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Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

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  1. Kant's View of Mathematical Premisses and Reasonings.Robert Adamson - 1883 - Mind 31:424-425.
  2. Kant, Neo‐Kantians, and Transcendental Subjectivity.Charlotte Baumann - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (3):595-616.
    This article discusses an interpretation of Kant's conception of transcendental subjectivity, which manages to avoid many of the concerns that have been raised by analytic interpreters over this doctrine. It is an interpretation put forward by selected C19 and early C20 neo-Kantian writers. The article starts out by offering a neo-Kantian interpretation of the object as something that is constituted by the categories and that serves as a standard of truth within a theory of judgment. The second part explicates transcendental (...)
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  3. Kant, Neo‐Kantians, and Transcendental Subjectivity.Charlotte Baumann - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (4).
    This article discusses an interpretation of Kant's conception of transcendental subjectivity, which manages to avoid many of the concerns that have been raised by analytic interpreters over this doctrine. It is an interpretation put forward by selected C19 and early C20 neo-Kantian writers. The article starts out by offering a neo-Kantian interpretation of the object as something that is constituted by the categories and that serves as a standard of truth within a theory of judgment. The second part explicates transcendental (...)
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  4. Perception in Kant's Model of Experience.Hemmo Laiho - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Turku
    In order to secure the limits of the critical use of reason, and to succeed in the critique of speculative metaphysics, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) had to present a full account of human cognitive experience. Perception in Kant’s Model of Experience is a detailed investigation of this aspect of Kant’s grand enterprise with a special focus: perception. The overarching goal is to understand this common phenomenon both in itself and as the key to understanding Kant’s views of experience. In the process, (...)
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  5. "Pure Consciousness Is Found Already in Logic": Apperception, Judgement and Spontaneity.Dennis Schulting - 2017 - In Kant's Radical Subjectivism. Perspectives on the Transcendental Deduction. London, UK: Palgrave. pp. 97-114.
    In this paper, I address the intimate reflexive relation between self-consciousness and objective cognition, by linking self-consciousness explicitly to the topic of judgement. First, I explain that already early on in his published work, even before the Critique—in which this connection of course centrally informs his theory of knowledge, there are clear hints about the epistemic significance of self-consciousness or the mind, even though a fully-fledged theory of judgement and a fully-fledged theory of apperception only first appear in the Critical (...)
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  6. The Place of Logic in Kant's Philosophy.Clinton Tolley - 2017 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. London: pp. 165-87.
    This chapter spells out in detail how Kant’s thinking about logic during the critical period shapes the account of philosophy that he gives in the Critiques. Tolley explores Kant’s motivations behind his formation of the idea of a new “transcendental” logic, drawing out in particular how he means to differentiate it from the traditional “merely formal” approaches to logic, insofar as transcendental logic investigates not just the basic forms of the activity of thinking but also its basic contents. Kant’s understanding (...)
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Kant: Judgment of Perception vs Judgment of Experience
  1. Kant on Perception, Experience and Judgements Thereof.Banafsheh Beizaei - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (3):347-371.
    It is commonly thought that the distinction between subjectively valid judgements of perception and objectively valid judgements of experience in the Prolegomena is not consistent with the account of judgement Kant offers in the B Deduction, according to which a judgement is ‘nothing other than the way to bring given cognitions to the objective unity of apperception’. Contrary to this view, I argue that the Prolegomena distinction maps closely onto that drawn between the mathematical and dynamical principles in the System (...)
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  2. Kant et les jugements empiriques. Jugements de perception et jugements d’expérience.Béatrice Longuenesse - 1995 - Kant-Studien 86 (3):278-307.
  3. Subjektiv, Intersubjektiv, Objektiv: Über die Struktur der Erfahrungsurteile bei Kant.Ansgar Lyssy - 2007 - In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Transzendentalphilosophie und Person: Leiblichkeit, Interpersonalität, Anerkennung. Transcript. pp. 147-162.
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  4. Varieties of Subjective Judgments: Judgments of Perception.Brigitte Sassen - 2008 - Kant-Studien 99 (3):269-284.
  5. Kant on Truth-Aptness.Alberto Vanzo - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):109-126.
    Many scholars claimed that, according to Immanuel Kant, some judgements lack a truth-value: analytic judgements, judgements about items of which humans cannot have experience, judgements of perception, and non-assertoric judgements. However, no one has undertaken an extensive examination of the textual evidence for those claims. Based on an analysis of Kant's texts, I argue that: (1) according to Kant, only judgements of perception are not truth-apt. All other judgements are truth-apt, including analytic judgements and judgements about items of which humans (...)
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Kant: Reflective vs Determining Judgment
  1. Verdad y juicio reflexionante en Kant.María Isabel Cabrera Bosch - 1996 - Dianoia 42:81-90.
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  2. Logical Purposiveness and the Principle of Taste.Luigi Caranti - 2005 - Kant-Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
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  3. La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante.Daniel Dumouchel - 1994 - Kant-Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  4. Note on the Kantian Distinction Between Natural Judgment (Reflecting) and Transcendental Judgment (Determining).P. Faggiotto - 1990 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
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  5. L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant.Pietro Faggiotto - 1995 - Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
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  6. Los principios del juicio reflexivo.Paul Guyer - 1996 - Dianoia 42 (42):1-59.
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  7. Critique of the Power of Judgment.Immanuel Kant - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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  8. Kant's Religion and Reflective Judgment.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):634--637.
  9. Stanowisko Heinricha Rickerta Wobec Teorii Odbicia.Tomasz Kubalica - 2009 - Folia Philosophica 27:51--66.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss primarily the epistemological theory of reflection as seen by Heinrich Rickert, the main representative of Neo-Kantianism Baden School. The most important arguments put forward by Rickert against taking the cognition as a reflection of the reality are being analysed. Rickert’s standpoint turns out to be moderate. He argues against the transcendental theory of reflection, but does not reject the idea of reflection as a model of cognition and takes the immanent theory of (...)
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  10. Reflection, Reflective Judgment, and Aesthetic Exemplarity.Rudolf A. Makkreel - 2006 - In Rebecca Kukla (ed.), Aesthetics and Cognition in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  11. Reflective Judgment and the Problem of Assessing Virtue in Kant.Rudolf A. Makkreel - 2002 - Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (2-3):205-220.
  12. Reflective Judgment, Orientation and the Priorities of Justice.Rudolf A. Makkreel - 2001 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (3):105-110.
  13. Kant's Theory of Inductive Reasoning: The Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant's Logic.Matthew McAndrew - 2014 - Kant Studies Online:43-64.
  14. Review: Munzel, G. Felicitas, Kant's Conception of Moral Character: The 'Critical' Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment.Ralf Meerbote - 2000 - Review of Metaphysics 53 (3):724-726.
  15. Kommentar Zur Ersten Einleitung in Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft Zur Systemat. Funktion D. Kritik D. Urteilskraft F.D. System D. Vernunftkritik. [REVIEW]Helga Mertens - 1975
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  16. Kant on the Form of Aesthetic Judgment.Alexandra Newton - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 169-180.
  17. Aesthetic Judgment and the Completion of Kant’s Critical System.Lara Ostaric - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 679-690.
  18. Ingenio, Uso Hipotético de la Razón y Juicio Reflexionante en la Filosofía de Kant.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):577-592.
    This article researches the historical and systematic background of Kant’s reflecting power of judgment theory based on a historical study of the concept of wit [ingenium, Witz]. Although the Notes from Lessons on Anthropology even expound the meaning of this concept in the context of Baumgarten’s empirical psychology, this material helps us interpret the concept of wit as one of the most important precedents of the reflecting power of judgment theory presented in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. The (...)
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  19. Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant’s Philosophy.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (2):188-206.
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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  20. Logica Naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant’s Philosophy.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (2).
    The aim of this article is to explore historically the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface to the third Critique. Despite that a foundation of the power of judging in the system of Transcendental Philosophy was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution for an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding he (...)
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  21. La Logica Dell'irrazionale: Studi Sul Significato E Sui Problemi Della Kritik der Urteilskraft.Marco Sgarbi - 2010 - Mimesis.
  22. The Structure of the Theoretical Power of Judgment. Kant and the Value of Our Empirical Cognitions.Benjamin Trémoulet - 2011 - Kant-Studien 102 (1):46-68.
    This paper argues that the cognitive status and cognitive value of thoughts should be clarified through a description of the mechanics of the theoretical power of judgment. Three pairs of concepts essentially constitute its tools: 1. determinative and reflective judgments; 2. constitutive and regulative principles; and 3. transcendental and empirical applications. Against the general approach to dealing with these concepts, i.e., against the tendency to consider them as synonymous or as forming a parallel structure, this article sharpens the distinctions between (...)
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Kant: Teleological Judgment
  1. Commento Alla Critica Della Facoltà di Giudizio di Kant.M. Bianchi - 2005 - Le Monnier Università.
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  2. Finality and the Idea of Life-the Hegelian Reception of the Teleology of Kant.F. Chiereghin - 1990 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):127-229.
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  3. Pure Reason and World of the Living-Kantian Moral Teleology.A. Cortinaorts - 1986 - Pensamiento 42 (166):181-192.
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  4. Analogical Reflection as a Source for the Science of Life: Kant and the Possibility of the Biological Sciences.Nassar Dalia - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 58:57-66.
    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of (...)
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  5. Kant's Teleology.Crompton Llewellyn Davies - 1896 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 2:65-86.
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  6. Kant's Teleology.Crompton Llewellyn Davies - 1895 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 3 (2):65 - 86.
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  7. Kant’s Concept of the Technique of Nature in the Critique of the Power of Judgment: Série 2.Silvia de Bianchi - 2011 - Kant E-Prints 6:12-28.
    a relação entre razão e natureza envolve um dos principais aspectos da crítica da teleologia de Kant. Visando destacar esta relação, investigarei o conceito de técnica da natureza, tal como introduzida na Crítica da faculdade de julgar. De acordo com Kant, a técnica da natureza permite as leis da razão a representarem o acordo dos princípios transcendentais da razão com a natureza. Deste modo, o conceito da técnica da natureza assume um papel prolífico ao expor, através de uma analogia com (...)
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  8. Teleology and the Problem of Transition-a Commentary on Regulative and Reflective Uses of Purposiveness in Kant.B. Dorflinger - 1991 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 30:65-71.
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  9. Kant's Theory of Reflective Judgements and Teleology.William Drean - 1990
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  10. Alessandro Ferrara, La forza dell'esempio (Milano: Feltrinelli, 2008). [REVIEW]Lorenzo Greco - 2010 - Rivista di Filosofia 101 (1):123-24.
  11. CHAPTER 5: Systematicity, Taste, and Purpose.Paul Guyer - 2009 - In Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press. pp. 198-254.
  12. Worin besteht Kants Antinomie der teleologischen Urteilskraft? Anmerkungen zu §§ 69-71 der Kritik der Urteilskraft.Felix Hagenström - 2013 - Incipiens 1:37-61.
    In his Critique of Judgment (1790) Kant develops a teleology of nature. The concept of natural purpose leads him to the problem of the antinomy of teleological judgment. However, some ambiguity about what is said in the paragraphs concerned has frequently caused difficulties for the understanding of one of the core parts of the 3rd Critique. I argue that a coherent reading of §§69-71can nevertheless be achieved. In order to critically review and complete previous research I will primarily be focusing (...)
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  13. Kant's Antinomy of Teleology: In Defense of a Traditional Interpretation.Nabeel Hamid - forthcoming - In Violetta Waibel & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Kant Congress. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Kant’s Antinomy of Teleological Judgment is unique in offering two pairs of oppositions, one of regulative maxims, and the other of constitutive principles. Here I defend a traditional interpretation of the antinomy— as proposed, for example, by Stadler (1874), Adickes (1925), and Cassirer (1921)—that the antinomy consists in an opposition between constitutive principles, and is resolved by pointing out their legitimate status as merely regulative maxims. I argue against recent interpretations—for example, in McLaughlin (1990), Allison (1991), and Watkins (2009)—which treat (...)
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  14. Purposiveness Is Not Paradoxical: All Living Organisms Are Teleological And That's The Origin Of All "Value" From Amoebas To Humans.Ronnie Hawkins - 2004 - Florida Philosophical Review 4 (1):64-67.
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  15. Teleology and Its Risks for Reason: A Closer Look at the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment.Dilek Huseyinzadegan - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 899-910.
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  16. Teleology and Reduction in Biology.Jonathan Jacobs - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (4):389-399.
    The main claim in this paper is that because organisms have teleological constitutions, the reduction of biology to physical science is not possible. It is argued that the teleology of organisms is intrinsic and not merely projected onto them. Many organic phenomena are end-oriented and reference to ends is necessary for explaining them. Accounts in terms of functions or goals are appropriate to organic parts and processes. siis is because ends as systemic requirements for survival and health have explanatory significance (...)
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  17. Critique of the Power of Judgment.Immanuel Kant - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
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