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Summary Kant's thought about logic is at once central to his own philosophical system and also stands at a key transitional moment in the broader history of logic and philosophy of logic.  Kant conceives of logic as the science of our understanding, which means that it is tasked with discovering the basic kinds of activities that our understanding is capable of (formal logic), as well as the basic kinds of representational contents (concepts) that our understanding makes use of in these acts (transcendental logic).  Because forming a science is itself one of these acts, and because philosophy itself is intended to be a science, Kant thinks that logic provides philosophy with the core blueprint of its structure -- a thought exemplified by his famous organizational 'Tables', and picked up by later German Idealists (among others).  Yet because Kant thinks that our minds are capable of more than just understanding, both in terms of the kinds of its activity and in terms of the representational contents it can engage with, Kant thinks that the knowledge provided within logic is sharply limited.  Critically revisiting these alleged restrictions provided inspiration for many of those responsible for the most influential developments in the subsequent history of logic (such as Bolzano, Frege, and Russell).
Key works Despite its central importance for his philosophical system, Kant himself did not publish a separate work on logic during his lifetime.  Nevertheless, Kant does present his views on logic in almost all of his most important theoretical writings, including Kant 1998, and works collected in Kant 2002 and Kant 2002.  What is more, Kant lectured on logic throughout the entirety of his career, and the surviving student transcripts of some of these lectures provide us with a further window into Kant's thought about logic, some of which are collected in Kant 1992.  Finally, the vast collection of notes and fragments that Kant left after his death contain many brief discussions about logic, some of which can be found in Kant 2005.
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  1. Review: Lewis White Beck, Can Kant's Synthetic Judgements Be Made Analytic? [REVIEW]Anthony Anderson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (1):167-168.
  2. Kant e la logica formale.Francesco Barone - 1956 - Filosofia 7 (4):697-750.
  3. Again on Existence as a Predicate.Ermanno Bencivenga - 1980 - Philosophical Studies 37 (2):125-138.
  4. Zur Lehre Kants von den logischen Grundsätzen.J. Bergmann - 1898 - Kant-Studien 2 (1-3):323-348.
  5. What is “Formal Logic”?Jean-Yves Beziau - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:9-22.
    “Formal logic”, an expression created by Kant to characterize Aristotelian logic, has also been used as a name for modern logic, originated by Boole and Frege, which in many aspects differs radically from traditional logic. We shed light on this paradox by distinguishing in this paper five different meanings of the expression “formal logic”: (1) Formal reasoning according to the Aristotelian dichotomy of form and content, (2) Formal logic as a formal science by opposition to an empirical science, (3) Formal (...)
  6. I. KANT "Lectures on Logic". [REVIEW]T. Boswell - 1994 - History and Philosophy of Logic 15 (2):244.
  7. Robert Hanna, Rationality and Logic Reviewed By.Manuel Bremer - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27 (4):264-266.
  8. Dialectic, Probability and Verisimilitude in Kant's Logic.Mirella Capozzi - 2001 - In V. Fano, M. Stanzione & G. Tarozzi (eds.), Prospettive Della Logica E Della Filosofia Della Scienza. Rubettino. pp. 31.
  9. George A. Schrader, Some Questions on Kant.Gordon H. Clark - 1951 - Review of Metaphysics 5:473.
  10. Kant's Logic as a Critical Aid.James Collins - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 30 (3):440 - 461.
  11. "Kants Logik: Eine Interpretation Auf der Grundlage von Vorlesungen, Veröffentlichten Werken Und Nachlass," by Rainer Stuhlmann-Laeisz. [REVIEW]James Collins - 1977 - Modern Schoolman 54 (3):311-312.
  12. Review of G. Tonelli, Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" Within the Tradition of Modern Logic[REVIEW]Alfredo Ferrarin - 1997 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (3):472-474.
  13. Bolzano's Legacy Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) Was an Original and Independent Thinker, Who Left a Lasting Legacy in Several Areas of Philosophy. [REVIEW]D. Foellesdal - forthcoming - Grazer Philosophische Studien.
  14. Kant and the Question "Is Existence a Predicate?".J. William Forgie - 1975 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 5 (4):563 - 582.
  15. Frege's Objection to the Ontological Argument.J. William Forgie - 1972 - Noûs 6 (3):251-265.
    Frege argued that 1) in making existence assertions we ascribe (or deny) the second-Level property, 'not being empty', To a first-Level concept. He inferred from this that 2) existence is a second-Level property, The property 'not being empty'. He therefore rejected the ontological proof of the existence of God because, He claimed, It depends on the assumption that existence is a first-Level, And not a second-Level, Property. In this paper it is argued, First, That frege is unsuccessful in his attempt (...)
  16. Bolzano's Legacy.Dagfin Føllesdal - 1997 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:1-11.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) was an original and independent thinker, who left a lasting legacy in several areas of philosophy. Four such areas are singled for special attention: political philosophy, ethics and theology, logics and semantics, and mathematics. In all these areas he was far ahead of his time. He had pioneering ideas in political philosophy and in ethics and philosophy of religion, and he argued for them in a brilliantly clear way. In logic and semantics he anticipated Frege, Carnap and (...)
  17. Kant, Cicero, and «popularity» in the Lectures on Logic.Catalina González - 2015 - In Ubirajara Rancan de Azevedo Marques, Robert Louden, Claudio La Rocca & Bernd Dörflinger (eds.), Kant's Lectures / Kants Vorlesungen. De Gruyter. pp. 47-60.
  18. Kant et la raison comme fonctionnalité logique.Bruno Haas - 2004 - Archives de Philosophie 3:379-398.
  19. Tra Illuminismo e critica della ragione: il significato filosofico del corpus logico di Kant.Norbert Hinske - 1994 - Rivista di Filosofia 85 (2):163-183.
  20. Immanuel Kant, Lectures on Logic Reviewed By.Robert A. Holland - 1993 - Philosophy in Review 13 (5):239-241.
  21. I Kant ’s Lectures On Logic; I.Kant ’s Theoretical Writings 1755-1770. [REVIEW]F. Hughes - 1995 - Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 32:14-18.
  22. Logic From the German of Emmanuel Kant, M.A. ... To Which is Annexed a Sketch of His Life and Writings.Immanuel Kant, John Richardson & W. Simpkin and R. Marshall - 1819 - Printed for W. Simpkin and R. Marshall ..
  23. The Traditional Conception of the a Priori.Masashi Kasaki & C. Jenkins - 2015 - Synthese 192 (9):2725-2746.
    In this paper, we explore the traditional conception of a prioricity as epistemic independence of evidence from sense experience. We investigate the fortunes of the traditional conception in the light of recent challenges by Timothy Williamson. We contend that Williamson’s arguments can be resisted in various ways. En route, we argue that Williamson’s views are not as distant from tradition as they might seem at first glance.
  24. The Aim of Russell's Early Logicism: A Reinterpretation.Anders Kraal - 2013 - Synthese 191 (7):1-18.
    I argue that three main interpretations of the aim of Russell’s early logicism in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) are mistaken, and propose a new interpretation. According to this new interpretation, the aim of Russell’s logicism is to show, in opposition to Kant, that mathematical propositions have a certain sort of complete generality which entails that their truth is independent of space and time. I argue that on this interpretation two often-heard objections to Russell’s logicism, deriving from Gödel’s incompleteness theorem (...)
  25. Kant on Proving Aristotle’s Logic as Complete.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (1):1-26.
    Kant claims that Aristotles logic as complete, explain the historical and philosophical considerations that commit him to proving the completeness claim and sketch the proof based on materials from his logic corpus. The proof will turn out to be an integral part of Kant’s larger reform of formal logic in response to a foundational crisis facing it.
  26. The Logic of Relations and the Ideality of Space.Danielle MacBeth - 1995 - Journal of Philosophical Research 20:367-379.
    As Friedman has argued, Kant's argument for the ideality of space turns on the nondeductive character of geometrical reasoning in Euclid's system. Since geometry can be axiomatized, this argument fails. But ("pace" Russell) Leibniz's argument based on the unreality of constitutive relations is not thereby answered as well. I argue that what is needed in response to Leibniz is a properly post-Kantian conception of concepts as inferentially articulated. This conception, I suggest, is based on the same fundamental insight that underlies (...)
  27. The Philosophy of Logic.Penelope Maddy - 2012 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):481-504.
    This talk surveys a range of positions on the fundamental metaphysical and epistemological questions about elementary logic, for example, as a starting point: what is the subject matter of logic—what makes its truths true? how do we come to know the truths of logic? A taxonomy is approached by beginning from well-known schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics—Logicism, Intuitionism, Formalism, Realism—and sketching roughly corresponding views in the philosophy of logic. Kant, Mill, Frege, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Ayer, Quine, and Putnam (...)
  28. The Relation of Logic and Intuition in Kant's Philosophy of Science, Particularly Geometry.Ulrich Majer - 2006 - In Emily Carson & Renate Huber (eds.), Intuition and the Axiomatic Method. Springer. pp. 47--66.
  29. Inverse Psychologism in the Theory of Judgment.Wayne Martin - manuscript
    Outline: 1. Why Judgment? 2. Inverse Psychologism: General Issues 3. Inverse Psychologism in the Phenomeno-Logic of Judgment 4. Judgment and Language 5. [De-]stabilizing Kant ’s Inverse Psychologism.
  30. Kant's Transcendental Logic.H. E. Matthews - 1970 - Philosophical Books 11 (2):28-29.
  31. Peirce's Adaptation of Kant's Definition of Logic: The Early Manuscripts.Emily Michael - 1978 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 14 (3):176 - 183.
  32. Formalism of Kant's A Priori Versus Scheler's Material A Priori.Imtiaz Moosa - 1995 - International Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):33-47.
  33. Thinking the in-Itself and its Relation to Appearances.Christian Onof - unknown
    Book synopsis: This key collection of essays sheds new light on long-debated controversies surrounding Kant’s doctrine of idealism and is the first book in the English language that is exclusively dedicated to the subject. Well-known Kantians Karl Ameriks and Manfred Baum present their considered views on this most topical aspect of Kant's thought. Several essays by acclaimed Kant scholars broach a vastly neglected problem in discussions of Kant's idealism, namely the relation between his conception of logic and idealism: The standard (...)
  34. Francesco Barone: Logica formale E logica trascendentale. I: Da Leibniz a Kant. [REVIEW]George Henry Radcliffe Parkinson - 1970 - Studia Leibnitiana 2:67.
  35. On the Akademie Edition of the New Logic Writings From the Previously Unpublished Works of Kant.T. Pinder - 2000 - Kant-Studien 91:172-177.
  36. Kants Begriff der Logik.Tillmann Pinder - 1979 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 61 (3):309-336.
  37. Two Concepts of Apriority.Marcin Poręba - 2013 - Dialogue and Universalism 23 (2):43-53.
    The paper considers two—in author’s belief fundamental—approaches to apriority, which he proposes to call “absolute” and “relative.” The first was most fully expressed by Immanuel Kant, the second by Ludwig Wittgenstein. In author’s opinion, both derive from empiricist philosophy in its modern form. The concept of experience which is characteristic of modern empiricism forces acceptance of certain experienceindependent (a priori) assumptions, thanks to which only experience can provide information about objects. Depending on whether we regard these assumptions as independent of (...)
  38. I. KANT Logik-Vorlesungen: Unveroffentliche Nachschriften.R. Pozzo - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (2):133-133.
  39. Comments on Mosser's "Kant and the Logic of Aristotle".Hoke Robinson - 2007 - Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (2):33-36.
  40. Categories of the Temporal: An Inquiry Into the Forms of the Finite Understanding.Sebastian Rödl - 2012 - Harvard University Press.
    The publication of Frege’s Begriffsschrift in 1879 forever altered the landscape for many Western philosophers. Here, Sebastian Rödl traces how the Fregean influence, written all over the development and present state of analytic philosophy, led into an unholy alliance of an empiricist conception of sensibility with an inferentialist conception of thought. -/- According to Rödl, Wittgenstein responded to the implosion of Frege’s principle that the nature of thought consists in its inferential order, but his Philosophical Investigations shied away from offering (...)
  41. Bolzano's Philosophy and the Emergence of Modern Mathematics.Paul Rusnock (ed.) - 2000 - Rodopi.
    Contents: Acknowledgements. Conventions. Preface. Biographical sketch. 1 Introduction. 2 The Contributions. 3 Early work in analysis. 4 The Theory of Science . 5. Later mathematical studies. A On Kantian Intuitions. B The Bolzano-Cauchy Theorem.
  42. Philosophy of Mathematics: Bolzano's Responses to Kant and Lagrange/La Philosophie des Mathématiques: Les Réponses de Bolzano À Kant Et Lagrange.Paul Rusnock - 1999 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 52 (3):399-428.
  43. A Note on Kant's Formal Logic.Pedro Santos - 2012 - Manuscrito 35 (1):99-113.
  44. Bolzano's Wissenschaftslehre, 1837-1987 International Workshop.Centro Fiorentino di Storia E. Filisofia Della Scienza - 1992
  45. Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason Within the Tradition of Modern Logic.Marco Sgarbi - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 497-508.
  46. Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica.Marco Sgarbi - 2009 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia (2):289-313.
    Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica - This article shows the influence of the Aristotelian Paul Rabe on Immanuel Kant’s philosophy. In the first part, I reconstruct the status quaestions regarding Rabe in Aristotelian studies and in Kantforschung. The second part looks at Rabe’s life and works. It is demonstrated in the third part that Kant’s definition of dialectic as Logik des Scheins comes from Rabe’s definition of dialectic as logica ex apparentibus. The fourth part shows the Aristotelian origin of (...)
  47. Bolzano sur les nombres.Peter Simons - 2003 - Philosophiques 30 (1):127-135.
    Dans cet article, l’auteur présente la théorie bolzanienne du nombre. Il établit, sur la base d’une comparaison avec Frege, que la conception bolzanienne rencontre toutes les exigences d’une telle théorie tout en présentant plusieurs traits originaux, comme par exemple le fait qu’elle s’articule sur la base d’une théorie des « collections » , qui lui confèrent un intérêt philosophique certain. Tout en indiquant au passage un problème inhérent à la notion bolzanienne de Reihe, l’auteur présente la conception bolzanienne des nombres (...)
  48. Die Logik und ihr Spiegelbild: Das Verhältnis von formaler und transzendentaler Logik in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung.Maria Jesús Vásquez Lobeiras - 1998 - Lang.
  49. Kant on the Primacy and the Limits of Logic.Richard Velkley - 1986 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 11 (2):147-162.
  50. Der Begriff des „transscendentalen Gegenstandes“ bei Kant — und Schopenhauers Kritik desselben.Mscislaw Wartenberg - 1900 - Kant-Studien 4 (1-3):202-231.
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