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  1. Concept Construction in Kant's "Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science".Jennifer Nadine Mcrobert - 1995 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to ground Newtonian science. (...)
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  2. Kant’s Original Attractive Force.Samuel J. M. Kahn - forthcoming - In Nature and Freedom. Proceedings of the XII. International Kant Congress. Walter de Gruyter.
  3. Continuity of Change in Kant’s Dynamics.Michael McNulty - 2019 - Synthese 196 (4):1595-1622.
    Since his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft was first published in 1786, controversy has surrounded Immanuel Kant’s conception of matter. In particular, the justification for both his dynamical theory of matter and the related dismissal of mechanical philosophy are obscure. In this paper, I address these longstanding issues and establish that Kant’s dynamism rests upon Leibnizian, metaphysical commitments held by Kant from his early pre-Critical texts on natural philosophy to his major critical works. I demonstrate that, throughout his corpus and inspired (...)
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  4. A Suspicion of Architectonic in Kant’s Transition Project.Terrence Thomson - 2019 - Angelaki 24 (5):11-28.
    This essay explores the undervalued methodological elements underpinning Kant’s Transition from Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics in Opus postumum. I do this by drawing...
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  5. Kant on Laws.Eric Watkins - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on the unity, diversity, and centrality of the notion of law as it is employed in Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy. Eric Watkins argues that, by thinking through a number of issues in various historical, scientific, and philosophical contexts over several decades, Kant is able to develop a univocal concept of law that can nonetheless be applied to a wide range of particular cases, despite the diverse demands that these contexts give rise to. In addition, Watkins shows (...)
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  6. Kant on Reality, Cause, and Force: From the Early Modern Tradition to the Critical Philosophy. [REVIEW]Nabeel Hamid - 2018 - The Leibniz Review 28:119-122.
  7. Motion and the Affection Argument.Colin McLear - 2018 - Synthese 195 (11):4979-4995.
    In the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant presents an argument for the centrality of <motion> to our concept <matter>. This argument has long been considered either irredeemably obscure or otherwise defective. In this paper I provide an interpretation which defends the argument’s validity and clarifies the sense in which it aims to show that <motion> is fundamental to our conception of matter.
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  8. Chemical Dissolution and Kant’s Critical Theory of Nature.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (4):537-556.
    Kant conceives of chemical dissolutions as involving the infinite division and subsequent blending of solvent and solute. In the resulting continuous solution, every subvolume contains a uniform proportion of each reactant. Erich Adickes argues that this account stands in tension with other aspects of Kant’s Critical philosophy and his views on infinity. I argue that although careful analysis of Kant’s conception of dissolution addresses Adickes’ objections, the infinite division inherent to the process is beyond our human cognition, for Kant. Nevertheless, (...)
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  9. Kant on Empirical Psychology and Experimentation.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 2707-2714.
  10. Defending Kant’s Conception of Matter From the Charge of Circularity.Samuel Kahn - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (2):195-217.
    In the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (MFNS) Kant develops a conception of matter that is meant to issue in an alternative to what he takes to be the then reigning empiricist account of density. However, in recent years commentator after commentator has argued that Kant’s attempt on this front is faced with insuperable difficulties. Adickes argues that the MFNS theory of density involves Kant in a vicious circle; Tuschling argues that the circle is part of what led Kant to (...)
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  11. Kant on Impenetrability, Touch, and the Causal Content of Perception.Colin Marshall - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):1411-1433.
    It is well known that Kant claims that causal judgments, including judgments about forces, must have an a priori basis. It is less well known that Kant claims that we can perceive the repulsive force of bodies through the sense of touch. Together, these claims present an interpretive puzzle, since they appear to commit Kant to both affirming and denying that we can have perceptions of force. My first aim is to show that both sides of the puzzle have deep (...)
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  12. What is Chemistry, for Kant?Michael Bennett McNulty - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):85-112.
    Kant’s preoccupation with architectonics is a characteristic and noteworthy aspect of his thought. Various features of Kant’s argumentation and philosophical system are founded on the precise definitions of the various subdomains of human knowledge and the derivative borders among them. One science conspicuously absent from Kant’s routine discussions of the organization of knowledge is chemistry. Whereas sciences such as physics, psychology, and anthropology are all explicitly located in the architectonic, chemistry finds no such place. In this paper, I examine neglected (...)
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  13. From General to Special Metaphysics of Nature.Michael Bennett McNulty & Marius Stan - 2017 - In Matthew Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 493-511.
    In his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant presents the “pure part” of natural science – that is, the a priori principles holding of matter. This special metaphysics of matter is, Kant claims, grounded on the general metaphysics of nature described in the System of Principles of his first Critique. This chapter develops a comprehensive account of Kant’s framework for natural science that touches on interpretive issues that arise in the transition from general to special metaphysics and that outlines his (...)
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  14. Kantian Essentialism in the Metaphysical Foundations.Lydia Patton - 2017 - The Monist 100 (3):342-356.
    Ott (2009) identifies two kinds of philosophical theories about laws: top-down, and bottom-up. An influential top-down reading, exemplified by Ernst Cassirer, emphasized the ‘mere form of law’. Recent bottom-up accounts emphasize the mind-independent natures of objects as the basis of laws of nature. Stang and Pollok in turn focus on the transcendental idealist elements of Kant’s theory of matter, which leads to the question: is the essence of Kantian matter that it obeys the form of law? I argue that Kant (...)
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  15. Reconsidering Kantian Absolute Space in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science From a Huygensian Frame.Edward Slowik - 2017 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 6 (2):119-141.
    This essay explores Kant’s concept of absolute space in the Metaphysical Foundations from the perspective of the development of the relationist interpretation of bodily interactions in the center-of-mass reference frame, a strategy that Huygens had originally pioneered and which Mach also endorsed. In contrast to the interpretations of Kant that stress a non-relationist, Newton-inspired orientation in his critical period work, it will be argued that the content and function of Kant’s utilization of this reference frame strategy places him much closer (...)
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  16. Kosmos und Subjektivität in der Frühromantik.Philipp Weber - 2017 - Dissertation, Humboldt University Berlin
    Kosmos und Subjektivität – dieses Begriffspaar stellt sogleich einen Antagonismus vor, denn Subjektivität konstituiert sich alleine im irreduziblen Bruch mit der kosmischen Einheit. Gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts kommt es zu diesem Bruch, der sich durch ein Ineinanderwirken von wissenschaftlichen, philosophischen und ästhetischen Diskursen auszeichnet. Als entscheidender Schritt dieser Entwicklung, so die These der Untersuchung, lässt sich die Frühromantik verstehen: Sie insistiert zum einen auf dem Bruch mit der tradierten Vorstellung des Kosmos und entdeckt darin die Möglichkeitsbedingung moderner Subjektivität. Zum (...)
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  17. Kant’s Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Peter McLaughlin - 2016 - In Sally Sedgwick & Dina Emundts (eds.), Bewusstsein/Consciousness. De Gruyter. pp. 286-290.
  18. Chemistry in Kant’s Opus Postumum.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (1):64-95.
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (MAN), Kant claims that chemistry is an improper, though rational science. The chemistry to which Kant confers this status is the phlogistic chemistry of, for instance, Georg Stahl. In his Opus Postumum (OP), however, Kant espouses a broadly Lavoiserian conception of chemistry. In particular, Kant endorses Antoine Lavoisier's elements, oxygen theory of combustion, and role for the caloric. As Lavoisier's lasting contribution to chemistry, according to some histories of the science, was his emphasis on (...)
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  19. Review of Michael Friedman, Kant’s Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Xix + 646 Pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013. [REVIEW]Paolo Pecere - 2016 - Con-Textos Kantianos 3:437-445.
  20. Locke, Kant, and Synthetic A Priori Cognition.Brian A. Chance - 2015 - Kant Yearbook 7 (1).
    This paper attempts to shed light on three sets of issues that bear directly on our understanding of Locke and Kant. The first is whether Kant believes Locke merely anticipates his distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments or also believes Locke anticipates his notion of synthetic a priori cognition. The second is what should we as readers of Kant and Locke should think about Kant’s view whatever it turns out to be, and the third is the nature of Kant’s justification (...)
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  21. Platons Timaios und Kants Übergangsschrift (2015). Sonderegger (ed.) - 2015 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Following the structuring hints given by Plato in his Timaeus you find, that the dialogue – actually Timaeus' lecture – falls in two parts, not in three as Cornford, Brisson and others suggest. The main division follows the two invocations of the gods (27c, 48d). The first part presents the world in its noetic form, poetically described as the work of the demiurg. Timaeus opens this part giving first his premises in the form of an introduction, which lead his presentation. (...)
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  22. Kant and the Object of Determinate Experience.Marius Stan - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15:1-19.
    On an influential view, Newton's mechanics is built into Kant's very theory of exact knowledge. However, Newtonian dynamics had serious explanatory limits already known by 1750. Thus, we might worry that Kant's Analytic is too narrow to ground enough exact knowledge. In this paper, I draw on Enlightenment dynamics to show that Kant's notion of determinate objecthood is sufficiently broad, non-trivial, and still relevant to the present.
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  23. Michael Friedman, Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). Xix +624. £70.00 Hb. [REVIEW]Graham Bird - 2014 - Philosophical Investigations 37 (2):173-178.
  24. Laws of Nature and Causal Necessity.Michael Friedman - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (4):531-553.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 105 Heft: 4 Seiten: 531-553.
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  25. Kant's Construction of Nature.Jeremy Heis - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (3):342-354.
  26. Michael Friedman. Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Xix + 646 Pp., Bibl., Index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. $110. [REVIEW]David Hyder - 2014 - Isis 105 (2):433-435.
  27. Review of Michael Friedman, Kant’s Construction of Nature. [REVIEW]David Hyder - 2014 - Isis 105 (2):433-435.
  28. Kant on Chemistry and the Application of Mathematics in Natural Science.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (3):393-418.
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, Kant claims that chemistry is a science, but not a proper science (like physics), because it does not adequately allow for the application of mathematics to its objects. This paper argues that the application of mathematics to a proper science is best thought of as depending upon a coordination between mathematically constructible concepts and those of the science. In physics, the proper science that exhausts the a priori knowledge of objects of the outer sense, (...)
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  29. Review: Friedman, Michael, Kant’s Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science[REVIEW]Sebastian Rand - 2014 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (3):635-637.
  30. “God … has Sent Me to Germany”: Salomon Maimon, Friedrich Jacobi, and the Spinoza Quarrel.Bruce Rosenstock - 2014 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):287-315.
    Salomon Maimon's Versuch über die Transzendentalphilosophie [Essay in Transcendental Philosophy] (1790) challenges and reworks Kant's arguments in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft [Critique of Pure Reason] (1785, 2nd ed. 1787) about the foundations of natural science and of Newtonian physics in particular. Kant himself was impressed both with Maimon's grasp of his critical project and also with the force of his challenge to it. While Maimon's significance on the later development of German Idealism is now widely acknowledged, another aspect of (...)
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  31. Kant on the Construction and Composition of Motion in the Phoronomy.Daniel Sutherland - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (5-6):686-718.
    This paper examines the role of Kant's theory of mathematical cognition in his phoronomy, his pure doctrine of motion. I argue that Kant's account of how we can construct the composition of motion rests on the construction of extended intervals of space and time, and the representation of the identity of the part–whole relations the construction of these intervals allow. Furthermore, the construction of instantaneous velocities and their composition also rests on the representation of extended intervals of space and time, (...)
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  32. The Analogies of Experience as Premises of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Johan Blok - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 7-18.
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  33. The Transcendental Method From Newton to Kant.Robert DiSalle - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):448-456.
  34. Kant and Newton on the a Priori Necessity of Geometry.Mary Domski - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):438-447.
  35. Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Michael Friedman - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science is one of the most difficult but also most important of Kant's works. Published in 1786 between the first and second editions of the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations occupies a central place in the development of Kant's philosophy, but has so far attracted relatively little attention compared with other works of Kant's critical period. Michael Friedman's book develops a new and complete reading of this work and reconstructs Kant's main argument clearly (...)
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  36. Philosophy of Natural Science From Newton to Kant.Michela Massimi - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):393-395.
  37. Cartesian Echoes in Kant’s Philosophy of Nature.Michela Massimi & Silvia De Bianchi - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):481-492.
  38. Review: Watkins (Ed.), Immanuel Kant, Natural Science[REVIEW]Lydia Patton - 2013 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:unknown.
    Natural Science is a new volume of the Cambridge translations of Kant's works. It makes available some of the most significant texts of Kant's pre-Critical period, some appearing for the first time in English translation. The translations are largely clear and accurate. Eric Watkins is a sure and knowledgeable editor, and provides concise and informative introductions to each text.
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  39. Does Kant Have a Pre-Newtonian Picture of Force in the Balance Argument? An Account of How the Balance Argument Works.Sheldon R. Smith - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):470-480.
  40. Kant’s Third Law of Mechanics: The Long Shadow of Leibniz.Marius Stan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):493-504.
    This paper examines the origin, range and meaning of the Principle of Action and Reaction in Kant’s mechanics. On the received view, it is a version of Newton’s Third Law. I argue that Kant meant his principle as foundation for a Leibnizian mechanics. To find a ‘Newtonian’ law of action and reaction, we must look to Kant’s ‘dynamics,’ or theory of matter. I begin, in part I, by noting marked differences between Newton’s and Kant’s laws of action and reaction. I (...)
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  41. The Continuum Companion to Kant.Gary Banham, Dennis Schulting & Nigel Hems (eds.) - 2012 - Continuum.
    The first genuine and comprehensive English-language handbook to the study of Kant's philosophy, containing sections on Kant's key works, the philosophical and historical contexts of his philosophy, essays on the reception and influence of the Kantian philosophy, a lexical A-Z list of lemmata addressing central themes and concepts of Kant's thought and an extensive English-language bibliography of secondary literature.
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  42. Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Michael Friedman - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third chapters—the Dynamics (...)
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  43. Natural Science.Immanuel Kant - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Thoughts on the true estimation of living forces and assessment of the demonstrations that Leibniz and other scholars of mechanics have made use of in this controversial subject, together with some prefatory considerations pertaining to the force of bodies in general (1746-1749) Translated by Jeffrey B. Edwards and Martin Schönfeld; 2. Examination of the question whether the rotation of the Earth on its axis by which it brings about the alternation of day and night has (...)
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  44. Kant on Experiment.Alberto Vanzo - 2012 - In James Maclaurin (ed.), Rationis Defensor. Springer. pp. 75-96.
    This paper discusses Immanuel Kant’s views on the role of experiments in natural science, focusing on their relationship with hypotheses, laws of nature, and the heuristic principles of scientific enquiry. Kant’s views are contrasted with the philosophy of experiment that was first sketched by Francis Bacon and later developed by Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. Kant holds that experiments are always designed and carried out in the light of hypotheses. Hypotheses are derived from experience on the basis of a set (...)
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  45. Pourquoi la chimie ne peut-elle aspirer au titre de science proprement dite?Henny Blomme - 2011 - In Grapotte Sophie, Lequan Mai & Ruffing Margit (eds.), Kant et les sciences. Un dialogue philosophique avec la pluralité des savoirs. Vrin. pp. 129-138.
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  46. Kant, Reichenbach, and the Fate of A Priori Principles.Karin de Boer - 2011 - European Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):507-531.
    Abstract: This article contends that the relation of early logical empiricism to Kant was more complex than is often assumed. It argues that Reichenbach's early work on Kant and Einstein, entitled The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge (1920) aimed to transform rather than to oppose Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. One the one hand, I argue that Reichenbach's conception of coordinating principles, derived from Kant's conception of synthetic a priori principles, offers a valuable way of accounting for the (...)
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  47. Kant and Whewell on Bridging Principles Between Metaphysics and Science.Steffen Ducheyne - 2011 - Kant-Studien 102 (1):22-45.
    In this essay, I call attention to Kant’s and Whewell’s attempt to provide bridging principles between a priori principles and scientific laws. Part of Kant’s aim in the Opus postumum (ca. 1796-1803) was precisely to bridge the gap between the metaphysical foundations of natural science (on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) see section 1) and physics by establishing intermediary concepts or ‘Mittelbegriffe’ (henceforth this problem is referred to as ‘the bridging-problem’). I argue that the late-Kant attempted to show (...)
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  48. Transcendental Idealism and the Problem of the External World.Richard Fincham - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (2):221-241.
    Kant's transcendental idealism is often praised for resolving antinomies and attacked for representationalism. Such an attitude prevailed even among Kant's contemporaries. As early as 1787 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi noted that the "main advantage" of the doctrine that we cognize only appearances and not things in themselves is that it resolves the antinomical conflicts in which previous metaphysics was embroiled and thus "sets reason at rest." Yet, at the same time, Jacobi bemoaned that the transcendental idealist cannot consistently uphold the positive (...)
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  49. Philosophy in Science: An Historical Introduction.Michał Heller - 2011 - Springer.
    The first task of the philosophy of nature -- The problem of elementarity -- The philosophical myth of creation : the Platonic philosophy of nature -- Aristotle's Physics -- Aristotle's method of cosmological speculation -- Descartes' mechanism -- Isaac Newton and the mathematical principles of natural philosophy -- The world of Leibniz : the best of all possible worlds -- Immanuel Kant : the a priori conditions of the sciences -- The romantic philosophy of nature -- The cosmology of Whitehead: (...)
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  50. Kant’s Dynamical Theory of Matter in 1755, and its Debt to Speculative Newtonian Experimentalism.Michela Massimi - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):525-543.
    This paper explores the scientific sources behind Kant’s early dynamic theory of matter in 1755, with a focus on two main Kant’s writings: Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens and On Fire. The year 1755 has often been portrayed by Kantian scholars as a turning point in the intellectual career of the young Kant, with his much debated conversion to Newton. Via a careful analysis of some salient themes in the two aforementioned works, and a reconstruction of the (...)
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