loke’s position, we find that his proposals either directly collapse back into those critiqued by Leon, or beg the relevant question at hand. We conclude with some speculations about why this sort of mistake may have arisen.
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  12. Endless and Infinite: An Evaluation of Alex Malpass and Wes Morriston Argument.Atikur Rahman - 2023 - Historical: Journal of History and Social Sciences 2 (3):102-109.
    In a recent paper published in 2020, Alex Malpass & Wes Morriston discuss the difference between beginningless past and an endless future and try to show that beginningless series of past events and an endless series of future ones are in the same boat. So if (as they believe) an endless series of events is possible, then the possibility of a beginningless series of past events should not be rejected merely on the ground that it would be an actual infinite. (...)
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  13. Branching actualism and cosmological arguments.Joseph C. Schmid & Alex Malpass - 2023 - Philosophical Studies 180 (7):1951-1973.
    We draw out significant consequences of a relatively popular theory of metaphysical modality—branching actualism—for cosmological arguments for God’s existence. According to branching actualism, every possible world shares an initial history with the actual world and diverges only because causal powers (or dispositions, or some such) are differentially exercised. We argue that branching actualism undergirds successful responses to two recent cosmological arguments: the Grim Reaper Kalam argument and a modal argument from contingency. We also argue that branching actualism affords a response (...)
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  14. Kelam Kozmolojik Argüman ve Modern Bilim.Onur Kenan Aydoğdu & Enis Doko - 2022 - In Mehmet Bulgen & Enis Doko (eds.), Din ve Bilim Açısından Yaratılış. İstanbul, Türkiye: pp. 327-342.
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  15. Cosmic Skepticism and the Beginning of Physical Reality (Doctoral Dissertation).Linford Dan - 2022 - Dissertation, Purdue University
    This dissertation is concerned with two of the largest questions that we can ask about the nature of physical reality: first, whether physical reality begin to exist and, second, what criteria would physical reality have to fulfill in order to have had a beginning? Philosophers of religion and theologians have previously addressed whether physical reality began to exist in the context of defending the Kal{\'a}m Cosmological Argument (KCA) for theism, that is, (P1) everything that begins to exist has a cause (...)
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  16. Finite-Length Timelike Paths and Kalām Cosmological Argument.Minseong Kim - 2022 - Sophia 61 (2):303-307.
    Suppose one accepts the argument that past infinity is not acceptable. This does not eliminate the possibility that the beginning of time is not equivalent across objects. Along with breakdown of absolute simultaneity of events in relativity, there may even be no agreement on whether an event existed. There may be no consistent way to totally order events. In such a case, despite every object, conscious or not, having finite lifetime, there may be no single point called “the beginning,” and (...)
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  17. Big Bounce or Double Bang? A Reply to Craig and Sinclair on the Interpretation of Bounce Cosmologies.Daniel Linford - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (4):1849-1871.
    On the orthodox interpretation of bounce cosmologies, a preceding universe was compressed to a small size before “bouncing” to form the present expanding universe. William Lane Craig and James Sinclair have argued that the orthodox interpretation is incorrect if the entropy reaches a minimum at the bounce. In their view, the interface between universes represents the birth of two expanding universes, i.e., a “double bang” instead of a “big bounce”. Here, I reply to Craig and Sinclair in defense of the (...)
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  18. All the time in the world.Alex Malpass - 2022 - Mind 131 (523):786-804.
    The second premise of the Kalām cosmological argument, as defended by William Lane Craig, has two supporting arguments; the Hilbert’s Hotel argument and the suc.
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  19. Time Does Not Pass if Time Began from an Infinite Past.Kunihisa Morita - 2022 - Kriterion – Journal of Philosophy 36 (3-4):291-302.
    Philosophers have long discussed whether time really passes. Simultaneously, they have also discussed whether time could have begun from an infinite past. This paper clarifies the relationship between the reality of time’s passage and an infinite past. I assert that time cannot have an infinite past if time really passes. This argument is based on a proposition that an infinite series of events cannot be completed if time really passes. A seemingly strong objection to this proposition is that no movement (...)
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  20. Infinity, Time, and Successive Addition.Wes Morriston - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (1):70-85.
    ABSTRACT According to an influential line of argument, the past must be finite because no infinite series can be formed by successive addition. The present paper pinpoints the non sequitur at the heart of this argument, disentangles the ambiguities that disguise it, and dismantles the misleading picture of ‘traversing the infinite’ that gives the argument so much of its allure. Finally, the paper critically explores the related argument that a beginningless series of past events is impossible because there could be (...)
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  21. In Search of a Creator: Infinity and Existence in the Kalam Cosmological Argument.Leonardo Salvatore - 2022 - Aporia 32 (1):31-43.
    This essay aims to evaluate each element of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. I first examine premise (2) and one popular objection to it. I then do the same for premise (1). Second, I propose an original objection to premise (1), and then refute the objection. In my self-refutation, I share two insights into the nature of philosophical inquiry. I finish with an overview of the Argument’s conclusion.
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  22. Counting to infinity, successive addition, and the length of the past.Mohammad Saleh Zarepour - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 92 (3):167-176.
    The Successive Addition Argument (SAA) is one of the arguments proposed by the defenders of the Kalām Cosmological Argument to support the claim that the universe has a beginning. The main premise of SAA states that a collection formed by successive addition cannot be an actual infinite. This premise is challenged by an argument originally proposed by Fred Dretske. According to Dretske’s Argument (DA), the scenario of a counter who starts counting numbers and never stops can provide a counterexample to (...)
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  23. ATHEISM AS AN EXTREME REJECTION OF RATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (2):1-16.
    Explicit atheism is a philosophical position according to which belief in God is irrational, and thus it should be rejected. In this paper, I revisit, extend, and defend against the most telling counter arguments the Kalām Cosmological Argument in order to show that explicit atheism must be deemed as a positively irrational position.
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  24. Deism: A Rational Journey from Disbelief to the Existence of God.Carlo Alvaro - 2021 - Washington, DC, USA: Academica Press.
    It is often claimed that belief in God is based on faith, while non-belief is grounded in rationality. This claim is inaccurate. Moral philosopher Carlo Alvaro takes the reader through his philosophical journey—a journey taken with the absolute absence of faith. Through reasoning alone, and with an objective assessment of the classical theistic arguments, Deism takes the reader from disbelief to a particular version of deism. Deism discusses such arguments as the Kalam Cosmological, the asymmetry against the evil-god challenge, the (...)
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  25. Are infinite explanations self-explanatory?Alexandre Billon - 2021 - Erkenntnis 88 (5):1935-1954.
    Consider an infinite series whose items are each explained by their immediate successor. Does such an infinite explanation explain the whole series or does it leave something to be explained? Hume arguably claimed that it does fully explain the whole series. Leibniz, however, designed a very telling objection against this claim, an objection involving an infinite series of book copies. In this paper, I argue that the Humean claim can, in certain cases, be saved from the Leibnizian “infinite book copies” (...)
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  26. Theodicy, Supreme Providence, and Semiclassical Theism.James Goetz - 2021 - Theology and Science 19 (1):42-64.
    Logical limits of omnipotence, the problem of evil, and a compelling cosmological argument suggest the position of supreme providence and the foremost creation out of nothing that coheres with the constraints of physics. The Supreme Being possesses everlasting love, perception, and force while governing the universe of probabilistic processes and freewill creatures. For example, the Supreme Being intervenes in the processes of creation by the means of synergism with freewill creatures and cannot meticulously control the created universe.
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  27. Neo-Lorentzian Relativity and the Beginning of the Universe.Daniel Linford - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (4):1-38.
    Many physicists have thought that absolute time became otiose with the introduction of Special Relativity. William Lane Craig disagrees. Craig argues that although relativity is empirically adequate within a domain of application, relativity is literally false and should be supplanted by a Neo-Lorentzian alternative that allows for absolute time. Meanwhile, Craig and co-author James Sinclair have argued that physical cosmology supports the conclusion that physical reality began to exist at a finite time in the past. However, on their view, the (...)
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  28. Craig’s God Cannot Create a Temporal Universe.Erik J. Wielenberg - 2021 - Philosophia Christi 23 (2):329-340.
    William Lane Craig’s inuential kalam cosmological argument concludes that the universe has a cause of its beginning. Craig provides some supplementary reasoning to suggest that the first cause is God—a God that exists timelessly without the universe and temporally with the universe. I argue that Craig’s hypothesis about the nature of the first cause is impossible. In particular, it cannot be the case that God timelessly wills to create the universe and the universe begins to exist.
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  29. On the Varieties of Finitism.Mohammad Saleh Zarepour - 2021 - Faith and Philosophy 38 (3):302-312.
    Defenders of the Kalām Cosmological Argument appeal to the so-called Hilbert’s Hotel Argument to establish the finitude of the past based on the impossibility of actual infinites. Some of their opponents argue that this proves too much because if the universe cannot be beginningless due to the impossibility of actual infinites, then, for the same reason, it cannot be endless either. Discussing four different senses of the existence of an actual infinite, I criticize both sides of the debate by showing, (...)
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  30. The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Omniscience: an Evaluation of Recent Discussions in Sophia.Andrew Ter Ern Loke - 2020 - Sophia 59 (4):651-656.
    This article evaluates the discussion concerning the relationship between the Kalām Cosmological Argument and Divine Omniscience in recent articles in Sophia, 263–272, 2016; Erasmus Sophia, 57, 151–156, 2018a). I argue that, in his latest article, Erasmus is guilty of shifting the focus of the discussion from the KCA to the Infinity Argument. I contribute to the discussion by replying to the four difficulties Erasmus Sophia, 57, 151–156, mentions against my defence of the notion that God has an undivided intuition of (...)
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  31. A Philosophical Argument for the Beginning of Time.Laureano Luna & Jacobus Erasmus - 2020 - Prolegomena 19 (2):161-176.
    A common argument in support of a beginning of the universe used by advocates of the kalām cosmological argument (KCA) is the argument against the possibility of an actual infinite, or the “Infinity Argument”. However, it turns out that the Infinity Argument loses some of its force when compared with the achievements of set theory and it brings into question the view that God predetermined an endless future. We therefore defend a new formal argument, based on the nature of time (...)
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  32. Endless and Infinite.Alex Malpass & Wes Morriston - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (281):830-849.
    It is often said that time must have a beginning because otherwise the series of past events would have the paradoxical features of an actual infinite. In the present paper, we show that, even given a dynamic theory of time, the cardinality of an endless series of events, each of which will occur, is the same as that of a beginningless series of events, each of which has occurred. Both are denumerably infinite. So if an endless series of events is (...)
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  33. Deny the Kalam’s Causal Principle, Embrace Absurdity.Rad Miksa - 2020 - Philosophia Christi 22 (2):239-255.
    One objection against the kalam is that while the standard arguments for its causal premise apply to things in the universe, they do not apply to the universe itself. Thus, universes could come into existence uncaused from nothing. This objection, however, creates a situation where an absurd universe is as likely to come into existence uncaused as a normal universe is. This then generates serious skepticism about the reliability of our cognitive faculties, the truth of our sensory inputs, and our (...)
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  34. An Eternal Society Paradox.Wade A. Tisthammer - 2020 - Aporia 30 (1):49-58.
    An eternal society with the abilities of ordinary humans in each year of its existence would have had the ability to actualize a logical contradiction. This fact casts doubt on the metaphysical possibility of an infinite past. In addition to using this paradox in an argument against an infinite past, one can also use the paradox mutatis mutandis as a decisive argument against the sempiternality of God.
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  35. Susanna Newcome's cosmological argument.Patrick J. Connolly - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (4):842-859.
    Despite its philosophical interest, Susanna Newcome’s Enquiry Into the Evidence of the Christian Religion (1728, revised 1732) has received little attention from commentators. This paper seeks to redress this oversight by offering a reconstruction of Newcome’s innovative argument for God’s existence. Newcome employs a cosmological argument that differs from Thomist and kalām version of the argument. Specifically, Newcome challenges that idea that the causal chains observed in nature can exist independently. She does this through an appeal to findings from Newtonian (...)
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  36. Infinity, Causation, and Paradox by Alexander R. Pruss.William Lane Craig - 2019 - Review of Metaphysics 73 (2):380-381.
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  37. Causation and Sufficient Reason (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Graham Oppy & Joseph W. Koterski (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. Farmington Hills: MacMillan Reference.
    This chapter provides an overview and critical discussion of cosmological arguments for theism, with special focus on the Kalam argument and arguments from contingency.
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  38. Is God the Best Explanation of Things?: A Dialogue.Felipe Leon & Joshua Rasmussen - 2019 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book provides an up to date, high-level exchange on God in a uniquely productive style. Readers witness a contemporary version of a classic debate, as two professional philosophers seek to learn from each other while making their cases for their distinct positions. In their dialogue, Joshua Rasmussen and Felipe Leon examine classical and cutting-edge arguments for and against a theistic explanation of general features of reality. The book also provides original lines of thought based on the authors’ own contributions (...)
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  39. Review of Paul Copan and William Lane Craig, eds., The Kalām Cosmological Argument (2 vols). [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):445-449.
    This is a review of *The Kalām Cosmological Argument* (edited by Paul Copan and William Lane Craig). In this review, I focus primarily on the papers in the first volume by Waters, Loke, and Oderberg. (I have also written an independent review of the second volume.).
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  40. Review of P. Copan and Craig, W. (eds.) The Kalām Cosmological Argument Volume Two: Scientific Evidence for the Beginning of the Universe. [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):225-229.
    This is a commissioned review of Copan, P. and Craig, W. The Kalām Cosmological Argument Volume Two: Scientific Evidence for the Beginning of the Universe New York: Bloomsbury, US$172.50, ISBN 978-1-50-133587-7.
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  41. Kalam Cosmological Argument and the Modern Science.Enis Doko - 2018 - Kader 16 (1):1-13.
    Huduth argument (in contemporary Western philosophy known as Kalam Cosmological argument) is an argument for the existence of God which rests on the idea that the universe has a beginning in time. Some theists have claimed that modern science, particularly modern cosmology and second law of thermodynamics supports the key premise of the argument which argues that universe began to exist. On the other hand, some atheists have claimed that Quantum Mechanics have demonstrated that particles can be created without cause (...)
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  42. Regularities, laws, and an exceedingly modest premise for a cosmological argument.Travis Dumsday - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):111-123.
    In reply to certain cosmological arguments for theism, critics regularly argue that the causal principle ex nihilo nihil fit may be false. Various theistic counter-replies to this challenge have emerged. One type of strategy is to double down on ex nihilo nihil fit. Another, very different strategy of counter-reply is to grant for the sake of argument that the principle is false, while maintaining that sound cosmological arguments can be formulated even with this concession in place. Notably, one can employ (...)
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  43. Erratum to: Regularities, laws, and an exceedingly modest premise for a cosmological argument.Travis Dumsday - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):125-125.
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  44. Loke on the Infinite God Objection.Jacobus Erasmus - 2018 - Sophia 57 (1):151-156.
    In a recent article, Andrew Ter Ern Loke raises several objections to Jacobus Erasmus and Anné Hendrik Verhoef’s exposition and response to the so-called ‘Infinite God Objection’ to the kalām cosmological argument. According to this objection, the argument against the possibility of an actual infinite brings into question the view that God’s knowledge is infinite. Erasmus and Verhoef’s solution to this objection, which Loke criticises, depends on an unusual account of omniscience. In this article, I respond to Loke and show (...)
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  45. The Kalām Cosmological Argument: A Reassessment.Jacobus Erasmus - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    This book offers a discussion of the kalām cosmological argument, and presents a defence of a version of that argument after critically evaluating three of the most important versions of the argument. It argues that, since the versions of the kalām cosmological argument defended by Philoponus (c. 490–c. 570), al-Ghazālī (1058– 1111), and the contemporary philosopher, William Lane Craig, all deny the possibility of the existence of an actual infinite, these arguments are incompatible with Platonism and the view that God (...)
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  46. Infinity, Causation, and Paradox.Alexander R. Pruss - 2018 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Alexander R. Pruss examines a large family of paradoxes to do with infinity - ranging from deterministic supertasks to infinite lotteries and decision theory. Having identified their common structure, Pruss considers at length how these paradoxes can be resolved by embracing causal finitism.
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  47. A Limited Defense of the Kalām Cosmological Argument.Spencer Case - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (1):165-175.
    The kalām cosmological argument proceeds from the claims that everything with a beginning has a cause of its existence, and that the universe has a beginning. It follows that the universe has a cause of its existence. Presumably, this cause is God. Some defenders of the argument contend that, since we don’t see things randomly coming into existence, we know from experience that everything with a beginning has a cause of its existence. Against this, some critics argue that we may (...)
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  48. The Kalām Cosmological Argument Philosophical Arguments for the Finitude of the Past.P. Copan & W. Lane Craig (eds.) - 2017 - Bloomsbury.
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  49. The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Volume Two: Scientific Evidence for the Beginning of the Universe.William Lane Craig & Paul Copan (eds.) - 2017 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing (2017).
    The kalam cosmological argument-perhaps the most discussed philosophical argument for God's existence in recent decades-maintains that whatever begins to exist must have a cause. And since the universe began to exist, there must be a transcendent cause of its beginning, a conclusion which is confirmatory of theism. So this medieval argument for the finitude of the past has received fresh wind in its sails from recent scientific discoveries. This collection reviews and assesses the merits of the latest scientific evidences for (...)
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  50. On the beginning of time: a reply to Wes Morriston concerning the existence of actual infinities.Andrew Loke - 2017 - In Paul Copan & William Lane Craig (eds.), The Kalām Cosmological Argument: Criticisms and Defenses. New York, NY, USA:
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