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Summary There are three fundamental questions guiding Kant's ethics: (1) What is the supreme principle of morality? (2) What makes this principle binding? and (3) What duties arise from it? In answering the first question, Kant seeks to derive a principle of morality from the universal form we are capable of giving our maxims, whereby we exercise our power of self-legislation or what Kant calls ‘autonomy’. In answering the second question, Kant seeks to justify the principle of autonomy as a presupposition of rational agency and as a ‘fact’ illustrated in common moral thought, judgment, and feeling. In answering the third question, Kant offers a system of duties, both self-regarding and other-regarding. While commentators disagree over its ultimate success, Kant’s ethics presents us with one of the most systematic accounts of morality, autonomy, and agency in the history of moral thought, and it continues to have a lasting influence on contemporary ethics.
Key works The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 2011) is Kant’s first book devoted to ethics, although he worked on similar issues much earlier. Other key works include the Critique of Practical Reason (Kant 1997) and the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant 1996). Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Kant 1996), while guided by historical and theological questions, also contains insights relevant for his ethics.
Introductions For comprehensive studies, see Allison 1990Korsgaard 1996, Wood 1999Guyer 2000Reath 2006, and the collection of essays in Hill Jr 2009. For contemporary versions of Kantian ethics, see Herman 2007Korsgaard 2009, and Hill 2012.
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  1. H. B. Acton (1939). JOAD, C. E. M. -Guide to the Philosophy of Morals and Politics. [REVIEW] Mind 48:249.
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  2. George P. Adams (1915). Iller's Kant's Doctrine of Freedom. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 12 (22):613.
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  3. Hendrik Adriaanse (2003). Religie En Ethiek Bij Kant. de Uil Van Minerva 19:3-18.
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  4. Reshef Agam-Segal (2013). A Splitting “Mind-Ache”: AN ANSCOMBEAN CHALLENGE TO KANTIAN SELF-LEGISLATION. Journal of Philosophical Research 38:43-68.
    I problematize the notion of self-legislation. I follow in Elizabeth Anscombe’s footsteps and suggest that on a plausible reading of Kant, he does not so much misidentify the sources of moral normativity, as fail to identify any such sources in the first place: The set of terms with which the Kantian is attempting to do so is confused. Interpreters today take Kant’s legal language to be merely metaphorical. The language of ‘self-legislation,’ in particular, is replaced by such interpreters with a (...)
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  5. Reshef Agam-Segal (2012). Kant’s Non-Aristotelian Conception of Morality. Southwest Philosophy Review 28 (1):121-133.
    I make a case for a non-Aristotelian reading of Kant’s moral philosophy. In particular, I distinguish between two activities called “self-legislation”: Aristotelian and Kantian. Aristotelian self-legislation is the activity of determining the organizing principle of our own practical life. Every action of ours takes part in this project, which is thus part of the principle of every action. In contrast, not all actions are acts of Kantian self-legislation. To legislate for ourselves in this sense is to be involved in an (...)
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  6. U. Agnew (1976). Originality-Art of Being Oneself. Humanitas 12 (1):49-58.
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  7. Esref Aksu (2008). Early Notions of Global Governance: Selected Eighteenth-Century Proposals for 'Perpetual Peace' with Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant - Unabridged. University of Wales Press.
    Despite the centrality of the topic of peace to international studies and the proliferation of volumes by such groundbreaking thinkers as Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant, there is no single text available that caters to this aspect of eighteenth-century political theory. Addressing this gap by providing a contemporary compilation of the eighteenth-century “perpetual peace” proposals together with a cogent introduction to the topic’s contemporary links to global governance and cosmopolitan democracy, this volume features full-text proposals by Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant, as (...)
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  8. Michael Albrecht (2009). Kant's Justification of the Role of Maxims in Ethics. In Karl Ameriks, Otfried Höffe & Nicolas Walker (eds.), Kant's Moral and Legal Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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  9. Lucy Allais & John Callanan (eds.) (forthcoming). Kant on Animals. Oxford University Press.
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  10. Mary Wood- Allen & Sylvanus Stall (1897). What a Young Girl Ought to Know, by M. Wood-Allen and S. Stall.
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  11. Arthur Allin (1898). The Psycho-Physiology of the Moral Imperative. Psychological Review 5 (2):228-229.
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  12. Henry E. Allison, Bernard Carnois & David Booth (1990). The Coherence of Kant's Doctrine of Freedom. Philosophical Review 99 (1):117.
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  13. Matthew C. Altman (2014). Kant and Applied Ethics: The Uses and Limits of Kant's Practical Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Kant and Applied Ethics_ makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship, illuminating the vital moral parameters of key ethical debates. Offers a critical analysis of Kant’s ethics, interrogating the theoretical bases of his theory and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses Examines the controversies surrounding the most important ethical discussions taking place today, including abortion, the death penalty, and same-sex marriage Joins innovative thinkers in contemporary Kantian scholarship, including Christine Korsgaard, Allen Wood, and Barbara Herman, in taking Kant’s philosophy in new (...)
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  14. Matthew C. Altman (2011). Kant and Applied Ethics: The Uses and Limits of Kant's Practical Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Kant and Applied Ethics_ makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship, illuminating the vital moral parameters of key ethical debates. Offers a critical analysis of Kant’s ethics, interrogating the theoretical bases of his theory and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses Examines the controversies surrounding the most important ethical discussions taking place today, including abortion, the death penalty, and same-sex marriage Joins innovative thinkers in contemporary Kantian scholarship, including Christine Korsgaard, Allen Wood, and Barbara Herman, in taking Kant’s philosophy in new (...)
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  15. Matthew C. Altman (2005). Subjecting Ourselves to Capital Punishment: A Rejoinder to Kantian Retributivism. Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (4):247-264.
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  16. Mark Alznauer (2014). Understanding Moral Obligation: Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, by Robert Stern. Mind 123 (492):1246-1249.
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  17. Karl Ameriks (ed.) (2014). Kant's Moral and Legal Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume brings to English readers the finest postwar German-language scholarship on Kant's moral and legal philosophy. Examining Kant's relation to predecessors such as Hutcheson, Wolff, and Baumgarten, it clarifies the central issues in each of Kant's major works in practical philosophy, including The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, The Critique of Practical Reason, and The Metaphysics of Morals. It also examines the relation of Kant's philosophy to politics. Collectively, the essays in this volume provide English readers with a (...)
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  18. John Anderson (1929). Theory and Practice in Morals. Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 7 (4):297-300.
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  19. Sharon Rae Anderson-Gold (1980). Teleology and Radical Evil: An Interpretation of the Concept of Species Character in Kant's Philosophy of History. Dissertation, New School for Social Research
    This dissertation focuses on the relation between Kant's philosophy of history and his ethics. It has been claimed that Kant's writings on history contradict his ethics and have no systematic value for his philosophy. Therefore, Kant's writings on history cannot be taken seriously. This objection can be summarized as follows. Kant's philosophy of history implies a notion of moral progress. Earlier generations stand in a means-ends relation to later generations. This contradicts the concept of the absolute value of the individual (...)
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  20. Josie Appleton (2006). Recentring Humanity. In Dolan Cummings (ed.), Debating Humanism. Imprint Academic. pp. 26--93.
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  21. Leslie Armour (2005). 7. The Balance of Extremes: Metaphysics, Nature, and Morals in the Later Philosophy of Bernard Bosanquet. In William Sweet (ed.), Bernard Bosanquet and the Legacy of British Idealism. University of Toronto Press. pp. 147-177.
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  22. Leslie Armour & Chhatrapati Singh (1986). The Kingdom of Ends in Morals and Law. Indian Philosophical Quarterly 13 (1):13.
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  23. A. C. Armstrong (1899). The Groundwork of Science: A Study of Epistemology. Psychological Review 6 (1):107-109.
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  24. Robert Arp (1999). Hegel and the Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
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  25. Robert Arp (1999). Hegel's Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
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  26. Christopher Arroyo (2016). Kant on the Emotion of Love. European Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):580-606.
    Although recent Kant scholarship has focused on Kant's treatment of various emotions, one that has not received much attention is love. There are three main reasons for this. First, Kant does not have a single, sustained analysis of the emotion of love; what he does say appears scattered throughout his corpus. Second, Kant identifies a number of different kinds of love, and it is not always clear which kinds are emotions or how the different kinds of love are related. Finally, (...)
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  27. M. F. Ashley-Montagu (1937). Philosophy and HistoryRaymond Klibansky H. J. Paton. Isis 27 (2):358-360.
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  28. R. F. Atkinson (1977). Categorical Imperatives. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 51 (1):1-20.
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  29. R. F. Atkinson, C. H. Whiteley & Winifred M. Whiteley (1968). Sex and Morals. Philosophical Quarterly 18 (71):181.
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  30. Peter Atterton (2007). A Duty to Be Charitable? A Rigoristic Reading of Kant. Kant-Studien 98 (2):135-155.
    To be beneficent, that is, to promote according to one's means the happiness of others in need, without hoping for something in return, is every man's duty. Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysics of Morals Almost everyone agrees that we have a moral duty to pull out a drowning child from a shallow pond even if this means getting our clothes muddy. But what are the limits of the duty of beneficence? In “Famine, Affluence and Morality”, which first appeared in 1972, Peter (...)
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  31. E. Atwell John (1995). Kant and the Duty to Promote Others’ Happiness. Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 1:727-733.
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  32. John Atwell (1988). P.C. Lo, Treating Persons As Ends: An Essay On Kant's Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 8:173-175.
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  33. John E. Atwell (1995). Fallacies in Two Objections to Kant's First Defense of the Duty of Beneficence in the Grundlegung. Argumentation 9 (4):633-643.
    The two best known objections to Kant's first defense of the duty of beneficence are examined and found to be fallacious. The first objection relies on the possibility of imagining an individual who would be willing for the maxim of nonbeneficence to be a universal law (but it fails to recognize that such an individual is not a rational person and thus not subject to morality at all); and the second objection, while granting the nonuniversalizability of the maxim of nonbeneficence, (...)
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  34. John E. Atwell (1988). PC Lo, Treating Persons as Ends: An Essay on Kant's Moral Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 8 (5):173-175.
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  35. Robert Audi (2015). Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula. Oxford University Press USA.
    This book is a full-scale account of the morally important ideas of treating persons merely as means and treating them as ends. Audi clarifies these independently of Kant, but with implications for understanding him, and presents a theory of conduct that enhances their usefulness both in ethical theory and in practical ethics.
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  36. Bruce Aune (1980). Chapter IV: Concluding Remarks on the Groundwork. In Kant's Theory of Morals. Princeton University Press. pp. 104-130.
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  37. Dennis Vanden Auweele (2015). Kant on Religious Moral Education. Kantian Review 20 (3):373-394.
    While scholars are slowly coming to realize that Kants reflections on religion in parts II and III of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason interpret religion specifically as one aspect of moral education, namely moral ascetics. After first clearly distinguishing between a cognitive and a conative aspect of moral education, I show how certain historical religious practices serve to provide the conative aspect of moral education. Kant defines this aspect of moral education as practices that render the human agent. (...)
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  38. Thomas Paul Auxter (1973). Kant's Moral Teleology. Dissertation, Bryn Mawr College
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  39. Sidney Axinn (2004). Idealism and Freedom: Essays on Kant’s Theoretical and Practical PhiIosophy. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 36 (4):104-105.
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  40. Sldney Axlnn (2003). Creating the Kingdom of Ends. [REVIEW] International Studies in Philosophy 35 (4):321-323.
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  41. J. L. B. & S. J. Holmes (1949). Life and Morals. Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):82.
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  42. J. L. B., Richard Price & D. Daiches Raphael (1949). A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 46 (22):733.
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  43. R. J. B. (1965). Laws of Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 19 (1):152-153.
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  44. Jovan Babić (1994). Jedna klasična kritika etičkog formalizma. Theoria 37 (1):23-40.
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  45. Jovan Babić (1991). Kantova koncepcija dužnosti. Theoria 34 (2):47-68.
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  46. Stefano Bacin (2013). Kant on the Relation between Duties of Love and Duties of Respect. In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 15-28.
  47. Stefano Bacin (2013). The Perfect Duty to Oneself Merely as a Moral Being (TL 6:428-437). In Andreas Trampota, Oliver Sensen & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant’s “Tugendlehre”. A Comprehensive Commentary. DeGruyter. pp. 245-268.
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  48. Stefano Bacin (2010). Kant's Ethics of Virtue. [REVIEW] Studi Kantiani 23.
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  49. Carla Bagnoli (2011). On Stephen Engstrom, The Form of Practical Knowledge. Iris 3 (6):191-203.
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  50. Carla Bagnoli (2011). Emotions and the Categorical Authority of Moral Reason. In Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. pp. 62.
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