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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. Hegel’s Conception of Thinking in His Logics.Clinton Tolley - 2018 - In Sandra Lapointe (ed.), Logic from Kant to Russell. London: Routledge.
  2. The Place of Logic in Kant's Philosophy.Clinton Tolley - 2017 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. London: Palgrave. pp. 165-87.
    This chapter spells out in detail how Kant’s thinking about logic during the critical period shapes the account of philosophy that he gives in the Critiques. Tolley explores Kant’s motivations behind his formation of the idea of a new “transcendental” logic, drawing out in particular how he means to differentiate it from the traditional “merely formal” approaches to logic, insofar as transcendental logic investigates not just the basic forms of the activity of thinking but also its basic contents. Kant’s understanding (...)
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Kant: Judgment of Perception vs Judgment of Experience
  1. Juicios subjetivos y juicios sobre sujetos. Una distinción a propósito de los juicios de percepción.Stéfano Straulino - 2018 - In Gustavo Leyva, Álvaro Peláez & Pedro Stepanenko (eds.), Los rostros de la razón: Immanuel Kant desde Hispanoamérica. I. Filosofía Teórica. Ciudad de México, CDMX, México: pp. 72-86.
    Subjective judgments and judgments about subjects. A distinction regarding judgments of perception [English] It is well known the number of problems that arise from the distinction between "judgments of perception" and "judgments of experience" delivered in the Prolegomena. This article focuses on the impossibility of assigning truth value to judgments of perception since it seems counterintuitive to indicate that judgments such as "I am cold" or "sugar tastes sweet" cannot be true. To solve this difficulty, it is proposed here to (...)
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  2. Perception in Kant's Model of Experience.Hemmo Laiho - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Turku
    In order to secure the limits of the critical use of reason, and to succeed in the critique of speculative metaphysics, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) had to present a full account of human cognitive experience. Perception in Kant’s Model of Experience is a detailed investigation of this aspect of Kant’s grand enterprise with a special focus: perception. The overarching goal is to understand this common phenomenon both in itself and as the key to understanding Kant’s views of experience. In the process, (...)
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  3. Helmut Holzhey, "Kants Erfahrungsbegriff: Quellengeschichtliche Und Bedeutungsanalytische Untersuchungen". [REVIEW]W. H. Werkmeister - 1972 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 10 (1):99.
  4. Varieties of Subjective Judgments: Judgments of Perception.Brigitte Sassen - 2008 - Kant Studien 99 (3):269-284.
  5. Subjektiv, Intersubjektiv, Objektiv: Über die Struktur der Erfahrungsurteile bei Kant.Ansgar Lyssy - 2007 - In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Transzendentalphilosophie und Person: Leiblichkeit, Interpersonalität, Anerkennung. Transcript. pp. 147-162.
  6. Kant et les jugements empiriques. Jugements de perception et jugements d’expérience.Béatrice Longuenesse - 1995 - Kant Studien 86 (3):278-307.
  7. Kant on Truth-Aptness.Alberto Vanzo - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):109-126.
    Many scholars claimed that, according to Immanuel Kant, some judgements lack a truth-value: analytic judgements, judgements about items of which humans cannot have experience, judgements of perception, and non-assertoric judgements. However, no one has undertaken an extensive examination of the textual evidence for those claims. Based on an analysis of Kant's texts, I argue that: (1) according to Kant, only judgements of perception are not truth-apt. All other judgements are truth-apt, including analytic judgements and judgements about items of which humans (...)
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Kant: Reflective vs Determining Judgment
  1. Kant on Vital Forces and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 961-972.
    In this essay I examine Kant's analogy with life from §65 of the Critique of the power of Judgment. I argue that this analogy is central for understanding his notion of a natural end, for his account of the formative power of organisms in the third Critique, and for situating Kant's account of this power in relation to the Lebenskräfte of the vitalists.
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  2. Subsuming ‘Determining’ Under ‘Reflecting’: Kant’s Power of Judgment, Reconsidered.Nicholas Dunn - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Kant’s distinction between the determining and reflecting power of judgment in the third Critique is not well understood in the literature. A mainstream view unifies these by making determination the telos of all acts of judgment (Longuenesse 1998). On this view, all reflection is primarily in the business of producing empirical concepts for cognition, and thus has what I call a determinative ideal. I argue that this view fails to take seriously the independence and autonomy of the ‘power of judgment’ (...)
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  3. A New Theory of Stupidity.Sacha Golob - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (4):562-580.
    This article advances a new analysis of stupidity as a distinctive form of cognitive failing. Section 1 outlines some problems in explicating this notion and suggests some desiderata. Section 2 sketches an existing model of stupidity, found in Kant and Flaubert, which serves as a foil for my own view. In section 3, I introduce my theory: I analyse stupidity as form of conceptual self-hampering, characterised by a specific aetiology and with a range of deleterious effects. In section 4, I (...)
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  4. Stanowisko Heinricha Rickerta Wobec Teorii Odbicia.Tomasz Kubalica - 2009 - Folia Philosophica 27:51--66.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss primarily the epistemological theory of reflection as seen by Heinrich Rickert, the main representative of Neo-Kantianism Baden School. The most important arguments put forward by Rickert against taking the cognition as a reflection of the reality are being analysed. Rickert’s standpoint turns out to be moderate. He argues against the transcendental theory of reflection, but does not reject the idea of reflection as a model of cognition and takes the immanent theory of (...)
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  5. The Structure of the Theoretical Power of Judgment. Kant and the Value of Our Empirical Cognitions.Benjamin Tréémoulet - 2011 - Kant Studien 102 (1):46-68.
    This paper argues that the cognitive status and cognitive value of thoughts should be clarified through a description of the mechanics of the theoretical power of judgment. Three pairs of concepts essentially constitute its tools: 1. determinative and reflective judgments; 2. constitutive and regulative principles; and 3. transcendental and empirical applications. Against the general approach to dealing with these concepts, i.e., against the tendency to consider them as synonymous or as forming a parallel structure, this article sharpens the distinctions between (...)
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  6. Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant’s Philosophy: The Source of the Problem of Judgment in the Leibniz-Wolffian Logic and Aesthetics.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Kant Studien 103 (2):188-206.
    : The aim of this article is to explore the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface of the third Critique. Although a foundation for this faculty was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution to an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding and native wit he already confirms the impossibility of determining (...)
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  7. La logica dell'irrazionale: Studi sul significato e sui problemi della Kritik der Urteilskraft.Marco Sgarbi - 2010 - Mimesis.
  8. Kant on the Form of Aesthetic Judgment.Alexandra Newton - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 169-180.
  9. Aesthetic Judgment and the Completion of Kant’s Critical System.Lara Ostaric - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 679-690.
  10. Determinate and Indeterminate Judgments and the Unity of Kant's Critical Philosophy.Seung-kee Lee - 2000 - Dissertation, The Catholic University of America
    The aim of this dissertation is to propose and justify the thesis that Kant's theory of judgment, which plays a vital role in the Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgment, is fundamentally theoretical in nature, and that this theory insures the unity of the critical philosophy. Most of the contemporary writers who have dealt with the question of the unity of Kant's philosophy on the basis of his theory of judgement have emphasized the priority (...)
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  11. Kommentar Zur Ersten Einleitung in Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft: Zur Systemat. Funktion D. Kritik D. Urteilskraft F.D. System D. Vernunftkritik. [REVIEW]Helga Mertens - 1975
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  12. Los principios del juicio reflexivo.Paul Guyer - 1996 - Dianoia 42 (42):1-59.
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  13. Kant's Religion and Reflective Judgment.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):634--637.
  14. Kant's Theory of Inductive Reasoning: The Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Logic.Matthew McAndrew - 2014 - Kant Studies Online (1):43-64.
  15. Reflective Judgment, Orientation and the Priorities of Justice.Rudolf Makkreel - 2001 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (3):105-110.
  16. Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining).P. Faggiotto - 1990 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
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  17. L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant.Pietro Faggiotto - 1995 - Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  18. Verdad y juicio reflexionante en Kant.María Isabel Cabrera Bosch - 1996 - Dianoia 42:81-90.
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  19. Ingenio, Uso Hipotético de la Razón y Juicio Reflexionante en la Filosofía de Kant.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):577-592.
    This article researches the historical and systematic background of Kant’s reflecting power of judgment theory based on a historical study of the concept of wit [ingenium, Witz]. Although the Notes from Lessons on Anthropology even expound the meaning of this concept in the context of Baumgarten’s empirical psychology, this material helps us interpret the concept of wit as one of the most important precedents of the reflecting power of judgment theory presented in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. The (...)
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  20. La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante.Daniel Dumouchel - 1994 - Kant Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  21. Munzel, G. Felicitas. Kant’s Conception of Moral Character: The ‘Critical’ Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment.Ralf Meerbote - 2000 - Review of Metaphysics 53 (3):724-726.
  22. Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste.Luigi Caranti - 2005 - Kant Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  23. Critique of the Power of Judgment.Immanuel Kant - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  24. Reflection, Reflective Judgment, and Aesthetic Exemplarity.Rudolf A. Makkreel - 2006 - In Rebecca Kukla (ed.), Aesthetics and Cognition in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Kant: Teleological Judgment
  1. The Science of Spiritual Biology: Replies to Critics – Part 2.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  2. Spiritual Biology: Reply to Critics - Part One.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  3. The Science of Spiritual Biology.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    "Living systems are cognitive systems, and living as a process is a process of cognition." -H.R. Maturana, The Biology of Cognition (1970/1980) Just as the cell has gradually come to be understood as a highly regulated and unctionally integrated whole, so too is the biosphere now recognized as a finely balanced ecological whole in which local disturbances can create world-wide climatic catastrophe. The oversimplified ideas of biology that characterized the field in its immature beginning led to the theories of a (...)
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  4. Kant on Vital Forces and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 961-972.
    In this essay I examine Kant's analogy with life from §65 of the Critique of the power of Judgment. I argue that this analogy is central for understanding his notion of a natural end, for his account of the formative power of organisms in the third Critique, and for situating Kant's account of this power in relation to the Lebenskräfte of the vitalists.
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  5. Kant on Plants: Self-Activity, Representations, and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - Philosophers' Imprint 21 (11).
    Do plants represent according to Kant? This is closely connected to the question of whether he held plants are alive, because he explains life in terms of the faculty to act on one’s own representations. He also explains life as having an immaterial principle of self-motion, and as a body’s interaction with a supersensible soul. I argue that because of the way plants move themselves, Kant is committed to their being alive, to their having a supersensible ground of their self-activity, (...)
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  6. Kant’s Coherent Theory of the Highest Good.Saniye Vatansever - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (3):263-283.
    In the second Critique, Kant argues that for the highest good to be possible we need to postulate the existence of God and the immortality of the soul in a future world. In his other writings, however, he suggests that the highest good is attainable through mere human agency in this world. Based on the apparent incoherence between these texts, Andrews Reath, among others, argues that Kant’s texts reveal two competing conceptions of the highest good, namely a secular and a (...)
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  7. Organismen und die Rationalität moralischen Handelns. Kants Biologie im Übergang zwischen Theorie und Praxis.Julius Alves - 2019 - Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland: Klostermann.
    Passt der Mensch als moralischer Akteur in die Welt? Während in früheren Ansätzen Kants nur der aus den Bedürfnissen der Praxis gespeiste Glaube blieb, hofft er in der "Kritik der Urteilskraft" zeigen zu können, dass sich die Überzeugung von einer moralkompatiblen Welt unabhängig rechtfertigen lässt – aus Ästhetik und Biologie. Der Autor liefert zunächst eine systematische Analyse von Kants Problemstellung: Was motiviert die Suche nach einem solchen Übergang zwischen Theorie und Praxis und was kommt als Lösung infrage? Dann schlägt er (...)
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  8. The Role of Regulative Principles and Their Relation to Reflective Judgement.Christian Onof - 2020 - In Sorin Baiasu & Alberto Vanzo (eds.), Kant and the Continental Tradition: Sensibility, Nature, and Religion. New York: Routledge.
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  9. Hermeneutics and Nature.Dalia Nassar - 2019 - In Michael Förster & Kristin Gjesdal (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Hermeneutics. Cambridge: Cambridge. pp. 37-74.
    This paper contributes to the on-going research into the ways in which the humanities transformed the natural sciences in the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries. By investigating the relationship between hermeneutics -- as developed by Herder -- and natural history, it shows how the methods used for the study of literary and artistic works played a crucial role in the emergence of key natural-scientific fields, including geography and ecology.
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  10. An Antinomy Between Regulative Principles: An Aporetic Resolution to the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment.Aaron Halper - 2019 - Kant Studien 110 (2):211-235.
    The antinomy of teleological judgment has increasingly been understood as a conflict between regulative principles. But it is not clear why regulative principles can be in conflict at all, since Kant otherwise takes the realization that two conflicting principles are regulative to be sufficient to resolve an antinomy. I argue that in Kant’s view regulative principles do not conflict with one another only if they are reducible to reason’s interest in systematicity. Given that the principles of this antinomy do conflict, (...)
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  11. Ina Goy, Kants Theorie der Biologie. Ein Kommentar. Eine Lesart. Eine Historische Einordnung Berlin: De Gruyter, 2017 Pp. Xx+420 ISBN 9783110473230 €169.95. [REVIEW]Anton Kabeshkin - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):496-500.
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  12. Die Teleologie der Natur (§§ 64–68).Ina Goy - 2008 - In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Immanuel Kant. Kritik der Urteilskraft. Berlin: Akademie Verlag / De Gruyter. pp. 223–239.
    A commentary on §§ 64-68 of Kant's "Critique of the Power of Judgment". Nach einer allgemeinen Definition von zweckmäßigen Gegenständen und deren Binnendifferenzierung in künstliche und natürliche Zwecke, setzt Kant in § 64 mit einer vorläufigen Definition des eigentlichen Untersuchungsgegenstandes ein. Dinge sind genau dann Naturzwecke, wenn sie von sich selbst Ursache und Wirkung sind. Kant veranschaulicht diese Definition am Beispiel eines organischen Gegenstandes: an einem Baum. In § 65 soll die vorläufige Definition von Naturzwecken präzisiert und von einem bestimmten (...)
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  13. Worin besteht Kants Antinomie der teleologischen Urteilskraft? Anmerkungen zu §§ 69-71 der Kritik der Urteilskraft.Felix Hagenström - 2013 - Incipiens 1:37-61.
    In his Critique of Judgment (1790) Kant develops a teleology of nature. The concept of natural purpose leads him to the problem of the antinomy of teleological judgment. However, some ambiguity about what is said in the paragraphs concerned has frequently caused difficulties for the understanding of one of the core parts of the 3rd Critique. I argue that a coherent reading of §§69-71can nevertheless be achieved. In order to critically review and complete previous research I will primarily be focusing (...)
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  14. O Pensamento Teleológico de Immanuel Kant.Maria Célia dos Santos - 2008 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Ceará, Brazil
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  15. Kant’s Antinomy of Teleology: In Defense of a Traditional Interpretation.Nabeel Hamid - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Kant Congress. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 1641-1648.
    Kant’s Antinomy of Teleological Judgment is unique in offering two pairs of oppositions, one of regulative maxims, and the other of constitutive principles. Here I defend a traditional interpretation of the antinomy— as proposed, for example, by Stadler (1874), Adickes (1925), and Cassirer (1921)—that the antinomy consists in an opposition between constitutive principles, and is resolved by pointing out their legitimate status as merely regulative maxims. I argue against recent interpretations—for example, in McLaughlin (1990), Allison (1991), and Watkins (2009)—which treat (...)
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  16. The Normativity of Nature: Essays on Kant's “Critique of Judgement.”. [REVIEW]Samantha Matherne - 2017 - Philosophical Review 126 (2):281-285.
  17. M. Benedikt, Bestimmende und reflektierende Urteilskraft. [REVIEW]W. Steinbeck - 1984 - Kant Studien 75 (1):113.
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