About this topic
Summary

Kant’s conception of judgment both marks a pivotal moment in the development of logic and is at the center of his own philosophy. For Kant, judgment is the discursive rational activity par excellence, and it is in part because of Kant’s influence that subsequent philosophers, like Frege, have taken judgments to be the fundamental units of semantic content. Kant’s conception of the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments has also had a continuing impact. Given how influential Kant’s theory of judgment has continued to be for philosophy in general, it is likely unsurprising that it is also at the crux of his own thought. Broadly, Kant’s power of judgment splits into two parts. Reflecting judgment finds the concept or universal for given particulars. Determining judgment subsumes particulars under a given universal. As the paradigmatic rational activity, judgment is involved in the formation of concepts through the understanding, the making of inferences through reason, in judging theoretically or practically, aesthetically or teleologically, and in relating our immediate sensible representations of objects to concepts.

Related

Contents
258 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 258
Material to categorize
  1. Kant’s Transcendental Turn to the Object.Karin De Boer - 2024 - Studi Kantiani 36:11-353.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason and elsewhere, Kant uses the term ‘object’ in various ways and often without clearly signaling its different meanings. As a result, it is hard to gauge the extent to which Kant’s account of the object of cognition breaks new ground. In this article, I take the Critique to establish what is required to generate an object of cognition per se soleley by examining the various ways in which the human mind can objectify the content (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Replies to Stefanie Grüne, Houston Smit, and Nicholas Stang.Hoeppner Till - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
  3. Précis of Urteil und Anschauung. Kants metaphysische Deduktion der Kategorien.Hoeppner Till - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
  4. Kantian Thoughts. Towards an Alternative to Russellian and Fregean Propositions.Till Hoeppner - 2023 - Kant Yearbook 15 (1):77-107.
    What are thoughts, or propositions, exactly? I develop an answer to this question in relation to the Russellian and Fregean views – propositions as facts and propositions as contents –, defending a Kantian alternative: propositions as acts. I move from natural or naïve Russellianism and its difficulties to more sophisticated and promising Fregeanism, which can respond to these difficulties but only at the expense of leaving open serious explanatory gaps of its own. Along the way, I develop Kantianism as incorporating (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Kant’s Metaphysical and Transcendental Deductions of the Categories. Tasks, Steps, and Claims of Identity.Till Hoeppner - 2022 - In Giuseppe Motta, Dennis Schulting & Udo Thiel (eds.), Kant's Transcendental Deduction and the Theory of Apperception: New Interpretations. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 461-492.
    Kant’s Metaphysical Deduction of the Categories justifies their apriority, i.e. that their contents originate in the understanding itself, while the Transcendental Deduction justifies their objectivity, both in that they purport to represent objects of experience and that they do so successfully. The apriority of the categories, as explained in terms of acts of synthesis required for having sensible intuitions of objects, is justified by establishing their generic identity with logical functions of judgment, i.e. acts of judgment required for referring concepts (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  6. Urteil und Anschauung. Kants metaphysische Deduktion der Kategorien.Till Hoeppner - 2021 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    This book develops a textually grounded reconstruction of Kant’s argument in the Metaphysical Deduction. The argument proceeds in three steps, developing, first, a concept of judgment on which to base the table of logical functions, next a concept of synthesis of intuition that explains the content of the categories, and finally a concept of the understanding on which the categories belong a priori to the same faculty through which we judge. -/- The investigation presented here is an argumentative reconstruction of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  7. Kant on Why We Cannot Even Judge about Things in Themselves.Guido Kreis - 2023 - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. London: Routledge.
    This paper develops its exegetical claim by building mainly on a reconstruction of a central argument in the Critique of Pure Reason and supporting it with material from Kant’s other critical works. It argues that Kant’s philosophy does not permit us any judgment about things in themselves whatsoever. This could be called a form of ignorance, albeit a unique one. On the developed reading, Kant claims that there cannot be any objectively valid judgment about things in themselves, and since so-called (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8. The Analytic of Concepts.Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes - 2022 - In Mark Timmons & Sorin Baiasu (eds.), The Kantian Mind. London and New York: Routledge.
    The aim of the Analytic of Concepts is to derive and deduce a set of pure concepts of the understanding, the categories, which play a central role in Kant’s explanation of the possibility of synthetic a priori cognition and judgment. This chapter is structured around two questions. First, what is a pure concept of the understanding? Second, what is involved in a deduction of a pure concept of the understanding? In answering the first, we focus on how the categories differ (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9. Zum System der Grundsätze. Eine Rekonstruktion der Analytik der Grundsätze Kants und ihrer Rolle zur Begründung der rein spekulativen Philosophie Hegels.Pedro Sepúlveda Zambrano & Hardy Neumann Soto - 2021 - Kant E-Prints 15 (3):75-113.
    Der vorliegende Aufsatz stellt das Erbe der Kantischen Theorie der Konstitutions- und Regulationsleistung der Erfahrung – die Analytik der Grundsätze – dar, das unserer Auffassung nach zur Begründung der rein spekulativen Philosophie Hegels führt. In diesem Zusammenhang werden einerseits die transzendental-konstitutiven Grundsätze – Axiome der Anschauung und Antizipationen der Wahrnehmung – und andererseits die transzendental-regulativen Grundsätze – Analogien der Erfahrung und Postulate des empirischen Denkens überhaupt – als grundlegendes Material der Exegese benutzt. Als Resultat der Deutung erscheint das Problem des (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10. Hegel’s Conception of Thinking in his Logics.Clinton Tolley - 2018 - In Sandra Lapointe (ed.), Logic from Kant to Russell. New York: Routledge.
  11. The Place of Logic in Kant's Philosophy.Clinton Tolley - 2017 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 165-87.
    This chapter spells out in detail how Kant’s thinking about logic during the critical period shapes the account of philosophy that he gives in the Critiques. Tolley explores Kant’s motivations behind his formation of the idea of a new “transcendental” logic, drawing out in particular how he means to differentiate it from the traditional “merely formal” approaches to logic, insofar as transcendental logic investigates not just the basic forms of the activity of thinking but also its basic contents. Kant’s understanding (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. On the cosmological indeterminacy principle of mccrae.Carlton W. Berenda - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (3):265-270.
    A recent proposal by Dr. W. H. McCrae, cosmologist and mathematician, to the effect that decisions between such cosmogonies as those of Hoyle and of Gamow are experimentally impossible by virtue of a general cosmological indeterminacy principle, is here examined and elaborated upon. Some comments on the "antinomies" in Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" are made in reference to this principle as well as to the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle. If McCrae's principle is accepted, we will have moved a long way (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Kant's reception in France: Theories of the categories in academic philosophy, psychology, and social science.Warren Schmaus - 2003 - Perspectives on Science 11 (1):3-34.
    : It has been said that Kant's critical philosophy made it impossible to pursue either the Cartesian rationalist or the Lockean empiricist program of providing a foundation for the sciences (e.g., Guyer 1992). This claim does not hold true for much of nineteenth century French philosophy, especially the eclectic spiritualist tradition that begins with Victor Cousin (1792-1867) and Pierre Maine de Biran (1766-1824) and continues through Paul Janet (1823-99). This tradition assimilated Kant's transcendental apperception of the unity of experience to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
Kant: Judgment of Perception vs Judgment of Experience
  1. ‘For Me, In My Present State’: Kant on Judgments of Perception and Mere Subjective Validity.Janum Sethi - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (9):20.
    Few of Kant’s distinctions have generated as much puzzlement and criticism as the one he draws in the Prolegomena between judgments of experience, which he describes as objectively and universally valid, and judgments of perception, which he says are merely subjectively valid. Yet the distinction between objective and subjective validity is central to Kant’s account of experience and plays a key role in his Transcendental Deduction of the categories. In this paper, I reject a standard interpretation of the distinction, according (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  2. Juicios subjetivos y juicios sobre sujetos. Una distinción a propósito de los juicios de percepción.Stéfano Straulino - 2018 - In Gustavo Leyva, Álvaro Peláez & Pedro Stepanenko (eds.), Los rostros de la razón: Immanuel Kant desde Hispanoamérica. I. Filosofía Teórica. pp. 72-86.
    Subjective judgments and judgments about subjects. A distinction regarding judgments of perception [English] It is well known the number of problems that arise from the distinction between "judgments of perception" and "judgments of experience" delivered in the Prolegomena. This article focuses on the impossibility of assigning truth value to judgments of perception since it seems counterintuitive to indicate that judgments such as "I am cold" or "sugar tastes sweet" cannot be true. To solve this difficulty, it is proposed here to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Perception in Kant's Model of Experience.Hemmo Laiho - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Turku
    In order to secure the limits of the critical use of reason, and to succeed in the critique of speculative metaphysics, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) had to present a full account of human cognitive experience. Perception in Kant’s Model of Experience is a detailed investigation of this aspect of Kant’s grand enterprise with a special focus: perception. The overarching goal is to understand this common phenomenon both in itself and as the key to understanding Kant’s views of experience. In the process, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  4. Helmut Holzhey, "Kants Erfahrungsbegriff: Quellengeschichtliche und Bedeutungsanalytische Untersuchungen". [REVIEW]W. H. Werkmeister - 1972 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 10 (1):99.
  5. Varieties of Subjective Judgments: Judgments of Perception.Brigitte Sassen - 2008 - Kant Studien 99 (3):269-284.
  6. Subjektiv, Intersubjektiv, Objektiv: Über die Struktur der Erfahrungsurteile bei Kant.Ansgar Lyssy - 2007 - In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Transzendentalphilosophie Und Person. Leiblichkeit €“ Interpersonalitã¤T €“ Anerkennung. Transcript. pp. 147-162.
  7. Kant et les jugements empiriques. Jugements de perception et jugements d’expérience.Béatrice Longuenesse - 1995 - Kant Studien 86 (3):278-307.
  8. Kant on Truth-Aptness.Alberto Vanzo - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):109-126.
    Many scholars claimed that, according to Immanuel Kant, some judgements lack a truth-value: analytic judgements, judgements about items of which humans cannot have experience, judgements of perception, and non-assertoric judgements. However, no one has undertaken an extensive examination of the textual evidence for those claims. Based on an analysis of Kant's texts, I argue that: (1) according to Kant, only judgements of perception are not truth-apt. All other judgements are truth-apt, including analytic judgements and judgements about items of which humans (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
Kant: Reflective vs Determining Judgment
  1. Kant on Vital Forces and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 961-972.
    In this essay I examine Kant's analogy with life from §65 of the Critique of the power of Judgment. I argue that this analogy is central for understanding his notion of a natural end, for his account of the formative power of organisms in the third Critique, and for situating Kant's account of this power in relation to the Lebenskräfte of the vitalists.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  2. Subsuming ‘determining’ under ‘reflecting’: Kant’s power of judgment, reconsidered.Nicholas Dunn - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Kant’s distinction between the determining and reflecting power of judgment in the third Critique is not well understood in the literature. A mainstream view unifies these by making determination the telos of all acts of judgment (Longuenesse 1998). On this view, all reflection is primarily in the business of producing empirical concepts for cognition, and thus has what I call a determinative ideal. I argue that this view fails to take seriously the independence and autonomy of the ‘power of judgment’ (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  3. A New Theory of Stupidity.Sacha Golob - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (4):562-580.
    This article advances a new analysis of stupidity as a distinctive form of cognitive failing. Section 1 outlines some problems in explicating this notion and suggests some desiderata. Section 2 sketches an existing model of stupidity, found in Kant and Flaubert, which serves as a foil for my own view. In section 3, I introduce my theory: I analyse stupidity as form of conceptual self-hampering, characterised by a specific aetiology and with a range of deleterious effects. In section 4, I (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4. Stanowisko Heinricha Rickerta wobec teorii odbicia.Tomasz Kubalica - 2009 - Folia Philosophica 27:51--66.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss primarily the epistemological theory of reflection as seen by Heinrich Rickert, the main representative of Neo-Kantianism Baden School. The most important arguments put forward by Rickert against taking the cognition as a reflection of the reality are being analysed. Rickert’s standpoint turns out to be moderate. He argues against the transcendental theory of reflection, but does not reject the idea of reflection as a model of cognition and takes the immanent theory of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. The Structure of the Theoretical Power of Judgment. Kant and the Value of Our Empirical Cognitions.Benjamin Trémoulet - 2011 - Kant Studien 102 (1):46-68.
    This paper argues that the cognitive status and cognitive value of thoughts should be clarified through a description of the mechanics of the theoretical power of judgment. Three pairs of concepts essentially constitute its tools: 1. determinative and reflective judgments; 2. constitutive and regulative principles; and 3. transcendental and empirical applications. Against the general approach to dealing with these concepts, i.e., against the tendency to consider them as synonymous or as forming a parallel structure, this article sharpens the distinctions between (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Logica naturalis, Healthy Understanding and the Reflecting Power of Judgment in Kant’s Philosophy: The Source of the Problem of Judgment in the Leibniz-Wolffian Logic and Aesthetics.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Kant Studien 103 (2):188-206.
    : The aim of this article is to explore the origin of the difficulty of founding the reflecting power of judgment as Kant outlines it in the Preface of the third Critique. Although a foundation for this faculty was only established in 1790, we must interpret it as a critical solution to an old problem, which Kant had already recognized around 1770. Through his comprehension of the meaning of healthy understanding and native wit he already confirms the impossibility of determining (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. La logica dell'irrazionale: Studi sul significato e sui problemi della Kritik der Urteilskraft.Marco Sgarbi - 2010 - Mimesis.
  8. Kant on the Form of Aesthetic Judgment.Alexandra Newton - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Boston: de Gruyter. pp. 169-180.
  9. Aesthetic Judgment and the Completion of Kant’s Critical System.Lara Ostaric - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Boston: de Gruyter. pp. 679-690.
  10. Determinate and Indeterminate Judgments and the Unity of Kant's Critical Philosophy.Seung-kee Lee - 2000 - Dissertation, The Catholic University of America
    The aim of this dissertation is to propose and justify the thesis that Kant's theory of judgment, which plays a vital role in the Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgment, is fundamentally theoretical in nature, and that this theory insures the unity of the critical philosophy. Most of the contemporary writers who have dealt with the question of the unity of Kant's philosophy on the basis of his theory of judgement have emphasized the priority (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Kommentar zur ersten Einleitung in Kants Kritik der Urteilskraft: zur systemat. Funktion d. Kritik d. Urteilskraft f.d. System d. Vernunftkritik.Helga Mertens - 1975 - München: Berchman.
  12. Los principios del juicio reflexivo.Paul Guyer - 1996 - Dianoia 42 (42):1-59.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  13. Kant's Religion and Reflective Judgment.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):634--637.
  14. Kant's Theory of Inductive Reasoning: The reflecting power of judgment in Kant's Logic.Matthew McAndrew - 2014 - Kant Studies Online (1):43-64.
  15. Reflective Judgment, Orientation and the Priorities of Justice. [REVIEW]Rudolf Makkreel - 2001 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (3):105-110.
  16. Note on the Kantian distinction between natural judgment (reflecting) and transcendental judgment (determining).P. Faggiotto - 1990 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 19 (1-2):3-11.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. L'Urteilskraft nella formazione delle leggi empiriche secondo Kant.Pietro Faggiotto - 1995 - Studi Kantiani 8:31-38.
  18. Verdad y juicio reflexionante en Kant.María Isabel Cabrera Bosch - 1996 - Dianoia 42:81-90.
  19. Ingenio, Uso Hipotético de la Razón y Juicio Reflexionante en la Filosofía de Kant.Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez - 2012 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):577-592.
    This article researches the historical and systematic background of Kant’s reflecting power of judgment theory based on a historical study of the concept of wit [ingenium, Witz]. Although the Notes from Lessons on Anthropology even expound the meaning of this concept in the context of Baumgarten’s empirical psychology, this material helps us interpret the concept of wit as one of the most important precedents of the reflecting power of judgment theory presented in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment. The (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. La découverte de la faculté de juger réfléchissante.Daniel Dumouchel - 1994 - Kant Studien 85 (4):419-442.
  21. Munzel, G. Felicitas. Kant’s Conception of Moral Character: The ‘Critical’ Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment. [REVIEW]Ralf Meerbote - 2000 - Review of Metaphysics 53 (3):724-726.
  22. Logical purposiveness and the principle of taste.Luigi Caranti - 2005 - Kant Studien 96 (3):364-374.
    In both Introductions to the Critique of Judgment Kant seems to identify the a priori principle at the basis of aesthetic judgments with the principle that guides reflective judgment in its cognitive inquiry of nature, i.e. the purposiveness of nature or systematicity. For instance Kant writes.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  23. Critique of the power of judgment.Immanuel Kant - 2000 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Paul Guyer.
    The Critique of the Power of Judgment (a more accurate rendition of what has hitherto been translated as the Critique of Judgment) is the third of Kant's great critiques following the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason. This entirely new translation of Kant's masterpiece follows the principles and high standards of all other volumes in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. This volume includes: for the first time the indispensable first draft of Kant's (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   387 citations  
  24. Reflection, reflective judgment, and aesthetic exemplarity.Rudolf A. Makkreel - 2006 - In Rebecca Kukla (ed.), Aesthetics and Cognition in Kant's Critical Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kant: Teleological Judgment
  1. Magnitude, Matter, and Kant's Principle of Mechanism.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - Kant Yearbook.
    For Kant, inquiry into nature properly requires seeking to explain all material wholes merely mechanically, in terms of their parts. There is no consensus on how he justifies this Principle of Mechanism. I argue that Kant seeks to derive this claim about part and wholes neither from his laws or mechanics, nor from the mere discursivity of our understanding (two standard options in the literature), but instead from a priori principles laid out in the first Critique, which govern parts, wholes, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Kant on Judgment and Feeling.Nicholas Dunn - 2024 - Kant Studien 115 (1):46-70.
    It is well known that Kant connects judgment and feeling in the third Critique. However, the precise relationship between these two faculties remains virtually unexplored, in large part due to the unpopularity of Kant’s faculty psychology. This paper considers why, for Kant, judgment and feeling go together, arguing that he had good philosophical reasons for forging this connection. The discussion begins by situating these faculties within Kant’s mature faculty psychology. While the ‘power of judgment’ [Urteilskraft] is fundamentally reflective, feeling [Gefühl] (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3. The Science of Spiritual Biology: Replies to Critics – Part 2.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Spiritual Biology: Reply to Critics - Part One.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. The Science of Spiritual Biology.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    "Living systems are cognitive systems, and living as a process is a process of cognition." -H.R. Maturana, The Biology of Cognition (1970/1980) Just as the cell has gradually come to be understood as a highly regulated and unctionally integrated whole, so too is the biosphere now recognized as a finely balanced ecological whole in which local disturbances can create world-wide climatic catastrophe. The oversimplified ideas of biology that characterized the field in its immature beginning led to the theories of a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 258