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  1. Ethics Beyond the Borders of Philosophy: Karl Barth's Theological Complement to Kantian Ethics.Immanuel Kant - forthcoming - Ethics.
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  2. Ist Die Lehrbarkeit der Tugend Vereinbar MIT Kant’s Theorie der Willensfreiheit?Markus Kohl - forthcoming - In Bernd Dörflinger & Heiner F. Klemme (eds.), Kant als Tugendethiker? Studien und Materialien zur Geschichte der Philosophie. Hildesheim: Olms Verlag.
    In the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant declares that virtue “can and must be taught.” This claim raises two problems. First, it is in tension with Kant’s emphasis on the absolute moral responsibility that each individual agent owes to her transcendental freedom. Second, it raises the question of how the empirical events that constitute moral education can have an impact on atemporal moral choices. Concerning the second issue, I argue that Kant has a coherent framework for representing how empirical conditions can (...)
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  3. For Community's Sake: A (Self-Respecting) Kantian Account of Forgiveness.Kate A. Moran - forthcoming - Proceedings of the XI International Kant-Kongress.
    This paper sketches a Kantian account of forgiveness and argues that it is distinguished by three features. First, Kantian forgiveness is best understood as the revision of the actions one takes toward an offender, rather than a change of feeling toward an offender. Second, Kant’s claim that forgiveness is a duty of virtue tells us that we have two reasons to sometimes be forgiving: forgiveness promotes both our own moral perfection and the happiness of our moral community. Third, we have (...)
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  4. Review: Cohen, The Heart as Locus of Moral Struggle in Religion.Pablo Muchnik - forthcoming - Palgrave McMillan.
    This paper explores a usually neglected notion in Kant’s account of moral fall and regeneration in Religion: the notion of “heart” (Herz). This notion belongs to a constellation of concepts that Kant develops for the purposes of moral imputation and the attribution of responsibility. The other chief components of Kant’s conceptual framework are “propensity” (Hang), “character” (Charakter), and “disposition” (Gesinnung). Although interpreters have tended to use these notions interchangeably, understanding their proper meaning, function, and scope in Kantian ethics is essential (...)
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  5. Berichte und diskussionen, Kants Beweis des Kausalgesetzes.Kiel von Walter Brocker - forthcoming - Kant-Studien.
  6. Kant's Theory of Conscience.Samuel Kahn - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Compared to other aspects of Kant’s practical philosophy, Kant’s theory of conscience remains relatively unexplored in the secondary literature on his work. This is no doubt due, at least in part, to the fact that in the Groundwork to a Metaphysics of Morals (henceforth: Groundwork) and the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant's two most widely read works on ethics, conscience plays very little role. However, Kant has extended discussions of conscience in three of his lesser read works: On the Miscarriage (...)
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  7. Nature, Corruption, and Freedom: Stoic Ethics in Kant's Religion.Melissa Merritt - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):3-24.
    Kant’s account of “the radical evil in human nature” in the 1793 Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone is typically interpreted as a reworking of the Augustinian doctrine of original sin. But Kant doesn’t talk about Augustine explicitly there, and if he is rehabilitating the doctrine of original sin, the result is not obviously Augustinian. Instead Kant talks about Stoic ethics in a pair of passages on either end of his account of radical evil, and leaves other clues that (...)
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  8. Kant's Justification of Ethics.Owen Ware - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Kant’s arguments for the reality of human freedom and the normativity of the moral law continue to inspire work in contemporary moral philosophy. Many prominent ethicists invoke Kant, directly or indirectly, in their efforts to derive the authority of moral requirements from a more basic conception of action, agency, or rationality. But many commentators have detected a deep rift between the _Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals_ and the _Critique of Practical Reason_, leaving Kant’s project of justification exposed to conflicting (...)
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  9. Kant y el incesto.Jassir Enrique Hernández Castilla - 2020 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (11):8-36.
    Intentar explicar el origen, evolución y violación de un tabú considerado casi universal en las sociedades humanas no es una empresa sencilla dado su carácter polifacético; sin embargo, ello no ha impedido que en muchos ordenamientos jurídicos sea empleado ese sentimiento de repulsión o asco como un elemento para criminalizar una relación sexual aparentemente ofensiva. El artículo sostiene que el matrimonio es la única forma en que las prácticas sexuales entre parientes en condición de igualdad pueden tener lugar. Para ello: (...)
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  10. Fellow Creatures: Our Obligations to the Other Animals, by Christine M. Korsgaard.Andrew Chignell - 2020 - Mind.
    A review of "Fellow Creatures: Our Obligations to the Other Animals," by Christine M. Korsgaard. New York: Oxford, 2018. Pp. 271.
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  11. Fellow Creatures, by Christine Korsgaard. Oxford University Press, 2018. ISBN 0198753853. 272 Pp. $24.95. [REVIEW]Colin McLear - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):258-262.
  12. Kant on the Role of Religion for Moral Progress.Eva Buddeberg - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (3):335-357.
    This article examines Kant’s understanding of moral progress, especially in his Religion where he argues that religion and, more importantly, the foundation of an ethical community are necessary to promote moral progress. However, it is less the identification of any factual moral progress but rather the idea of moral progress as an action guiding principle that Kant identifies as central. The conclusion shows how Kant’s insights are in accordance with the argument that we should not look for comprehensive moral progress (...)
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  13. On Virtues of Love and Wide Ethical Duties.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (3):415-437.
    In this article I argue that understanding the role that the virtues of love play in Kant’s ethical theory requires understanding not only the nature of the virtues themselves, but also the unique nature of wide Kantian duties. I begin by making the case that while the Doctrine of Virtue supports attributing an affective component to the virtues of love, we are right to resist attributing anaffective success conditionto these virtues. I then distinguish wide duties from negative and narrow duties (...)
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  14. Revisiting the Maxim-Law Dynamic in the Light of Kant’s Theory of Action.V. K. Radhakrishnan - 2019 - Kantian Journal 38 (2):45-72.
    A stable classification of practical principles into mutually exclusive types is foundational to Kant’s moral theory. Yet, other than a few brief hints on the distinction between maxims and laws, he does not provide any elaborate discussion on the classification and the types of practical principles in his works. This has led Onora O’Neill and Lewis Beck to reinterpret Kant’s classification of practical principles in a way that would clarify the conceptual connection between maxims and laws. In this paper I (...)
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  15. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.Robert Stern, Christopher Bennett & Joe Saunders (eds.) - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Immanuel Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals ranks alongside Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics as one of the most profound and influential works in moral philosophy ever written.
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  16. Kant and Feder on the Will, Happiness, and the Aim of Moral Philosophy.Stefano Bacin - 2018 - In Corey W. Dyck & Falk Wunderlich (eds.), Kant and His German Contemporaries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 232-249.
    The contrast between Kant’s moral philosophy and Feder’s is not less crucial than the controversy caused by the Göttingen review of the first Critique. One of main targets of Kant’s moral philosophy was Feder’s view, which can be regarded as Kant's main competitor in the contemporary debate. I thus argue that the background provided by the conflict with Feder shows significant distinctive traits of Kant's view, with regard to three fundamental issues. First, I examine how the project of a pure (...)
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  17. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (1):131-145.
    In this essay, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  18. Reasonable Hope in Kant’s Ethics.Adam Cureton - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (2):181-203.
    The most apparent obstacles to a just, enlightened and peaceful social world are also, according to Kant, nature’s way of compelling us to realize those and other morally good ends. Echoing Adam Smith’s idea of the ‘invisible hand’, Kant thinks that selfishness, rivalry, quarrelsomeness, vanity, jealousy and self-conceit, along with the oppressive social inequalities they tend to produce, drive us to perfect our talents, develop culture, approach enlightenment and, through the strife and instability caused by our unsocial sociability, push us (...)
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  19. Niebo gwiaździste nad Królewcem a prawo moralne. Dyskusja Gadamera z estetyką Kanta wokół kwestii doświadczenia piękna i jego odniesienia do etyki.Paweł Dybel - 2018 - Diametros 55:112-131.
    In the article, I engage with H.G.Gadamer’s reading of Kant’s aesthetic theory. Gadamer accused Kant of subjectivizing the aesthetic experience so that it would be reduced to the free play of the cognitive faculties of the subject. Consequently, the ethical dimension of aesthetic experience that played such an important role in the preceding tradition of European humanism has been lost. Yet, this charge of Gadamer is not quite right. The connection between the experience of beauty and ethics has been maintained (...)
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  20. Making Kant's Empirical Realism Possible.Simon Gurofsky - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Chicago
    Famously, Kant is a transcendental idealist. Yet he also endorses empirical realism, and even boasts that only the transcendental idealist can be an empirical realist. The difficulty of making sense of those commitments together leads many interpreters to begin by attributing to Kant some variant of conventional, subjective idealism. That in turn requires that Kant's empirical realism be at best a merely ersatz or quasi-realism. But that drains Kant's boast of its significance. For any idealist can be a realist if (...)
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  21. KANT E A VONTADE: um percurso pela Fundamentação da metafísica dos costumes.Lindoaldo Vieira Campos Júnior - 2018 - Trilhas Filosóficas 11 (2):51-60.
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  22. Kant’s Debt to Baumgarten in His Religious (Un‐)Grounding of Ethics.Toshiro Osawa - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):105-123.
    Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s ethics had a significant influence on the formation of Kant’s ethics. The extent of this influence, however, has not been sufficiently investigated by existing Kant scholarship. Filling this gap, this paper aims to reveal Baumgarten’s substantial influence on the formation of Kant’s ethics, particularly the complex ways in which Kant’s ethics retains the concept of God as crucial for ensuring that his ethics persist under the scrutiny of reason. In a systematic comparison of the ethics of the (...)
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  23. Kant und der praktische Syllogismus.Michael Wolff - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (3):419-446.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 3 Seiten: 419-446.
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  24. Kant and His German Contemporaries : Volume 1, Logic, Mind, Epistemology, Science and Ethics.Corey W. Dyck & Falk Wunderlich (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of new essays, the first of its kind in English, considers the ways in which the philosophy of Immanuel Kant engages with the views of lesser-known eighteenth-century German thinkers. Each chapter casts new light on aspects of Kant's complex relationship with these figures, particularly with respect to key aspects of his logic, metaphysics, epistemology, theory of science, and ethics. The portrait of Kant that emerges is of a major thinker thoroughly engaged with his contemporaries - drawing on their (...)
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  25. Dutifully Wishing: Kant’s Re-Evaluation of a Strange Species of Desire.Alexander T. Englert - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (3):373-394.
    Kant uses ‘wish’ as a technical term to denote a strange species of desire. It is an instance in which someone wills an object that she simultaneously knows she cannot bring about. Or in more Kantian garb: it is an instance of the faculty of desire’s (or will’s) failing insofar as a desire (representation) cannot be the cause of the realization of its corresponding object in reality. As a result, Kant originally maintained it to be antithetical to morality, which deals (...)
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  26. Love’s Enlightenment: Rethinking Charity in Modernity.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    A number of prominent moral philosophers and political theorists have recently called for a recovery of love. But what do we mean when we speak of love today? Love's Enlightenment examines four key conceptions of other-directedness that transformed the meaning of love and helped to shape the way we understand love today: Hume's theory of humanity, Rousseau's theory of pity, Smith's theory of sympathy, and Kant's theory of love. It argues that these four Enlightenment theories are united by a shared (...)
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  27. Radical Evil As A Regulative Idea.Markus Kohl - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (4):641-673.
    Kant's doctrine of the radical evil in human nature invites at least two serious worries: first, it is unclear how Kant could establish the claim that all human beings adopt an evil maxim; second, this claim seems to conflict with central features of Kant's doctrine of freedom. I argue, via criticisms of various charitable interpretations, that these problems are indeed insuperable if we read Kant as trying to establish that all human beings are evil as a matter of fact. I (...)
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  28. Pretending Peace: Provisional Political Trust and Sincerity in Kant and Améry.Marguerite La Caze - 2017 - In Sorin Baiasu & Sylvie Loriaux (eds.), Sincerity in Politics and International Relations. London: Routledge. pp. 156-72.
    Kant suggests in The Metaphysics of Morals that we may sometimes say something untrue or insincere since others are free to interpret our statements as they wish. (1996, 6:238) Yet he also argues that even in conflict situations we should be truthful so as to not eliminate trust and to make it possible for a rightful condition to arise. My paper considers the conditions Kant believes essential to maintain basic trust so that in better times peace is possible. It also (...)
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  29. Art and Ethics in a Material World: Kant's Pragmatist Legacy. [REVIEW]Samantha Matherne - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (266):189-192.
  30. Alokacyjne konsekwencje wprowadzenia prywatnych dodatkowych/równoległych ubezpieczeń zdrowotnych w społeczeństwach kierujących się egoizmem, altruizmem lub zawiścią – perspektywa ekonomiczna.Christoph Sowada - 2017 - Diametros 51:90-112.
    Assessing the implementation of various instruments and solutions in a healthcare system, we cannot limit ourselves to examining their impact on the fulfillment of the criteria of justice and equity alone. Another important social objective is to maximize social welfare under the conditions of the scarcity of resources. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact on social welfare of the implementation of private insurance into the existing system of public security, with a view to the following factors: (...)
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  31. Hutcheson and Kant: Moral Sense and Moral Feeling.Michael Walschots - 2017 - In Chris W. Surprenant & Elizabeth Robinson (eds.), Kant and the Scottish Enlightenment. London: Routledge. pp. 36-54.
    My aim in this paper is to discuss Kant’s engagement with what is arguably the core feature of Hutcheson’s moral sense theory, namely the idea that the moral sense is the foundation of moral judgement. In section one I give an account of Hutcheson’s conception of the moral sense. This sense is a perceptive faculty that explains our ability both to feel a particular kind of pleasure upon perceiving benevolence, and to appraise such benevolence as morally good on the basis (...)
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  32. Fichte on Conscience.Owen Ware - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (2):376-394.
    There is no question that Fichte's theory of conscience is central to his system of ethics. Yet his descriptions of its role in practical deliberation appear inconsistent, if not contradictory. Many scholars have claimed that for Fichte conscience plays a material role by providing the content of our moral obligations—the Material Function View. Some have denied this, however, claiming that conscience only plays a formal role by testing our moral convictions in any given case—the Formal Function View. My aim in (...)
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  33. Kant's Theory of Motivation: A Hybrid Approach.Benjamin S. Yost - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (2):293-319.
    To vindicate morality against skeptical doubts, Kant must show that agents can be moved to act independently of their sensible desires. Kant must therefore answer a motivational question: how does an agent get from the cognition that she ought to act morally to acting morally? Affectivist interpretations of Kant hold that agents are moved to act by feelings, while intellectualists appeal to cognition alone. To overcome the significant shortcomings of each view, I develop a hybrid theory of motivation. My central (...)
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  34. ‘Only One Obligation’: Kant on the Distinction and the Normative Continuity of Ethics and Right.Stefano Bacin - 2016 - Studi Kantiani 29:77-90.
    I suggest that looking at how Kant’s arguments relate to the stand of the discussion on the relationship between right and ethics in his times contributes to a better understanding of his own position in this matter. I contrast the terms of the pre-Kantian debate with Kant’s take on the matter, in order to point out how Kant gains a new perspective concerning the rela- tionship between ethics and right. While the most prominent pre-Kantian view construed right and ethics as (...)
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  35. Kant’s Moderate Cynicism and the Harmony Between Virtue and Worldly Happiness.David Forman - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (1):75-109.
    For Kant, any authentic moral demands are wholly distinct from the demands of prudence. This has led critics to complain that Kantian moral demands are incompatible with our human nature as happiness-seekers. Kant’s defenders have pointed out, correctly, that Kant can and does assert that it is permissible, at least in principle, to pursue our own happiness. But this response does not eliminate the worry that a life organized around the pursuit of virtue might turn out to be one from (...)
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  36. Momente der Freiheit.Ina Goy - 2016 - Kant-Studien Ergänzungshefte 193:149-174.
    Among the most important controversies about the form and content of the table of the categories of freedom are the questions, first, what the table of the categories of freedom is about; second, if the categories of freedom have moral content or if they can be morally indifferent; and third, if the categories of freedom are a priori unconditioned or a posteriori conditioned concepts. I will argue, first, that the categories of freedom thematize particular aspects of determining grounds of human (...)
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  37. Heraclitean Critique of Kantian and Enlightenment Ethics Through the Fijian Ethos.Erman Kaplama - 2016 - Cosmos and History 12 (1):143-165.
    Kant makes a much-unexpected confession in a much-unexpected place. In the Criticism of the third paralogism of transcendental psychology of the first Critique Kant accepts the irrefutability of the Heraclitean notion of universal becoming or the transitory nature of all things, admitting the impossibility of positing a totally persistent and self-conscious subject. The major Heraclitean doctrine of panta rhei makes it impossible to conduct philosophical inquiry by assuming a self-conscious subject or “I,” which would potentially be in constant motion like (...)
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  38. Coleridge, Erasmus Darwin, and the Naturalizing of Deceit in *Christabel*, Review of English Studies, (2016), 67 (279), Pp. 316-333.Peter Knox-Shaw - 2016 - Review of English Studies 67 (279):316-333.
    Erasmus Darwin gave the first comprehensive account of biological mimicry, a phenomenon which he boldly attributed to the instinct for self-preservation in both the plant and animal kingdoms, and ascribed histologically to an involuntary mode of imitation. Coleridge's interest in his idea of physical adaptation can be traced back to 'The Eolian Harp' but becomes central in *Christabel* where it provides, through the vehicle of Bracy's dream, a unifying metaphor for Geraldine's successful strategy of passing herself off for what she (...)
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  39. Much Obliged: Kantian Gratitude Reconsidered.Kate Moran - 2016 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 98 (3):330-363.
    In his published texts and lectures on moral philosophy, Kant repeatedly singles out gratitude for discussion. Nevertheless, puzzles about the derivation, content, and nature of this duty remain. This paper seeks to solve some of these puzzles. Centrally, I argue that it is essential to attend to a distinction that Kant makes between well-wishing benevolence (Wohlwollen) and active beneficence (Wohlthun) on the part of a benefactor. On the Kantian account, I argue, a different type of gratitude is owed in response (...)
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  40. Schizophrenia and Moral Responsibility: A Kantian Essay.Matthé Scholten - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (1):205-225.
    In this paper, I give a Kantian answer to the question whether and why it would be inappropriate to blame people suffering from mental disorders that fall within the schizophrenia spectrum. I answer this question by reconstructing Kant’s account of mental disorder, in particular his explanation of psychotic symptoms. Kant explains these symptoms in terms of various types of cognitive impairment. I show that this explanation is plausible and discuss Kant’s claim that the unifying feature of the symptoms is the (...)
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  41. Kant's Lectures on Ethics: A Critical Guide. [REVIEW]Michael Walschots - 2016 - Studi Kantiani 29:209-213.
    Book Review of: Lara Denis and Oliver Sensen (Eds.). Kant’s Lectures on Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
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  42. What Should I Do?Julian Wuerth - 2016 - Routledge.
    Of all his contributions to philosophy it is perhaps Kant's writings on ethics that are the most widely read. Kant himself posed the famous question: What should I do? In this engaging and lucid book Julian Wuerth explores the question that frames Kant's moral philosophy and places it in a contemporary context, offering a stimulating and direct path into Kant's moral thought. He opens with a helpful introduction to the main traditions in ethics prior to Kant before outlining Kant’s theory (...)
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  43. Kant’s Lectures on Ethics and Baumgarten’s Moral Philosophy.Stefano Bacin - 2015 - In Lara Denis & Oliver Sensen (eds.), Kant's Lectures on Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15-33.
    The chapter shows how Kant’s ethical thought as reflected in the lectures, responds to Baumgarten’s works on moral philosophy. I argue that Kant chose Baumgarten’s textbooks for his classes for genuinely philosophical reasons. The thorough discussion of Baumgarten’s views provided Kant with important clues for developing an original position, even if mostly in opposition to Baumgarten. I illustrate this complex role of Baumgarten with a few significant examples, that also highlight some original aspects of Baumgarten’s position in comparison to Wolff’s: (...)
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  44. Review: Johnson, Robert N., Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics[REVIEW]Anne Margaret Baxley - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (1):133-137.
    Book Reviews Anne Margaret Baxley, Kantian Review, FirstView Article.
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  45. Kant's Lectures on Ethics: A Critical Guide.Lara Denis & Oliver Sensen (eds.) - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first book devoted to an examination of Kant's lectures on ethics, which provide a unique and revealing perspective on the development of his views. In fifteen newly commissioned essays, leading Kant scholars discuss four sets of student notes reflecting different periods of Kant's career: those taken by Herder, Collins, Mrongovius and Vigilantius. The essays cover a diverse range of topics, from the relation between Kant's lectures and the Baumgarten textbooks, to obligation, virtue, love, the highest good, freedom, (...)
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  46. Fichtean Kantianism in Nineteenth Century Ethics.Michelle Kosch - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (1):111-132.
  47. The Ethical Context of Either/Or.Michelle Kosch - 2015 - Konturen 7.
    In an earlier paper I argued that J.G. Fichte (rather than Kant or Hegel or some amalgam) was the primary historical model for the ethical standpoint described in Kierkegaard’s Either/Or II . There I offered a list of reasons for thinking that Hegel was less important than some believed and that Kierkegaard addressed Kantianism largely in its Fichtean form. In the interim I have discovered another reason to add to that list: as it happens, there was a quite general consensus (...)
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  48. Das Proposições Práticas da Crítica da Razão Prática Pura: Uma Análise dos Conceitos Norteadores da Ética Kantiana.Filicio Mulinari - 2015 - Clareira: Revista de Filosofia da Região Amazônica 2 (2):85-98.
    Muitos filósofos fizeram referência à teoria ética proposta por Immanuel Kant em sua obra Crítica da Razão Pura, ora tomando-a como fundamento para desenvolvimento de teorias éticas contemporâneas, ora tomando-a como alvo de crítica pós-moderna. Contudo, apesar da grande repercussão da obra kantiana, deve-se salientar não é incomum encontrar leituras errôneas e comentários equivocados sobre as teses de Kant. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo almeja apresentar e esclarecer os principais conceitos da primeira parte da Analítica da Razão Prática Pura da (...)
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  49. Kant on the Independence of the Moral Law From Sensibility.Laura Papish - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (1):77-98.
    There are several senses in which Kant’s moral law is independent of sensibility. This paper is devoted mainly to Kant’s account of ‘physical conditions independence’, or the idea that the moral law can compel us to pursue ends that might be impossible to realize empirically. Since this idea has gotten little attention from commentators, this paper addresses both its textual basis in Kant’s writings and its overall philosophical viability.
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  50. Naturalism and Realism in Kant's Ethics.Frederick Rauscher - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this comprehensive assessment of Kant's metaethics, Frederick Rauscher shows that Kant is a moral idealist rather than a moral realist and argues that Kant's ethics does not require metaphysical commitments that go beyond nature. Rauscher frames the argument in the context of Kant's non-naturalistic philosophical method and the character of practical reason as action-oriented. Reason operates entirely within nature, and apparently non-natural claims - God, free choice, and value - are shown to be heuristic and to reflect reason's ordering (...)
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