Kant: Epistemology

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Edited by Nicholas Stang (University of Toronto, St. George Campus, University of Toronto, St. George Campus)
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Summary The question for which Kant is best known -- how are synthetic a priori cognitions possible? -- is an epistemological one, as is his most famous doctrine, that we cannot cognize 'things in themselves' [Dinge an sich selbst].  Consequently, Kant and Kantian ideas have figured prominently in discussion in epistemology, in particular about a priori knowledge.  However, more recently scholars have widened their attention to consider aspects of Kant's epistemology that reflect the wide range of epistemic attitudes studied by contemporary epistemologists: belief, assent, opinion, knowledge by testimony, etc.  The contemporary separation between metaphysics and epistemology as distinct philosophical domains is somewhat alien to Kant; he typically discusses simultaneously what we would now call 'metaphysics' and 'epistemology,' making it difficult to discern how a particular claim is to be taken.  Consequently, Kant's epistemology has traditionally been discussed alongside his views in metaphysics (and philosophy of mind).  Many of the most influential works on Kant's epistemology also treat broader themes in his philosophy, although some more recent scholars have tried to isolate distinctively epistemic issues.
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  1. Intersectionality as a Regulative Ideal.Katherine Gasdaglis & Alex Madva - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    Appeals to intersectionality serve to remind us that social categories like race and gender cannot be adequately understood independently from each other. But what, exactly, is the intersectional thesis a thesis about? Answers to this question are remarkably diverse. Intersectionality is variously understood as a claim about the nature of social kinds, oppression, or experience ; about the limits of antidiscrimination law or identity politics ; or about the importance of fuzzy sets, multifactor analysis, or causal modeling in social science.
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  2. James R. O’Shea (Ed.), Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason: A Critical Guide Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 Pp. 297 ISBN 9781107074811 (Hbk) $99.99. [REVIEW]Andrew Jones - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):317-321.
  3. Replies to the Comments of Paul Guyer and Andrew Chignell.Marcus Willaschek - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):295-311.
  4. The Many Faces of Transcendental Realism: Willaschek on Kant’s Dialectic.Andrew Chignell - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):279-293.
    After providing a brief overview of Marcus Willaschek's Kant on the Sources of Metaphysics, I critically reconstruct his account of ‘transcendental realism’ and the role that it plays in the dramatic narrative of the Critique of Pure Reason. I then lay out in detail how Willaschek generates and evaluates various versions of transcendental realism and raise some concerns about each. Next, I look at precisely how Willaschek's Kant thinks we can avoid applying the ‘supreme’ dialectical principle to the domain of (...)
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  5. Kant’s Innovative Theory of Judgment and Cognition in the False Subtlety of Syllogistic Figures.Mihaela Vatavu - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):527-553.
    Kant’s early work The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures is typically considered a narrow, technical work still embedded in the tradition of Wolffian logic. I argue instead that it needs to be considered in light of Kant’s developing theory of cognition and his corresponding criticism of the Wolffian single faculty theory. Whereas the mature Kant criticizes the rationalists for misrepresenting the nature of sensibility, the urgent task facing him at this stage seems to have been a proper determination (...)
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  6. Kant on the Ends of the Sciences.Thomas Sturm - 2020 - Kant-Studien 111 (1):1-28.
    Kant speaks repeatedly about the relations between ends or aims and scientific research, but the topic has mostly been ignored. What is the role of ends, especially practical ones, in his views on science? I will show that while Kant leaves ample space for recognizing a function of ends both in the definition and the pursuit of inquiry, and in the further practical application of scientific cognition, he does not claim that science is simply an instrument for achieving practical ends. (...)
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  7. Syntheticity and Recent Metaphysical Readings of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason.Simon R. Gurofsky - 2020 - Kant-Studien 111 (1):104-132.
    Metaphysical readings of Kant’s theoretical philosophy in the Critical period are ascendant. But their possibility assumes the possibility of existence- and real-possibility-judgments about things in themselves. I argue that Kant denies the latter possibility, so metaphysical readings have dubious prospects. First, I show that Kant takes existence- and real-possibility-judgments, as necessarily synthetic, to require a relation to sensible intuition. Second, I show that the most promising metaphysical readings can ultimately neither satisfy nor explain away that requirement for existence- and real-possibility-judgments (...)
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  8. Matthias Birrer: Kant und die Heterogenität der Erkenntnisquellen. Berlin/boston: De Gruyter, 2017. 327 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-11-054238-7.Kant und die Heterogenität der Erkenntnisquellen. [REVIEW]Reinhard Hiltscher - 2020 - Kant-Studien 111 (1):139-145.
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  9. Nature at the Limits of Science and Phenomenology.David Suarez - 2020 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 1 (1):109-133.
    Kant and Heidegger argue that our subjectivity escapes scientific explanation, while also providing the conditions that enable it. This understanding of the relationship between subjectivity and science places limits on the explanatory scope of the sciences. But what makes transcendental reflection on the structure of subjectivity possible in the first place? Fink argues that transcendental philosophy encounters its own limits in attempting to characterize its own conditions of possibility. I argue that the limits of science and transcendental philosophy entail that (...)
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  10. Nicholas F. Stang: Kant’s Modal Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2016, 360 Seiten. ISBN 978-0-19-871262-6. Kant’s Modal Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Jannis Pissis - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):676-681.
  11. Robert Hanna: Cognition, Content, and the A Priori. A Study in the Philosophy of Mind and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 464 Seiten. ISBN 978-0-19871629-7.Cognition, Content, and the A Priori. A Study in the Philosophy of Mind and Knowledge. [REVIEW]Reinhard Hiltscher - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):303-307.
  12. Huaping Lu-Adler, Kant and the Science of Logic: A Historical and Philosophical Reconstruction Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018 Pp. 272 ISBN 9780190907136 £47.99. [REVIEW]Hyoung Sung Kim - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (4):663-668.
  13. Kant on Common-Sense and the Unity of Judgments of Taste.Samuel A. Stoner - 2019 - Kant Yearbook 11 (1):81-99.
    Though the notion of common-sense plays an important role in Kant’s aesthetic theory, it is not immediately clear what Kant means by this term. This essay works to clarify the role that common-sense plays in the logic of Kant’s argument. My interpretive hypothesis is that a careful examination of the way common-sense functions in Kant’s account of judgments of taste can help explain what this notion means. I argue that common-sense names the capacity to discern the relation between the cognitive (...)
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  14. Aesthetic Judgment as Parasitic on Cognition.Aaron Halper - 2019 - Kant Yearbook 11 (1):41-59.
    When we judge something to be beautiful, do we identify an inherent feature of the object, or only our subjective response to it? This paper argues that, for Kant, pure aesthetic judgment occupies a middle ground. Such judgments are based upon affective responses to our own cognitive faculties. Thus, pure aesthetic judgment is subjective insofar as it concerns our feeling ourselves to be engaged in a certain task; it is objective insofar as the task we are engaged in is cognition (...)
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  15. Die Zeit der Einbildungskraft - Die Rolle des Schematismus in Kants Erkenntnistheorie.Rainer Schäfer - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (3):437-462.
    In this paper, I focus on Kant’s doctrine of figurative synthesis. Figurative synthesis is the result of the activity of productive transcendental imagination. This is the chief problem of the so-called “second proof step” in Kant’s deduction of the categories according to the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason. The pure original synthetic apperception forms in the inner and outer sense - i. e. in time and space - by self-affection structures of order that make it possible to (...)
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  16. Martin Bunte: Erkenntnis und Funktion. Zur Vollständigkeit der Urteilstafel und Einheit des Kantischen Systems. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2016. [Kantstudien-Ergänzungshefte Band 189]. 399 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-11-048802-9. [REVIEW]Lois M. Rendl - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):308-317.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 2 Seiten: 308-317.
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  17. Robert Hanna: Cognition, Content, and the A Priori. A Study in the Philosophy of Mind and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 464 Seiten. ISBN 978-0-19871629-7.Cognition, Content, and the A Priori. A Study in the Philosophy of Mind and Knowledge. [REVIEW]Reinhard Hiltscher - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):303-307.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 2 Seiten: 303-307.
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  18. R. Lanier Anderson: The Poverty of Conceptual Truth. Kant’s Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. XVIII U. 408 Seiten. ISBN: 978-0-19872457-5. [REVIEW]Michael Pluder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):294-297.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 2 Seiten: 294-297.
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  19. Algunos comentarios sobre las dos ediciones de la ‘Crítica de la Razón Pura’ y su recepción en la fenomenología de Husserl.Stephanie Martinic Caneo - 2019 - Hybris, Revista de Filosofí­A 10 (1):197-216.
    En este artículo me propongo mostrar ciertos aspectos de la filosofía de Kant que podrían haber servido como antecedente a la elaboración de la fenomenología por parte de Husserl. Se toma para este respecto la Deducción de los conceptos puros del entendimiento como sistematización del criticismo kantiano, pero, además, por la controversia que las dos ediciones de la Crítica de la razón pura suscitan en torno a la imaginación en esta sección. Una vez expuesta esta parte de la Crítica en (...)
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  20. Perceptual Experience in Kant and Merleau-Ponty.Peter Antich - 2019 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (3):220-233.
    I argue that the descriptions of perceptual experience offered by Kant and Merleau-Ponty are, contrary to what many commentators suppose, largely compatible. This is because the two are simply referring to different things when they talk about experience: Kant to empirical cognition and Merleau-Ponty to perception. Consequently, while Merleau-Ponty correctly denies that Kant accurately describes the conditions for the possibility of perception, Kant nevertheless provides a plausible account of the conditions of empirical judgment. Further, the two approach experience with different (...)
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  21. Clayton Bohnet, Logic and the Limits of Philosophy in Kant and Hegel Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 Pp. 280 ISBN 9781137521743 $95.00. [REVIEW]Paul T. Wilford - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):507-510.
  22. Reply to Sorin Baiasu and Edward Kanterian.A. W. Moore - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):495-506.
  23. Is Kant’s Metaphysics Profoundly Unsatisfactory? Critical Discussion of A. W. Moore’s Critique of Kant.Sorin Baiasu - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):465-481.
  24. Kant on de Se.Luca Forgione - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlino, Germania: De Gruyter. pp. 3779-3786.
    Since the classic works by Castañeda, Perry and Lewis, de se thoughts have been described as thoughts about oneself ‘as oneself’. In recent years, various theoretical perspectives have gained ground, and even if the transcendental system does not seem to contemplate an explicit articulation of de se thoughts, apparently a few features of transcendental apperception and I think do anticipate a few points in Perry and Recanati’s claims on the so-called implicit de se thoughts in the specific terms of Transcendentalism.
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  25. Yirmiyahu Yovel, Kant’s Philosophical Revolution: A Short Guide to the Critique of Pure Reason Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018 Pp. X + 128 ISBN 9780681180526. [REVIEW]J. Colin McQuillan - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):166-168.
  26. Lucy Allais, Manifest Reality: Kant’s Idealism and His Realism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015 Pp. Xi + 320 ISBN 9780198747130. [REVIEW]Michael Oberst - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):157-161.
  27. Oliver Thorndike, Kant’s Transition Project and Late Philosophy: Connecting the Opus Postumum and Metaphysics of Morals London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018 Pp. Xviii + 258 ISBN 9781350050303. [REVIEW]Bryan Hall - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):161-165.
  28. Chris Firestone, Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2009, Pp. 194 + X, Hbk, ISBN: 978-0-7546-6130-6; £65. [REVIEW]Lawrence Pasternack - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):495-498.
  29. Kant, Fichte, and the Legacy of Transcendental Idealism. Hrsg. Von Halla Kim Und Steven Hoeltzel. Lanham/Boulder/New York/London: Lexington Books, 2015. 244 Seiten. ISBN 978-0-739-18235-2.Kant, Fichte, and the Legacy of Transcendental Idealism. [REVIEW]Gualtiero Lorini - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (2):356-361.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 2 Seiten: 356-361.
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  30. Kants Begriff der Vernunft.Esther Marx - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (1):1-48.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-48.
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  31. Zhengmi Zhouhuang: Der sensus communis bei Kant. Zwischen Erkenntnis, Moralität und Schönheit. Kantstudien-Ergänzungshefte 187. Berlin/boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2016. IX, 132 Seiten. ISBN: 978-3-11-045017-0.Der sensus communis bei Kant. Zwischen Erkenntnis, Moralität und Schönheit. Kantstudien-Ergänzungshefte 187. 2016. IX, 132 Seiten. ISBN: 978-3-11-04. [REVIEW]Michael Pluder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (1):182-185.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 110 Heft: 1 Seiten: 182-185.
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  32. Reinholds linguistischer Schematismus.Sven Bernecker - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Nature and Freedom: Proceedings of the 12th International Kant Congress. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter. pp. 3369-3377.
    In diesem Aufsatz stelle ich eine neue Interpretation der Reinhold’schen Sprachphilosophie vor. Mein Ziel ist es zu erklären, wie Reinhold der Meinung sein konnte, seine Sprachphilosophie stelle, ebenso wie seine Elementarphilosophie, den Versuch dar, Kants Kritische Philosophie zu fundieren. Außerdem möchte ich zeigen, worin die philosophische Bedeutung von Reinholds Ansatz gegenüber den Sprachphilosophien seiner Zeitgenossen besteht.
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  33. Sind die regulativen Ideen ein doktrinaler Glaube?Gabriele Gava - 2018 - In Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlino, Germania: pp. 1207–1216.
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  34. Kant, Wolff and the Method of Philosophy.Gabriele Gava - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 8:271-303.
    Both in his pre-critical writings and in his critical works, Kant criticizes the Wolffian tradition for its use of the mathematical method in philosophy. The chapter argues that the apparent unambiguousness of this opposition between Kant and Wolff notwithstanding, the problem of ascertaining the relationship between Kant’s and Wolff’s methods in philosophy cannot be dismissed so quickly. Only a close consideration of Kant’s different remarks on Wolff’s approach and a comparison of the methods that Wolff and Kant actually used in (...)
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  35. Kant and the Problem of Self-Knowledge.Luca Forgione - 2018 - New York, Stati Uniti: Routledge.
    This book addresses the problem of self-knowledge in Kant’s philosophy. As Kant writes in his major works of the critical period, it is due to the simple and empty representation ‘I think’ that the subject’s capacity for self-consciousness enables the subject to represent its own mental dimension. This book articulates Kant’s theory of self-knowledge on the basis of the following three philosophical problems: 1) a semantic problem regarding the type of reference of the representation ‘I’; 2) an epistemic problem regarding (...)
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  36. Subjekt Und Erfahrung. Grundlagen Und Implikationen von Husserls Kritik an der Transzendentalen Methode Kants.Vittorio De Palma - 2016 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 8 (2):304-325.
    The paper analyses Husserl’s critique of Kant’s regressive transcendental method while trying to show that at the basis of it is an opposite conception of the conditions of possibility of experience: whereas for Kant experience is structured by the subject through intellectual forms, for Husserl it has a structure before the intervention of the subject. Therefore–contrary to Iso Kern’s opinion–the contrast between Kant and Husserl cannot be traced back to mere methodical divergences.
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  37. Subjectivity as the Foundation for Objectivity in Kant and Husserl: On Two Types of Transcendental Idealism.Christian Krijnen - 2016 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 8 (2):280-303.
    The idea that subjectivity makes up the foundation or source of all objectivity applies to all transcendental idealists. Nevertheless, Husserl conceives of this relationship between subjectivity and objectivity in a radically different fashion than Kant. Husserl’s conception leads to a primacy of the noetic dimension of sense at the expense of the noematic dimension. In order to render this explicit, not only a closer look at Kant’s transcendental deduction is illuminating but also taking into account neo-Kantianism. In contrast to Husserl, (...)
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  38. Ist Eine Synthesis a Priori Noch Möglich? Zur Heutigen Bedeutung der Lehren Kants Und Husserls von der Transzendentalen Synthesis.Andrei Patkul - 2016 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 8 (2):371-395.
    Basing on the Michel Foucault’s description of the philosophical modernity given by him in his famous book Words and Things, I found that there is the compliance between the beginning of the Modern philosophy and the Kant’s discovery of the a priori synthesis. It is also well known that Husserl uses the term “synthesis” in his phenomenology. Thus, the Husserl’s phenomenology could belong to the same branch of philosophy as the Kant’s philosophy. To verify this hypothesis, I analyze the views (...)
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  39. Kant and Husserl on Bringing Perception to Judgment.Corijn Van Mazijk - 2016 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 8 (2):419-441.
    There is today much debate about the contents of perceptual experience relative to our capacity to make them figure in judgments. There is considerably less interest, however, in how we subsume perceptual contents in judgments, that is, what judging about a perception is like for us. For Kant and Husserl, this second question is as important as the first. Whereas Kant tries to answer it in the schematism section of the first Critique, Husserl addresses it at length in Experience and (...)
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  40. On Wayne Waxman's Kant's Anatomy of the Intelligent Mind. [REVIEW]John J. Callanan - 2018 - Critique 2018.
    Longer review of Waxman's recent book, Kant's Anatomy of the Intelligent Mind.
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  41. Husserl’s Criticism of Kant's Transcendental Idealism: A Clarification of Phenomenological Idealism.Dominique Pradelle - 2015 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 4 (2):25-53.
  42. The Preface to the Translation of K. Kaehler’s Article “Consciousness and its Phenomena: Leibniz, Kant, Husserl”.A. Patkul & O. Bashkina - 2014 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 3 (1):165-170.
  43. Husserl’s Covert Critique of Kant in the Sixth Book of Logical Investigations.Corijn van Mazijk - 2019 - Continental Philosophy Review 52 (1):15-33.
    In the final book of Logical Investigations from 1901, Husserl develops a theory of knowledge based on the intentional structure of consciousness. While there is some textual evidence that Husserl considered this to entail a critique of Kantian philosophy, he did not elaborate substantially on this. This paper reconstructs the covert critique of Kant’s theory of knowledge which LI contains. With respect to Kant, I discuss three core aspects of his theory of knowledge which, as Husserl’s reflections on Kant indicate, (...)
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  44. Kant’s Response to Hume in the Second Analogy: A Critique of Gerd Buchdahl’s and Michael Friedman’s Accounts.Saniye Vatansever - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (2):310–346.
    This article presents a critical analysis of two influential readings of Kant’s Second Analogy, namely, Gerd Buchdahl’s “modest reading” and Michael Friedman’s “strong reading.” After pointing out the textual and philosophical problems with each, I advance an alternative reading of the Second Analogy argument. On my reading, the Second Analogy argument proves the existence of necessary and strictly universal causal laws. This, however, does not guarantee that Kant has a solution for the problem of induction. After I explain why the (...)
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  45. Konstantin Pollok, Kant’s Theory of Normativity Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 Pp. Xvi +350 ISBN 9781107127807 $99.99. [REVIEW]Huaping Lu-Adler - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):513-521.
  46. On the Significance of the Copernican Revolution: Transcendental Philosophy and the Object of Metaphysics.Michael J. Olson - 2018 - Con-Textos Kantianos 7:89-127.
    This paper argues that the famous passage that compares Kant’s efforts to reform metaphysics with his transcendental idealism to the earlier Copernican revolution in astronomy has a more systematic significance than many recognize. By examining the totality of Kant’s references to Copernicus, one can see that Kant’s analogy points to more than just a similar reversal of perspective. By situating Kant’s comments about Copernicus in relation to his understanding of the logic implicit in the great revolutions in mathematics and natural (...)
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  47. Schelling's Method of Darstellung: Presenting Nature Through Experiment.Jelscha Schmid - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 69:12-22.
    Philosophies after Kant maybe more than ever, were confronted with a particular epistemic problem: how can representations correspond with the objects they refer to, that is, how is knowledge possible? Against Kant’s negative solution of the problem, proponents of German idealisms sought to establish a philosophical method that would close the gulf between what our concepts and the world they try to grasp. In his writings on a philosophy of nature, the young Schelling put forward methodological solution, which in interesting (...)
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  48. Kant's Critique of Metaphysics.Damian Ilodigwe - 2015 - WAJOPS West African Journal of Philosophical Studies 17:130-154.
    Kant’s criticism of Metaphysics is informed by his reception of Hume’s skepticism. While the claims of the synthetic a priori, for Kant, constitute a transcendental refutation of Hume’s skepticism, Kant remains in fundamental sympathy with Hume’s empiricism. On the one hand he invokes the synthetic a priori in limiting the unbridled empiricism that conflates the distinction between sources of knowledge and origin of knowledge. On the other hand he also underscores the inherent limitation of human knowledge as legislated by the (...)
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  49. Deduction Difficulties – ADDENDUM.Robert Howell - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (2):347-347.
  50. How to Solve the Knowability Paradox with Transcendental Epistemology.Andrew Stephenson - forthcoming - Synthese:1-26.
    A novel solution to the knowability paradox is proposed based on Kant’s transcendental epistemology. The ‘paradox’ refers to a simple argument from the moderate claim that all truths are knowable to the extreme claim that all truths are known. It is significant because anti-realists have wanted to maintain knowability but reject omniscience. The core of the proposed solution is to concede realism about epistemic statements while maintaining anti-realism about non-epistemic statements. Transcendental epistemology supports such a view by providing for a (...)
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