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  1. Kantian and Neo-Kantian First Principles for Physical and Metaphysical Cognition.Michael E. Cuffaro - manuscript
    I argue that Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy—in particular the doctrine of transcendental idealism which grounds it—is best understood as an `epistemic' or `metaphilosophical' doctrine. As such it aims to show how one may engage in the natural sciences and in metaphysics under the restriction that certain conditions are imposed on our cognition of objects. Underlying Kant's doctrine, however, is an ontological posit, of a sort, regarding the fundamental nature of our cognition. This posit, sometimes called the `discursivity thesis', while considered (...)
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  2. Leibniz and Kant on Miracles: Rationalism, Religion, and the Laws.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Brandon Look (ed.), Leibniz and Kant. Oxford University Press.
  3. Power, Harmony, and Freedom: Debating Causation in 18th Century Germany.Corey Dyck - forthcoming - In Frederick Beiser & Brandon Look (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Eighteenth Century German Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    As far as treatments of causation are concerned, the pre-Kantian 18th century German context has long been dismissed as a period of uniform and unrepentant Leibnizian dogmatism. While there is no question that discussions of issues relating to causation in this period inevitably took Leibniz as their point of departure, it is certainly not the case that the resulting positions were in most cases dogmatically, or in some cases even recognizably, Leibnizian. Instead, German theorists explored a range of positions regarding (...)
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  4. Kants Modell Kausaler Verhältnisse.Boris Hennig - forthcoming - Kant-Studien.
    Eric Watkins argues that according to Kant, causation is not a relation between two events, but a relation between the “causality” of a substance and an event. It is shown that his arguments are partly based on a confusion between causation and interaction. Further, Watkins claims that for Kant, causes cannot be temporally determined. If this were true, it would follow that there can be no causal chains, and that all factors that determine the time when an effect occurs do (...)
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  5. Every Man Has His Price: Kant's Argument for Universal Radical Evil.Jonas Jervell Indregard - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Kant famously claims that we have all freely chosen evil. This paper offers a novel account of the much-debated justification for this claim. I reconstruct Kant’s argument from his affirmation that we all have a price – we can all succumb to temptation. I argue that this follows a priori from a theoretical principle of the Critique of Pure Reason, namely that all empirical powers have a finite, changeable degree, an intensive magnitude. Because of this, our reason can always be (...)
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  6. Freedom as a Kind of Causality.Toni Kannisto - forthcoming - In Violetta L. Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses.
    Kant’s view that freedom is a “kind of causality” seems to conflict with his claim that the categories of the understanding – including causality – can only be applied objectively to sensible phaenomena, never to supersensible noumena, as freedom is only possible for the latter. I argue that only Kant’s theory of symbolic presentation, according to which the category of cause is applied merely analogically to freedom, can dispel this threatening inconsistency. Unlike it is commonly thought, one cannot here use (...)
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  7. Comments on Watkins, 'Kant on Laws'.Marius Stan - forthcoming - Studi Kantiani.
    Comments on Eric Watkins, "Kant on Laws" (Cambridge, 2019).
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  8. What Real Progress has Metaphysics Made Since the Time of Kant? Kant and the Metaphysics of Grounding.Eric Watkins - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    This paper argues that, despite appearances to the contrary, Kant and contemporary analytic metaphysicians are interested in the same kind of metaphysical dependence relation that finds application in a range of contexts and that is today commonly referred to as grounding. It also argues that comparing and contrasting Kant’s and contemporary metaphysicians’ accounts of this relation proves useful for both Kant scholarship and for contemporary metaphysics. The analyses provided by contemporary metaphysicians can be used to shed light on Kant’s understanding (...)
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  9. Kant, Causation and Laws of Nature.James Hutton - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 86:93-102.
    In the Second Analogy, Kant argues that every event has a cause. It remains disputed what this conclusion amounts to. Does Kant argue only for the Weak Causal Principle that every event has some cause, or for the Strong Causal Principle that every event is produced according to a universal causal law? Existing interpretations have assumed that, by Kant’s lights, there is a substantive difference between the two. I argue that this is false. Kant holds that the concept of cause (...)
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  10. Kant on the Continuity of Alterations.Tim Jankowiak - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):49-66.
    The metaphysical “Law of Continuity of Alterations” says that whenever an object alters from one state to another, it passes through a continuum of intermediate states. Kant treated LCA as a transcendental law of understanding. The primary purpose of the paper is to reconstruct and evaluate Kant’s three arguments for LCA. All three are found to be inadequate. However, a secondary goal of the paper is to show that LCA would have more naturally been construed as a regulative principle of (...)
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  11. Epistemic Normativity in Kant's “Second Analogy”.James Hutton - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):593-609.
    In the “Second Analogy,” Kant argues that, unless mental contents involve the concept of causation, they cannot represent an objective temporal sequence. According to Kant, deploying the concept of causation renders a certain temporal ordering of representations necessary, thus enabling objective representational purport. One exegetical question that remains controversial is this: how, and in what sense, does deploying the concept of cause render a certain ordering of representations necessary? I argue that this necessitation is a matter of epistemic normativity: with (...)
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  12. Eric Watkins . Kant on Persons and Agency Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018 Pp. Xii + 242, Hbk ISBN 9781107182455, £75.00. [REVIEW]Colin Marshall - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (2):327-333.
  13. Kant and Crusius on Causal Chains.Michael Oberst - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (1):107-128.
    There are two rival models on how to interpret causal chains in Kant. Traditional event-event models take it that events are causes of events, which are in turn causes of other events. Watkins’s causal powers interpretation, on the contrary, has it that substances have unchangeable grounds, and the series of events is only a series within the effect. By comparing Kant to Crusius, I argue that, to some extent, both approaches can be combined. For the powers of substances are made (...)
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  14. Reality in-Itself and the Ground of Causality.Christian Onof - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (2):197-222.
    This article presents a metaphysical approach to the interpretation of the role of things-in-themselves in Kant’s theoretical philosophy. This focuses upon identifying their transcendental function as the grounding of appearances. It is interpreted as defining the relation of appearing as the grounding of empirical causality. This leads to a type of dual-aspect account that is given further support through a detailed examination of two sections of Kant’s first Critique. This shows the need to embed this dual-aspect account within a two-perspective (...)
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  15. Leaving the Enchanted World Behind: Kant on the Order of Nature, Empirical Space and the Possibility of Miracles.Pavel Reichl - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):103-125.
    Despite relative neglect in the literature, Kant’s published and unpublished writings in theoretical philosophy reveal a sustained and at times ambivalent effort to come to terms with the problem of miracles. Because they entail a form of supernatural causation that undermines the law-governedness of the order of nature, miracles pose a significant problem for Kant’s metaphysics. I explore in detail Kant’s account of miracles in conjunction with the relevant aspects of his metaphysics of nature in order to establish in what (...)
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  16. A Guide to Ground in Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics.Nicholas Stang - 2019 - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures on Metaphysics: A Critical Guide. pp. 74–101.
    While scholars have extensively discussed Kant’s treatment of the Principle of Sufficient Ground in the Antinomies chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason, and, more recently, his relation to German rationalist debates about it, relatively little has been said about the exact notion of ground that figures in the PSG. My aim in this chapter is to explain Kant’s discussion of ground in the lectures and to relate it, where appropriate, to his published discussions of ground.
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  17. Kant on Reality, Cause, and Force: From the Early Modern Tradition to the Critical Philosophy. [REVIEW]Nabeel Hamid - 2018 - The Leibniz Review 28:119-122.
  18. A Gradual Reformation: Empirical Character and Causal Powers in Kant.Jonas Jervell Indregard - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 48 (5):662-683.
    According to Kant each person has an empirical character, which is ultimately grounded in one’s free choice. The popular Causal Laws interpretation of empirical character holds that it consists of the causal laws governing our psychology. I argue that this reading has difficulties explaining moral change, the ‘gradual reformation’ of our empirical character: Causal laws cannot change and hence cannot be gradually reformed. I propose an alternative Causal Powers interpretation of empirical character, where our empirical character consists of our mind’s (...)
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  19. Kant on Empirical Psychology and Experimentation.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 2707-2714.
  20. Self-Affection and Pure Intuition in Kant.Jonas Jervell Indregard - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (4):627-643.
    Are the pure intuitions of space and time, for Kant, dependent upon the understanding's activity? This paper defends the recently popular Self-Affection Thesis : namely, that the pure intuitions require an activity of self-affection—an influence of the understanding on the inner sense. Two systematic objections to this thesis have been raised: The Independence objection claims that SAT undermines the independence of sensibility; the Compatibility objection claims that certain features of space and time are incompatible with being the products of the (...)
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  21. Kant’s Causal Power Argument Against Empirical Affection.Jonas Jervell Indregard - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):27-51.
    A well-known trilemma faces the interpretation of Kant’s theory of affection, namely whether the objects that affect us are empirical, noumenal, or both. I argue that according to Kant, the things that affect us and cause representations in us are not empirical objects. I articulate what I call the Causal Power Argument, according to which empirical objects cannot affect us because they do not have the right kind of power to cause representations. All the causal powers that empirical objects have (...)
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  22. Kant on the Necessity of Causal Relations.Toni Kannisto - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (4):495-516.
    There are two traditional ways to read Kant's claim that every event necessarily has a cause: the weaker every-event some-cause and the stronger same-cause same-effect causal principles. The focus of the debate about whether and where he subscribes to the SCP has been in the Analogies in the Critique of Pure Reason and in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. By analysing the arguments and conclusions of both the Analogies and the Postulates as well as the two Latin principles non (...)
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  23. Kant on the Laws of Nature: Restrictive Inflationism and Its Philosophical Advantages.James Kreines - 2017 - The Monist 100 (3):326-341.
  24. Kant on Impenetrability, Touch, and the Causal Content of Perception.Colin Marshall - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):1411-1433.
    It is well known that Kant claims that causal judgments, including judgments about forces, must have an a priori basis. It is less well known that Kant claims that we can perceive the repulsive force of bodies through the sense of touch. Together, these claims present an interpretive puzzle, since they appear to commit Kant to both affirming and denying that we can have perceptions of force. My first aim is to show that both sides of the puzzle have deep (...)
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  25. Rehabilitating the Regulative Use of Reason: Kant on Empirical and Chemical Laws.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 54:1-10.
    In his Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Kant asserts that laws of nature “carry with them an expression of necessity”. There is, however, widespread interpretive disagreement regarding the nature and source of the necessity of empirical laws of natural sciences in Kant's system. It is especially unclear how chemistry—a science without a clear, straightforward connection to the a priori principles of the understanding—could contain such genuine, empirical laws. Existing accounts of the necessity of causal laws unfortunately fail to illuminate the possibility (...)
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  26. Who’s Afraid of Double Affection?Nicholas Stang - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    There is substantial textual evidence that Kant held the doctrine of double affection: subjects are causally affected both by things in themselves and by appearances. However, Kant commentators have been loath to attribute this view to him, for the doctrine of double affection is widely thought to face insuperable problems. I begin by explaining what I take to be the most serious problem faced by the doctrine of double affection: appearances cannot cause the very experience in virtue of which they (...)
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  27. Kant's Response to Hume in the Second Analogy.Saniye Vatansever - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago
    This dissertation project aims to solve −what I call− Kant’s “problem of empirical laws,” a problem concerning the coherence of Kant's claims that empirical laws as laws express a kind of necessity, and as empirical judgments they are contingent. In the literature, this issue is framed in the context of Kant’s relation to Hume, and formulated as a question of whether Kant agrees with Hume that empirical laws are mere contingent generalizations. The disagreement on Kant’s conception of empirical laws partly (...)
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  28. Can Kantian Laws Be Broken? Kant on Miracles.Andrew Chignell - 2014 - Res Philosophica 91 (1):103-121.
    In this paper I explore Kant’s critical discussions of the topic of miracles (including the important but neglected fragment from the 1780s called “On Miracles”) in an effort to answer the question in the title. Along the way I discuss some of the different kinds of “laws” in Kant’s system, and also the argument for his claim that, even if empirical miracles do occur, we will never be in a good position to identify instances of them. I conclude with some (...)
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  29. Laws of Nature and Causal Necessity.Michael Friedman - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (4):531-553.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 105 Heft: 4 Seiten: 531-553.
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  30. Forms of Judgment as a Link Between Mind and the Concepts of Substance and Cause.Srećko Kovač - 2014 - In Marek Rosiak & Miroslaw Szatkowski (eds.), Substantiality and Causality. De Gruyter. pp. 51-66.
  31. „ “What is Time?”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2014 - In Aaron Garrett (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Eighteenth Century Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 232-244.
    Time is one of the most enigmatic notions philosophers have ever dealt with. Once subjected to close examination, almost any feature usually ascribed to time, leads to a plethora of fundamental and hard to resolve questions. Just as philosophers of the eighteenth-century attempted to take account of revolutionary developments in the physical sciences in understanding space, life, and a host of other fundamental aspects of nature (see Jones, Gaukroger, and Smith in this volume) they also engaged in fundamental and fruitful (...)
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  32. Causal Powers, Hume’s Early German Critics, and Kant’s Response to Hume.Brian A. Chance - 2013 - Kant-Studien 104 (2):213-236.
    Eric Watkins has argued on philosophical, textual, and historical grounds that Kant’s account of causation in the first Critique should not be read as an attempt to refute Hume’s account of causation. In this paper, I challenge the arguments for Watkins’ claim. Specifically, I argue (1) that Kant’s philosophical commitments, even on Watkins’ reading, are not obvious obstacles to refuting Hume, (2) that textual evidence from the “Disciple of Pure Reason” suggests Kant conceived of his account of causation as such (...)
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  33. Berichte und Diskussionen.Karl Hepfer & Die Form der Erkenntnis - 2013 - Kant-Studien 104 (2):181-214.
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  34. Kant and Kantian Themes in Recent Analytic Philosophy.Robert Howell - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):42-47.
    This article notes six advances in recent analytic Kant research: (1) Strawson's interpretation, which, together with work by Bennett, Sellars, and others, brought renewed attention to Kant through its account of space, time, objects, and the Transcendental Deduction and its sharp criticisms of Kant on causality and idealism; (2) the subsequent investigations of Kantian topics ranging from cognitive science and philosophy of science to mathematics; (3) the detailed work, by a number of scholars, on the Transcendental Deduction; (4) the clearer (...)
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  35. Hegel's Strategy. Hegel's Critique of Kant's Category of Causality.Elisa Magrì - 2013 - Philosophy@Lisbon 3 (2013):95-107.
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  36. Kantian Causality and Quantum Quarks: The Compatibility Between Quantum Mechanics and Kant's Phenomenal World.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (2):283-302.
    Quantum indeterminism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. The Copenhagen interpretation also takes quantum theory as evidence for anti-realism. This article argues that the law of causality, as transcendental, applies only to the world as observable, not to hypothetical objects such as quarks, detectable only by high energy accelerators. Taking Planck’s constant and the speed of light as the lower and upper bounds of observability provides a way of interpreting the observables of quantum mechanics as (...)
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  37. Freedom, Knowledge and Affection: Reply to Hogan.Nicholas Stang - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (1):99-106.
    In a recent paper, Desmond Hogan aims to explain how Kant could have consistently held that noumenal affection is not only compatible with noumenal ignorance but also with the claim that experience requires causal affection of human cognitive agents by things in themselves. Hogan's argument includes the premise that human cognitive agents have empirical knowledge of one another's actions. Hogan's argument fails because the premise that we have empirical knowledge of one another's actions is ambiguous. On one reading, the argument (...)
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  38. Kausalität und Freiheit: Eine Untersuchung des quantenmechanischen Indeterminismus im Lichte der kantischen Freiheitsantinomie.Ingeborg Strohmeyer - 2013 - Kant-Studien 104 (1):63-99.
    : According to Kant, all events in nature are subject to the principle of causality. Nevertheless, free actions are possible, because freedom and the universal law of causality are compatible without contradiction. Quantum mechanics is indeterministic, i.e. it implies a violation of causality. It is shown that: 1) this indeterminism can be understood by means of a continuation of Kant’s transcendental philosophy, as it is, like determinism, just a special type of universal causality, occurring when objects are not completely determined, (...)
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  39. The Second Analogy and the Kantian Answer to Hume: Why “Cause” has to Be an a Priori Concept.Andrea Faggion - 2012 - Revista de Filosofia Aurora 24 (35):61.
    The main goal of Kant’s Second Analogy of Experience was to answer Humean objectionsconcerning the aprioricity of the principle of “every-event-some-cause”. This paper intendsto suggest an interpretation of the Kantian argument that, even though cannot show thatHume should be satisfied with the answer, makes clear Kant’s reasons for that anti-Humeangoal. In the first part of this paper, I intend to discuss summarily Hume’s objection againstthe possibility of a demonstration of the principle “every-event-some-cause” and his thesisconcerning its validity. In the second (...)
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  40. A Superação Hegeliana Do Dualismo Entre Determinismo E Liberdade.Hector Ferreiro - 2012 - In Konrad Utz, Agemir Bavaresco & Paulo R. Konzen (eds.), Sujeito e Liberdade: Investigações a Partir do Idealismo Alemão. Porto Alegre: ediPUCRS. pp. 129-143.
    Kant explicitou, talvez com maior clareza que qualquer outro filósofo antes do que ele, a essência do conflito que implica a relação da causalidade natural e a causalidade livre. Hegel assevera que com o dualismo fenômeno-coisa em si Kant deixa intacta como tal a incompatibilidade entre as noções de causalidade natural e causalidade livre, já que, conserva sua contraposição mesma para simplesmente localizá-la na estrutura do sujeito. Hegel aspira precisamente a fechar o ciclo da metafísica dualista que definiu a filosofia (...)
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  41. Necessity, Responsibility and Character: Schopenhauer on Freedom of the Will.Christopher Janaway - 2012 - Kantian Review 17 (3):431-457.
    This paper gives an account of the argument of Schopenhauer's essay On the Freedom of the Human Will, drawing also on his other works. Schopenhauer argues that all human actions are causally necessitated, as are all other events in empirical nature, hence there is no freedom in the sense of liberum arbitrium indifferentiae. However, our sense of responsibility or agency (being the ) is nonetheless unshakeable. To account for this Schopenhauer invokes the Kantian distinction between empirical and intelligible characters. The (...)
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  42. Kuszenie i wolna wola. O pewnym rozwiązaniu problemu natury relacji między ludzką wolnością a wszechwiedzą Boga.Stanisław Judycki - 2012 - Filo-Sofija 12 (19).
    Temptation and Free Will. A Solution to the Problem of the Relationship Between Human Free Will and God’s Omniscience The article aims to show that none of the today discussed positions concerning the relationship between human free will and God’s omniscience—determinism, compatibilism, molinism and libertarianian revisionism—is an adequate solution and proposes a position to some extent resembling Kant’s solution to his Third Antinomy, where he made the distinction between subject as causa phenomenon and subject as causanoumenon. God possesses not only (...)
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  43. Kann man nichtzeitliche Verursachung verstehen? : Kausalitätstheoretische Anmerkungen zu Kants Freiheitsantinomie.Geert Keil - 2012 - In Mario Brandhorst, Andree Hahmann & Bernd Ludwig (eds.), Sind Wir Bürger Zweier Welten?: Freiheit Und Moralische Verantwortung Im Transzendentalen Idealismus. Meiner. pp. 223-257.
    Die von Kant vorgeschlagene Auflösung der Freiheitsantinomie gehört zu denjenigen Theoriestücken, die auch für den transzendentalen Idealismus aufgeschlossene Philosophen schwer zu verteidigen finden. Dies gilt insbesondere für die Lehre von der nichtzeitlichen Verursachung. Nach dieser Doktrin hebt die »Causalität der Vernunft im intelligibelen Charakter […] nicht zu einer gewissen Zeit an, um eine Wirkung hervorzubringen«. In diesem Beitrag wird nicht Kants Auflösung der Freiheitsantinomie im Mittelpunkt stehen, sondern die Frage, wie das Junktim zwischen Freiheitsrettung und transzendentalem Idealismus allererst motiviert ist. (...)
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  44. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: An Introduction and Interpretation.James R. O'Shea - 2012 - Routledge.
    Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) remains a landmark work of philosophy and one that most students will encounter at some point in their studies. At nearly seven hundred pages of detailed and complex argument it is a demanding and intimidating read. James O’Shea’s introduction to the Critique seeks to make it less so. Aimed primarily at students coming to the book for the first time, it provides step-by-step analysis in clear, unambiguous prose. The conceptual problems Kant sought to (...)
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  45. Kant and Hegel's Responses to Hume's Skepticism Concerning Causality: An Evolutionary Epistemological Perspective.Adam Christian Scarfe - 2012 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 8 (1):227-288.
    According to Hume, determinations of necessary causal connection are without empirical warrant, but, as he maintains, the concept of causality qua necessary connection is indispensable to human beings, having survival value for them, a claim which points to the biological significance of this concept. In contrast to Hume, Kant argues that the causal principle qua necessary connection belongs to the a priori conceptual framework by which rational beings constitute their experience and render the world intelligible. In “Kant’s Doctrine of the (...)
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  46. Traces of Objectivity: Causality and Probabilities in Quantum Physics.Michel Bitbol - 2011 - Diogenes 58 (4):30-57.
    It is pointed out that the probabilistic character of a theory does not indicate by itself a distancing with respect to the norms of objectification. Instead, the very structure of the calculation of probabilities utilised by this theory is capable of bearing the trace of a constitution of objectivity in Kant’s sense. Accordingly, the procedure of the constitution of objectivity is first studied in standard and in quantum cases with due reference to modern cognitive science. Then, an examination of the (...)
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  47. Kant on Causal Knowledge: Causality, Mechanism and Reflective Judgment.Angela Breitenbach - 2011 - In Kenneth Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.), Causation and Modern Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 201-219.
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  48. Kant's Transcendental Deduction and the Ghosts of Descartes and Hume.Corey W. Dyck - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (3):473-496.
    This paper considers how Descartes's and Hume's sceptical challenges were appropriated by Christian Wolff and Johann Nicolaus Tetens specifically in the context of projects related to Kant's in the transcendental deduction. Wolff introduces Descartes's dream hypothesis as an obstacle to his account of the truth of propositions, or logical truth, which he identifies with the 'possibility' of empirical concepts. Tetens explicitly takes Hume's account of our idea of causality to be a challenge to the `reality' of transcendent concepts in general, (...)
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  49. Kants Modell Kausaler Beziehungen. Zu Watkins' Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality.Boris Hennig - 2011 - Kant-Studien 102 (3):367-384.
    Eric Watkins argues that according to Kant, causation is not a relation between two events, but a relation between the “causality” of a substance and an event. It is shown that his arguments are partly based on a confusion between causation and interaction. Further, Watkins claims that for Kant, causes cannot be temporally determined. If this were true, it would follow that there can be no causal chains, and that all factors that determine the time when an effect occurs do (...)
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  50. Kant's Theory of Causation and its Eighteenth-Century German Background.Andrew Chignell & Derk Pereboom - 2010 - Philosophical Review 119 (4):565-591.
    This critical notice highlights the important contributions that Eric Watkins's writings have made to our understanding of theories about causation developed in eighteenth-century German philosophy and by Kant in particular. Watkins provides a convincing argument that central to Kant's theory of causation is the notion of a real ground or causal power that is non-Humean (since it doesn't reduce to regularities or counterfactual dependencies among events or states) and non-Leibnizean because it doesn't reduce to logical or conceptual relations. However, we (...)
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