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Summary Immanuel Kant argued for a transcendental, a priori, systematic foundation for science. In the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, and other Critical (post-1781) works, Kant defends a "pure" (non-empirical), a priori philosophy of natural science, which extends to the famous statement in MFNS that only sciences with a pure, formal foundation are sciences at all. The neo-Kantian reception of Kant's work, especially by the Marburg School of neo-Kantianism (Ernst Cassirer, Hermann Cohen, and others) sustained interest in the Kantian methodology of science. Contemporary articulations and defenses of Kantian positions in the philosophy of science are eclectic. Some focus on Kant's defense of the mathematical method, and his theory of geometry: as one foundation for Newtonian natural philosophy, and as an independent science of space. Some focus on Kant's foundation for Newtonian mechanics. Early objections to such revivals of Kant's thought focused on the development of non-Euclidean geometry, on the rigorization of analysis, and on the challenges posed to Kant's accounts by relativity theory and by quantum mechanics. Many defenses of Kant and of neo-Kantianism in the philosophy of science appeal to the continuity or preservation of a priori reasoning in successive scientific theories. Recent appreciations of Kant on the sciences have expanded to the biological and other life sciences, including anthropology and psychology.
Key works Kant 2004 Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, translated and edited by Günter Zöller. Kant 1998   Critique of Pure Reason, translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allan Wood. Kant 1970   Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, translated and edited by Michael Friedman Kant 2012 Natural Science, edited by Eric Watkins. Kant 2000 Critique of the Power of Judgment, translated by Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews.
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  1. added 2020-05-28
    Essay Review: Philosophy of Science From Descartes to Kant: Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: The Classical Origins, Descartes to Kant.John W. Yolton - 1971 - History of Science 10 (1):102-113.
  2. added 2020-05-20
    P. Grillenzoni: Kant E La Scienza. [REVIEW]Riccardo Pozzo - 2002 - Kant-Studien 93 (2):236-237.
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  3. added 2020-05-19
    J. Quitterer: Kant Und Die These Vom Paradigmenwechsel. Eine Gegenüberstellung Seiner Transzendentalphilosophie Mit Der Wissenschaftstheorie Thomas S. Kuhns. [REVIEW]Wolfgang Malzkorn - 2001 - Kant-Studien 92 (2):225-229.
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  4. added 2020-05-19
    König, Kant Und Die Naturwissenschaft. [REVIEW]H. Maas - 1908 - Kant-Studien 13:162.
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  5. added 2020-05-15
    Analogical Reflection as a Source for the Science of Life: Kant and the Possibility of the Biological Sciences.Dalia Nassar - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 2016 (58):57-66.
    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-14
    Kant’s Philosophy and Modern Science.W. H. Werkmeister - 1975 - Kant-Studien 66 (1-4):35.
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  7. added 2020-05-14
    Kants theorie der naturwissenschaft nach P. Plaass.C. Frhr V. Weizsäcker - 1965 - Kant-Studien 56 (3-4):528-544.
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  8. added 2020-05-12
    Paul Drossbach: Kant und die gegenwärtige Naturwissenschaft. [REVIEW]Gerhard Hennemann - 1944 - Kant-Studien 44:260.
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  9. added 2020-05-03
    P. Krausser, Kants Theorie der Erfahrung Und Erfahrungswissenschaft. [REVIEW]P. Rohs - 1985 - Kant-Studien 76 (4):455.
  10. added 2020-05-03
    W. Teichner, Rekonstruktion Oder Reproduktion des Grundes. Die Begründung der Philosophie Als Wissenschaft Durch Kant Und Reinhold. [REVIEW]J. Schmucker-Hartmann - 1978 - Kant-Studien 69 (3):368.
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  11. added 2020-05-03
    Cassirer, Ernst, Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit. [REVIEW]Artur Buchenau - 1909 - Kant-Studien 14:278.
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  12. added 2020-05-02
    Review of Michela Massimi (Ed.), Kant and Philosophy of Science Today[REVIEW]Konstantin Pollok - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).
  13. added 2020-05-02
    The Problem of the Unity of the Sciences: Bacon to Kant. [REVIEW]G. M. R. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 16 (1):166-166.
    A brief, systematic exposition of the positions of seven classical thinkers on the subject of the logical and/or methodological unity of human knowledge. McRae writes methodically and accurately on a difficult subject.--R. G. M.
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  14. added 2020-04-30
    Why Kant has Problems with Empirical Laws.Hansgeorg Hoppe - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 2:21-28.
  15. added 2020-04-30
    Immanuel Kant. Ontologie Und Wissenschaftstheorie. By G. Martin. [REVIEW]T. D. Weldon - 1952 - Mind 61:282.
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  16. added 2020-04-30
    Die Entwickelung des Causalproblems von Cartesius Bis Kant.Edmund Koenig - 1891 - Mind 16 (61):126-136.
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  17. added 2020-04-28
    Kant on the History of Nature: The Ambiguous Heritage of the Critical Philosophy for Natural History.Phillip R. Sloan - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):627-648.
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  18. added 2020-04-28
    Kant's Conception of Ether as a Field in the Opus Postumum.Wing-Chun Wong - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 2:405-411.
  19. added 2020-04-23
    Kant's Parasite: Sublime Biodeconstruction.Jonathan Basile - 2019 - CR: The New Centennial Review 19 (3):173-200.
    In Kant's Critique of Judgment, his exploration of how something like life (organized matter) can appear to the faculties of a finite consciousness makes life as possible as it is impossible. A passing reference Kant makes to the idea that every organ of an organism can be seen as a parasite is taken as a lever to deconstruct his notion of organized beings as forming an ultimately coherent nature (an ethicoteleological whole). This reading is placed alongside Paul de Man's deconstruction (...)
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  20. added 2020-04-14
    La Resolution des Problemes de Descartes a Kant: L'analyse a l'Age de la Revolution Scientifique. Benoit Timmermans. [REVIEW]Emily Grosholz - 1998 - Isis 89 (3):546-547.
  21. added 2020-04-14
    B. Falkenburg, Die Form der Materie: Zur Metaphysik der Natur bei Kant und Hegel.G. di Giovanni - 1989 - Kant-Studien 80 (2):226.
  22. added 2020-04-14
    G. Brittan, Kant's Theory of Science. [REVIEW]J. M. Young - 1988 - Kant-Studien 79 (1):92.
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  23. added 2020-04-14
    Streeter, B. H., A New Correlation of Science and Religion.Rudolf Metz - 1933 - Kant-Studien 38:486.
  24. added 2020-04-14
    Sigwarts Theorie der Kausalität im Verhältnis zur Kantischen. Eine Festgabe zum 28. März 1900. II.M. Wartenberg - 1901 - Kant-Studien 5:182.
  25. added 2020-04-05
    W. Sellars, Science and Metaphysics. Variations on Kantian Themes.J. Kopper - 1972 - Kant-Studien 63 (1):125.
  26. added 2020-04-01
    Science and Person: A Study on the Idea of "Philosophy as Rigorous Science" in Kant and Husserl.B. H. Son - 1972 - Van Gorcum.
  27. added 2020-03-31
    How the Understanding Prescribes Form Without Prescribing Content – Kant on Empirical Laws in the Second Analogy of Experience.Ansgar Seide - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):133-158.
  28. added 2020-03-31
    Das kantische Raummodell in der Neurobiologie.Grit Schwarzkopf & Hannah Monyer - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (2):247-269.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 108 Heft: 2 Seiten: 247-269.
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  29. added 2020-03-31
    De kloof tussen zin en zijn. Darwinisme, doelen en ons zoeken naar zin.Pouwel Slurink - 1993 - In University of Nijmegen Ria van den Brandt (ed.), Het heil van de filosofie. Baarn, the Netherlands: Ambo. pp. 116-147.
    Philosophical questions can often be answered using evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology. Of course, one needs a sound epistemology and philosophy os science to do so. Phenomenology and hermeneutics offer no escape route, however, because they are based on a wrong model of science. Evolutionary biology can explain teleology, the organization of nature, altruïsm, morality, and even our quest for meaning.
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  30. added 2020-03-30
    Kant on the Ends of the Sciences.Thomas Sturm - 2020 - Kant-Studien 111 (1):1-28.
    Kant speaks repeatedly about the relations between ends or aims and scientific research, but the topic has mostly been ignored. What is the role of ends, especially practical ones, in his views on science? I will show that while Kant leaves ample space for recognizing a function of ends both in the definition and the pursuit of inquiry, and in the further practical application of scientific cognition, he does not claim that science is simply an instrument for achieving practical ends. (...)
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  31. added 2020-03-30
    Znanost i religija u okviru čistoga uma.Mladen Živković - 2008 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 28 (4):835-855.
    Iako opsežan, ovaj članak ima skromnu svrhu: sažeto i što je moguće jasnije iznijeti osnovne Kantove teze za promišljanje odnosa znanosti i religije, te pozvati na pomnjivo iščitavanje njegova opusa, kako bi u promišljanje odnosa znanosti i religije išli s Kantom, a ne mimo njega. Kantov opus nudi intrigantne povode da ga se pokuša isčitavati s ovoga stanovišta. Polazište je dano rezultatima Kritike čistoga uma. U njoj treba potražiti odgovore na pitanja: Kako je moguća priroda, iskustvo, spoznaja prirode i sama (...)
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  32. added 2020-03-30
    Kant and Current Philosophical Issues. [REVIEW]L. M. W. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):527-527.
    C. I. Lewis and Hans Reichenbach are the contemporaries selected for special study to support the thesis that a carefully redrawn Kantianism is still viable in logic and philosophy of science. The synthetic a priori is reinterpreted as the assumption that conceptual systems can be used to organize the data of sensuous awareness. The doctrine of the Ding-an-sich is defended.--W. L. M.
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  33. added 2020-03-11
    Kant on Laws.Eric Watkins - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on the unity, diversity, and centrality of the notion of law as it is employed in Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy. Eric Watkins argues that, by thinking through a number of issues in various historical, scientific, and philosophical contexts over several decades, Kant is able to develop a univocal concept of law that can nonetheless be applied to a wide range of particular cases, despite the diverse demands that these contexts give rise to. In addition, Watkins shows (...)
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  34. added 2020-03-03
    Paolo Grillenzoni: Kant E la Scienza 1755-1760: Parte 1. Rome 2016. 575 P., ISBN 978-88-548-9523-2.Kant E la Scienza 1755-1760: Parte 1. [REVIEW]Prof Dr Riccardo Pozzo - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (3):476-477.
  35. added 2020-03-02
    An Antinomy Between Regulative Principles: An Aporetic Resolution to the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment.Aaron Halper - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):211-235.
    The antinomy of teleological judgment has increasingly been understood as a conflict between regulative principles. But it is not clear why regulative principles can be in conflict at all, since Kant otherwise takes the realization that two conflicting principles are regulative to be sufficient to resolve an antinomy. I argue that in Kant’s view regulative principles do not conflict with one another only if they are reducible to reason’s interest in systematicity. Given that the principles of this antinomy do conflict, (...)
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  36. added 2020-03-02
    Michela Massimi and Angela Breitenbach , Kant and the Laws of Nature Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 Pp. Xii+ 288 ISBN 9781107120983 £64.99. [REVIEW]Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (2):338-343.
  37. added 2020-02-29
    Kant and the Double Government Methodology: Supersensibility and Method in Kant's Philosophy of ScienceRobert E. Butts.Patricia Kitcher - 1986 - Isis 77 (1):114-115.
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  38. added 2020-02-25
    Kant and Current Philosophical Issues.W. L. M. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):527-527.
    C. I. Lewis and Hans Reichenbach are the contemporaries selected for special study to support the thesis that a carefully redrawn Kantianism is still viable in logic and philosophy of science. The synthetic a priori is reinterpreted as the assumption that conceptual systems can be used to organize the data of sensuous awareness. The doctrine of the Ding-an-sich is defended.--W. L. M.
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  39. added 2020-02-19
    Nature at the Limits of Science and Phenomenology.David Suarez - 2020 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 1 (1):109-133.
    Kant and Heidegger argue that our subjectivity escapes scientific explanation, while also providing the conditions that enable it. This understanding of the relationship between subjectivity and science places limits on the explanatory scope of the sciences. But what makes transcendental reflection on the structure of subjectivity possible in the first place? Fink argues that transcendental philosophy encounters its own limits in attempting to characterize its own conditions of possibility. I argue that the limits of science and transcendental philosophy entail that (...)
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  40. added 2020-02-14
    Axiomatic Natural Philosophy and the Emergence of Biology as a Science.Hein Van Den Berg & Boris Demarest - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology.
    Ernst Mayr argued that the emergence of biology as a special science in the early nineteenth century was possible due to the demise of the mathematical model of science and its insistence on demonstrative knowledge. More recently, John Zammito has claimed that the rise of biology as a special science was due to a distinctive experimental, anti-metaphysical, anti-mathematical, and anti-rationalist strand of thought coming from outside of Germany. In this paper we argue that this narrative neglects the important role played (...)
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  41. added 2020-02-14
    »Es ist so, weil ich es so mache.« Fichtes Methode der Konstruktion.Jelscha Schmid - 2020 - Fichte-Studien 48 (2):389-412.
    In this paper I develop an account of Fichte’s conception of philosophical construction. Following the latter’s definition of philosophy as the ‘science of science’, philosophy is to be understood as a normative theory of what should qualify as science. In order to ground scientific knowledge-production as such, philosophy itself has to acquire a scientific method, through the application of which the constitution of scientific knowledge is secured. In systematic continuity to Kant’s account of geometrical construction, Fichte develops a philosophical method (...)
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  42. added 2020-02-14
    Kenneth R. Westphal: How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. XVI U. 252 Seiten. ISBN: 9780198747055. [REVIEW]Michael Pluder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):685-686.
  43. added 2020-02-14
    The Transition Within the Transition: The Übergang From the Selbstsetzungslehre to the Ether Proofs in Kant’s Opus Postumum.Stephen Howard - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):595-617.
    Recent literature on Kant’s Opus postumum has typically focused on two parts of the drafts: the ether proofs and the Selbstsetzungslehre. Eckart Förster’s interpretation is representative of this tendency and, moreover, presents the Selbstsetzungslehre as the culmination of Kant’s late project. By contrast, I argue that the drafts of fascicles X/XI, written in between the ether proofs and the Selbstsetzungslehre, are of primary importance for understanding the Opus postumum. Through a close reading of a page from fascicle XI, I show (...)
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  44. added 2019-12-11
    Kant’s Theory of Biology. Ed. By Ina Goy and Eric Watkins. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2014. 321 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-11-022578-5. [REVIEW]Veit-Justus RollmannCorresponding authorVereinsstraße D. - Frankfurt & Main GermanyEmail: - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (1).
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  45. added 2019-12-11
    Kant's Theory of Biology (Introduction).Eric Watkins & Ina Goy - 2014 - In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter. pp. 1-22.
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  46. added 2019-12-11
    Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. Akten des XI. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses.Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.) - 2013 - de Gruyter.
    The five-volume set Kant and Philosophy in a Cosmopolitan Sense contains the proceedings of the Eleventh International Kant Congress, which took place in Pisa in 2010. The proceedings consist of 25 plenary talks and 341 papers selected by a team of international referees from over 700 submissions. The contributions span 14 sections: Kant’s Concept of Philosophy; Theory of Cognition and Logic; Ontology and Metaphysics; Ethics; Law and Justice; Religion and Theology; Aesthetics; Anthropology and Psychology; Politics and History; Science, Mathematics, and (...)
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  47. added 2019-09-25
    A Suspicion of Architectonic in Kant’s Transition Project.Terrence Thomson - 2019 - Angelaki 24 (5):11-28.
    This essay explores the undervalued methodological elements underpinning Kant’s Transition from Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics in Opus postumum. I do this by drawing...
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  48. added 2019-09-17
    Metaphysics and Contemporary Science: Why the Question of the Synthetic a Priori Shouldn’T Not Be Abandoned Prematurely.Kay Herrmann - manuscript
    The problem of synthetic judgements touches on the question of whether philosophy can draw independent statements about reality in the first place. For Kant, the synthetic judgements a priori formulate the conditions of the possibility for objectively valid knowledge. Despite the principle fallibility of its statements, modern science aims for objective knowledge. This gives the topic of synthetic a priori unbroken currency. This paper aims to show that a modernized version of transcendental philosophy, if it is to be feasible at (...)
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  49. added 2019-09-17
    William Whewell’s philosophy of science and Immanuel Kant’s apriorism.Tatiana D. Sokolova - 2018 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 55 (2):180-185.
    The article is the introduction to the Russian translation of the preface and Book I of William Whewell’s classic work “Novum Organon Renovatum”. In his theory for the philosophy of science, Whewell of­fers a conception, which radically differs from a positivist or an inductivist models of science – the most influential doctrines of his time. Presupposing that the scientific activity is impossible without acceptance of a metaphysical doctrine, Whewell goes against the contemporary tendencies in phi­losophy. Nevertheless, eclecticism of his views (...)
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  50. added 2019-09-17
    The Beauty of Science Without the Science of Beauty: Kant and the Rationalists on the Aesthetics of Cognition.Angela Breitenbach - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (2):281-304.
    it is common to praise the beauty of theories, the elegance of proofs, and the pleasing simplicity of explanations. We may admire, for example, the beauty of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the simplicity of Darwin’s idea of natural selection, and the elegance of a geometrical proof of Pythagoras’s theorem. Aesthetic judgments such as these have much currency among scientists, and they are employed in the search for knowledge more broadly. But while the use of aesthetic judgments in science is (...)
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