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Summary      Kant’s Philosophy of Religion has both negative and positive components; and one can see this duality in his famous statement in the B-Preface of the Critique of Pure Reason that he sought out the limits to knowledge [Wissen] in order to make room for faith [Glaube] (Bxxx).  It is in light of this anthem that his critique of the traditional proofs for God's existence should be understood.  They do not reflect the essence of Kant's Philosophy of Religion, but are rather just small pieces of a far richer position.  Echoing Kant’s Lutheran upbringing, he wants to remove religion from the “monopoly of the schools” and set it on a footing suitable to “the common human understanding” (Bxxxii).  He achieves this through an appeal to our shared human need for "a special point of reference for the unification of all ends" (6:5).  This "point of reference" is the Highest Good, an ideal state of affairs in which there is a distribution of happiness in accordance with moral worth. However, because the Highest Good can neither be realized by us nor within the order of nature, Kant postulates God and Immortality.  These are all objects of faith [Glaube] for Kant, and faith, he maintains, is an intersubjectively valid, legitimate mode of assent.  That is, Kant quite sternly and repeatedly argues that faith is not the same as "wishful thinking" or rooted in grounds that have "mere private validity".  Rather, faith is, despite its practical grounding, a mode of conviction [Überzeugung] that affirms its object as true (and certain). Beyond the Highest Good and its Postulates, Kant's positive Philosophy of Religion expands quite broadly into doctrines related to the nature of sin and salvation, miracles, Providence, Ecclesiology, and Eschatology.  While the Highest Good and the Postulates serve as their common foundation, Kant articulates these doctrines in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, as components of what he there calls the "Pure Rational System of Religion". 
Key works "The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God" (1763) "Inquiry into the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality" (1764) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) "What does it Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking" (1786) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Judgment (1790) "On the Miscarriage of all Philosophical Trials in Theodicy" (1791) Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793) "The End of All Things" (1794) The Conflict of the Faculties (1798)
Introductions Stephen Palmquist, "Does Kant Reduce Religion to Morality?" Kant-Studien, 83:2 (1992), 129-148 Lawrence Pasternack, “The Development and Scope of Kantian Belief: The Highest Good, the Practical Postulates, and the Fact of Reason” Kant-Studien, 102:3 (2011), 290-315 Lawrence Pasternack, “Kant on the Debt of Sin” Faith and Philosophy, 29:1 (2012), 30-52 Lawrence Pasternack, Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: an Interpretation and Defense (Routledge, 2013) Allen Wood, Kant's Moral Religion (Cornell, 1970)
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  1. What Perfection Demands: An Irenaean of Kant on Radical Evil.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - In Chris L. Firestone, Nathan Jacobs & James Joiner (eds.), Kant and the Question of Theology,. Cambridge University Press. pp. 183-200.
    In this essay I will show that the incoherence many commentators have found in Kant’s Religion is due to Augustinian assumptions about human evil that they are implicitly reading into the text. Eliminate the assumptions, and the inconsistencies evaporate: both theses, those of universality and moral responsibility, can be held together without contradiction. The Augustinian view must be replaced with what John Hick has dubbed an “Irenaean” account of human evil, which portrays the human being and his or her task (...)
  2. The Religious A Priori in Otto and its Kantian Origins.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Heinrich Assel, Christine Helmer & Bruce McCormack (eds.), Luther, Barth, and Movements of Theological Renewal 1918-1833. De Gruyter.
    This paper provides an analysis of Rudolph Otto's understanding of the structures of human consciousness making possible the appropriation of revelation. Already in his dissertation on Luther's understanding of the Holy Spirit, Otto was preoccupied with how the " outer " of revelation could be united to these inner structures. Later, in his groundbreaking Idea of the Holy, Otto would explore the category of the numinous, an element of religious experience tied to the irrational element of the holy. This paper (...)
  3. Kant's Robust Theory of Grace.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - International Journal of Philosophy 6:302-320.
    In this paper I argue against two prevailing views of Kant’s Religion. Against commentators such as Michalson and Quinn, who have argued that Kant’s project in Religion is riddled with inconsistencies and circularities, I show that a proper understanding of Kant’s views on grace reveals these do not exist. And contra commentators that attribute to Kant at best a minimalist conception of grace (e.g., Wood 1991 and Pasternack 2014), I show that Kant’s view of it is remarkably robust. I argue (...)
  4. The Highest Good in Kant’s Philosophy. Ed. By Thomas Höwing. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016. 294 P. ISBN 978-3-11-036900-7.Lawrence Pasternack - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (3):477-482.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 3 Seiten: 477-482.
  5. Predication and Modality in Kant’s Critique of the Ontological Argument.Lawrence Pasternack - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):149-170.
    There is perhaps no more famous objection to the Ontological Argument than Kant’s contention that existence is not a predicate. However, this is not his only objection against the Ontological Argument. It is rather part of a more comprehensive attack on the OA, one that contains at least four distinct arguments, only one of which involves. It is the purpose of this paper to explore Kant’s case for, consider three contemporary strategies used to reinforce it, assess their merits, and then (...)
  6. God, Hypostasis, and the Threat of Paradox: Exploring Kantian And Non-Kantian Reasons for Circumspection.Damián Bravo Zamora - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):171-198.
    In this paper, I present an interpretation of Kant’s view that reason’s hypostasis of the idea of a sum-total of reality is dogmatic and illegitimate. In the section on the ‘Transcendental Ideal’, the second section of the Ideal of Pure Reason chapter in the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant starts by describing reason’s procedure from the affirmation of the principle of thoroughgoing determination to the hypostasis in question. According to the interpretation I defend, the argument for hypostasis deployed in this (...)
  7. Hidden Antinomies of Practical Reason, and Kant’s Religion of Hope.Rachel Zuckert - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):199-217.
    In the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant argues that morality obliges us to believe in the immortality of the soul and the existence of God. I argue, however, that in two late essays – “The End of All Things” and “On the Miscarriage of all Philosophical Trials in Theodicy” – Kant provides moral counterarguments to that position: these beliefs undermine moral agency by giving rise to fanaticism or fatalism. Thus, I propose, the Kantian position on the justification of religious belief (...)
  8. Kant’s Critical Argument for Immortality Reassessed.Andree Hahmann - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):19-41.
    Kant’s postulate of the immortality of the soul has received strikingly little attention among Kant scholars, and only very few have regarded it positively. This is not surprising given the numerous problems associated with his argument. However, it is not the only argument for immortality that Kant offers in his critical philosophy. There is also a second argument that differs from the one furnished in the Second Critique and can be found both in the Critique of Pure Reason and later (...)
  9. Evil, the Laws of Nature, and Miracles.George Huxford - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):43-62.
    This paper takes a less trodden path in its approach to Kant’s philosophy of religion. Rather than a detailed study of his mature works on the subject, some of his pre-Critical works are examined. These reveal what I hold to be four foundations which remain unchanged through Kant’s philosophical career and thus act to hold up his later work on the subject. The main body of the paper is presented in two parts. In the first, we see that Kant finds (...)
  10. Kant on Contradiction, Conceptual Content, and the Ens Realissimum.Michael Oberst - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):85-103.
    Kant assents to Leibniz’s claim that purely positive concepts cannot contradict each other. Albeit counter-intuitive, this claim is well-grounded in Kant’s views on contradiction and conceptual content. First, according to Kant, a contradiction only occurs if a predicate is affirmed and negated; second, all concepts except of those that pertain to God covertly contain negative marks. Although I shall argue that Kant’s account fails, it is still interesting in that it tackles an overlooked problem, namely how implicit contradictions are possible.
  11. Schiller on Evil and the Emergence of Reason.Owen Ware - 2018 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 35 (4):337-355.
    Schiller was one of many early post-Kantians who wrestled with Kant’s doctrine of radical evil, a doctrine that continues to puzzle commentators today. Schiller’s own explanation of why we are prone to pursue happiness without restriction is, I argue, subtle and multilayered: it offers us a new genealogy of reflective agency, linking our tendency to egoism to the first emergence of reason within human beings. On the reading I defend, our drive for the absolute does not lead us directly to (...)
  12. The Right, the Good, and the Threat of Despair: (Kantian) Ethics and the Need for Hope in God.Kyla Ebels-Duggan - 2015 - In Jonathan Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, vol 7. New York, NY, USA:
    Kant rejects all of the standard accounts of the dependence of morality on religious claims or commitment. He nevertheless thinks that morality “leads to” religion. I defend an account of this “leading to” relationship, arguing that it is the result of Kant’s struggle to capture the practical import of the consequences of our actions within a moral theory that rejects the idea that we must maximize the good. On this view, the best way to acknowledge that the outcomes of our (...)
  13. The "Proper" Tone of Critical Philosophy. Kant and Derrida on Metaphilosophy and the Use of Religious Tropes.Dennis Schulting - forthcoming - In Kant and the Continental Tradition: Sensibility, Nature, and Religion. London: Routledge.
    This is an essay on Kant's neglected late tract On a Recently Adopted Prominent Tone in Philosophy (RTP) and Derrida's oblique commentary on this work in his D'un ton apocalyptique adopté naguère en philosophie. The theme of the essay is metaphilosophical and considers issues concerning the nature of critical philosophy, fanaticism (Schwärmerei), and the use of religious tropes in philosophy. I am primarily interested in the ways in which RTP thematises the legitimacy of speaking in an exalted, quasi-religious tone apropos (...)
  14. Kant's Anatomy of Evil.Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant infamously claimed that all human beings, without exception, are evil by nature. This collection of essays critically examines and elucidates what he must have meant by this indictment. It shows the role which evil plays in his overall philosophical project and analyses its relation to individual autonomy. Furthermore, it explores the relevance of Kant's views for understanding contemporary questions such as crimes against humanity and moral reconstruction. Leading scholars in the field engage a wide range of sources from which (...)
  15. Kant on Religious Moral Education.Dennis Vanden Auweele - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (3):373-394.
    While scholars are slowly coming to realize that Kants reflections on religion in parts II and III of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason interpret religion specifically as one aspect of moral education, namely moral ascetics. After first clearly distinguishing between a cognitive and a conative aspect of moral education, I show how certain historical religious practices serve to provide the conative aspect of moral education. Kant defines this aspect of moral education as practices that render the human agent. (...)
  16. Kant's Argument That Existence is Not a Determination.Nicholas Stang - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):583-626.
    In this paper, I examine Kant's famous objection to the ontological argument: existence is not a determination. Previous commentators have not adequately explained what this claim means, how it undermines the ontological argument, or how Kant argues for it. I argue that the claim that existence is not a determination means that it is not possible for there to be non-existent objects; necessarily, there are only existent objects. I argue further that Kant's target is not merely ontological arguments as such (...)
  17. Kant on History and Religion with a Translation of Kant's "on the Failure of All Attempted Philosophical Theodicies".Michel Despland & Immanuel Kant - 1973
  18. Kant's Theorie der Reinmoralishen [Sic] Religion Mit Rücksicht Auf Das Reine Christentum Kurz Dargestellt.Immanuel Kant - 1796
  19. From Existence to the Ideal Continuity and Development in Kant's Theology.Regina O. M. Dell'oro - 1994
  20. For What May I Hope? Thinking with Kant and Kierkegaard.Gene Fendt - 1990 - Peter Lang.
    This book exhibits the centrality of hope in Kant's critical philosophy, and brings into question the rationality of that hope, and how the question of that rationality can be raised. The question of the rationality of hope is further explored through Kierkegaard's writing.
  21. Intuition Et Religion. By Jean Wahl. [REVIEW]Nicola Abbagnano - 1947 - Ethics 58:311.
  22. Shall We Reason with God?R. Nicol Cross - 1947 - Hibbert Journal 46:125.
  23. Sentido da Offenbarung Em Kant Nos Limites da Vernunft.Ramiro de Meneses - 2008 - Información Filosófica 5 (11):12-37.
    I define the sense of Revelation that was a very important element in the making of Kant’s Philosophy of Religion. Naturally, the Prussian philosopher analyzed Christian doctrines searching for some theoretical inspiration. However, he asserts that relevant ideas of his thought or religion were in fact inspired by the reading of the Bible ideas such as those of revelation, and radical evil. Christian faith is highly appreciated by Kant among the world’s religions, because historically it has been a formidable promoter (...)
  24. Religie En Ethiek Bij Kant.Hendrik Adriaanse - 2003 - de Uil Van Minerva 19:3-18.
  25. England's Kant's Conception of God.John Baillie - 1931 - Journal of Philosophy 28:558.
  26. What Can Christian Theologians Learn From Kant?Chris L. Firestone - 2007 - Philosophia Christi 9 (1):7-20.
  27. Reason and God. [REVIEW]W. E. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 15 (4):680-680.
  28. God : A Critique of Kant's Objections.Julian Bayart - 1933 - Modern Schoolman 11 (1):11-14.
  29. Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts.Will Dudley & Kristina Engelhard - 2011 - Routledge.
    Immanuel Kant is among the most pivotal thinkers in the history of philosophy. His transcendental idealism claims to overcome the skepticism of David Hume, resolve the impasse between empiricism and rationalism, and establish the reality of human freedom and moral agency. A thorough understanding of Kant is indispensable to any philosopher today. The significance of Kant's thought is matched by its complexity. His revolutionary ideas are systematically interconnected and he presents them using a forbidding technical vocabulary. A careful investigation of (...)
  30. Kant and the Meaning of Religion.Terry F. Godlove - 2014 - Columbia University Press.
    Terry F. Godlove discovers in Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy resources that have much wider implications beyond Christianity and the philosophical issues that concern monotheism and its beliefs. For Godlove, Kant's insights, when properly applied, can help rejuvenate our understanding of the general study of religion and its challenges. He therefore bypasses what is usually considered to be the "Kantian philosophy of religion" and instead focuses on more fundamental issues, such as Kant's account of concepts, experience, and reason and their significance (...)
  31. Kant on God.Peter Byrne - 2007 - Ashgate Pub Co.
  32. Kant on Freewill, Grace and Forgiveness.Leslie Stevenson - 2014 - Diametros 39:125-139.
    How do our secular reflections on freewill relate to the theological tradition of human freedom and divine grace? I will pursue this question with reference to Kant, who represents a half-way house between Christianity and the atheism of other Enlightenment thinkers. But are those the only two alternatives? I suggest that Kant’s wrestling with the notion of divine grace can draw us all towards recognition of the ultimate mystery of human motivation and behaviour, and our need for forgiveness and hope.
  33. The Crucial Place of the Philosophy of Religion in Kant Thought.C. Esposito - 1995 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 50 (2):277-311.
  34. Ética y religión en el pensamineto de Kant.José María Artola - 2000 - Ciencia Tomista 127 (411):161-172.
  35. Metaphysics and Faith in Kant.P. Faggiotto - 1998 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 90 (3).
  36. Kant, Religion, and Politics. [REVIEW]Jacqueline Mariña - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    A review of James Di Censo's book on Kant, religion, and politics.
  37. Pokusy i grzechy wiary pragmatycznej. Immanuel Kant o wewnętrznym kłamstwie.Włodzimierz Galewicz - 2004 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 52 (2):111-120.
    The paper an analytical-interpretative commentary on several excerpts from I. Kant. The first one with an example of a doctor who thinks he knows his patient's illness deals with the concept of pragmatic faith. The author seeks to explicate this concept by giving three interpretations of Kantian example. In a further part of the paper the internal lie is defined as a sin which may fall part of any "believers not careful enough" of the titular faith. The first example is (...)
  38. Malone-France, Derek. Deep Empiricism: Kant, Whitehead, and the Necessity of Philosophical Theism.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):375-376.
  39. Les Differenciations Nationales Dans la Philosophie Europeenne.H. J. de Vleeschauwer - 1943 - Kant-Studien 42 (1-2):64-105.
  40. Das Erlebnis in Religion und Magie.Karl Beth - 1925 - Kant-Studien 30 (1-2):381-408.
  41. How to Read Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone.Adina Davidovich - 1994 - Kant-Studien 85 (1):1-14.
  42. Moral Religion of Kant and Karmayoga of the Gītā.Balbir Singh Gauchhwal - 1964 - Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):394-409.
  43. Kant's Transcendental Religious Argument: The Possibility of Religion.Dennis Schulting - 2013 - In Stefano Bacin & Claudio La Rocca (eds.), Akten des XI. Kant-Kongresses 2010. de Gruyter. pp. 949-962.
  44. 'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy.Andrew Chignell - 2009 - In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 116--135.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown. -/- .
  45. The Devil, The Virgin, and the Envoy: Symbols of Moral Struggle in Religion II.2.Andrew Chignell - 2010 - In Otfried Hoeffe (ed.), Klassiker Auslegen: Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen. Akademie Verlag.
  46. Concerning Moral Faith in Kant.Edgard José Jorge Filho - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 10:167-175.
    According to Kant, all finite rational beings are unconditionally bound to obey the moral law, expressed in the formula of the categorical imperative. The assent (the taking to be true) to this law is a practical knowledge, since its ground is objectively and subjectively sufficient. However, the immortality of the soul and the existence of God are not objects of practical knowledge but just objects of practical faith, of moral faith more precisely, for the assent to them has a barely (...)
  47. What Can We Learn From Kant.Vincent M. Cooke - 1987 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 62 (4):358-368.
  48. Kant's Philosophy of Religion.Charles A. Bruehl - 1927 - New Scholasticism 1 (3):272-275.
  49. Kant's Godlike Self.Vincent M. Cooke - 1988 - International Philosophical Quarterly 28 (3):313-323.
  50. Kant und der Katholizismus.Michael Albrecht - 1978 - International Studies in Philosophy 10:167-174.
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