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Summary Immanuel Kant argued for a transcendental, a priori, systematic foundation for science. In the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, and other Critical (post-1781) works, Kant defends a "pure" (non-empirical), a priori philosophy of natural science, which extends to the famous statement in MFNS that only sciences with a pure, formal foundation are sciences at all. The neo-Kantian reception of Kant's work, especially by the Marburg School of neo-Kantianism (Ernst Cassirer, Hermann Cohen, and others) sustained interest in the Kantian methodology of science. Contemporary articulations and defenses of Kantian positions in the philosophy of science are eclectic. Some focus on Kant's defense of the mathematical method, and his theory of geometry: as one foundation for Newtonian natural philosophy, and as an independent science of space. Some focus on Kant's foundation for Newtonian mechanics. Early objections to such revivals of Kant's thought focused on the development of non-Euclidean geometry, on the rigorization of analysis, and on the challenges posed to Kant's accounts by relativity theory and by quantum mechanics. Many defenses of Kant and of neo-Kantianism in the philosophy of science appeal to the continuity or preservation of a priori reasoning in successive scientific theories. Recent appreciations of Kant on the sciences have expanded to the biological and other life sciences, including anthropology and psychology.
Key works Kant 2004 Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, translated and edited by Günter Zöller. Kant 1998   Critique of Pure Reason, translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allan Wood. Kant 1970   Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, translated and edited by Michael Friedman Kant 2012 Natural Science, edited by Eric Watkins. Kant 2000 Critique of the Power of Judgment, translated by Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews.
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451 found
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  1. Zur Lehre von der Wärme von Fr. Bacon bis Kant.Erich Adickes - 1922 - Kant-Studien 27 (1-2):328-368.
  2. Die bewegenden Kräfte in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung und die beiden Pole seines Systems. Zweiter Artikel.Erich Adickes - 1897 - Kant-Studien 1 (1-3):161-196.
  3. Book Review of "The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science" by M. Friedman and A. Nordmann. [REVIEW]Valia Allori - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 478-479.
    Book review of "The Kantian legacy in the Nineteenth -Century Science,'' M. Friedman, and A. Nordmann.
  4. The Underlying Structure of Kant’s "Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft".Juan Ramón Alvarez - 1989 - Proceedings of the Sixth International Kant Congress 2 (2):49-64.
  5. Kant on Science and Common Knowledge.Karl Ameriks - 2001 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 31--52.
  6. Metaphysics and Methods in Descartes and Kant.Abraham Anderson - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174).
    This essay is a review of Daniel Garber's "Descartes' Metaphysical Physics" (Chicago U P 1992) and Michael Friedman's "Kant and the Exact Sciences" (Harvard U P 1992). Garber's study of Descartes is scrupulous but his historicist assumptions result in a failure to grasp Descartes' originality or the unity and power of his thought. Friedman, by taking Kant's conception of science seriously, sheds great light on Kant's thought generally and implicitly raises important philosophical problems for the present day.
  7. Kant, Natural Kind Terms, and Scientific Essentialism.Erik Anderson - 1994 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (4):355 - 373.
  8. Aquinas and Kant the Foundations of the Modern Sciences.Gavin W. R. Ardley - 1950 - Longmans, Green.
  9. Die Duhem-Quine-These unter dem Geltungsaspekt der erkenntnistheoretischen Fragestellung Kants.Nikolaos Avgelis - 1991 - Kant-Studien 82 (3):285-302.
  10. A Kantian Definition of Degree of Rationality.Sidney Axinn - 1959 - Kant-Studien 51 (1-4):27-33.
  11. Contemporary Kantian Metaphysics: New Essays on Time and Space.Roxana Baiasu, Graham Bird & A. W. Moore (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
  12. A Kantian Interpretation of the Special Theory of Relativity.Edward G. Ballard - 1960 - Kant-Studien 52 (1-4):401-410.
  13. Kant's Theory of Science.Johannes Balthasar - 1979 - Philosophy and History 12 (2):137-138.
  14. Kant's Transcendental Philosophy of Nature.Gary Banham - manuscript
  15. Dynamics and the Reality of Force in Leibniz and Kant.Gary Banham - manuscript
  16. Kantian Realism and Scientific Essentialism.Gary Banham - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (4):775 – 784.
    Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in British Journal for the History of Philosophy, published by and copyright Routledge.
  17. Kant, Herbart and Riemann.Erik C. Banks - 2005 - Kant-Studien 96 (2):208-234.
    A look at the dynamical concept of space and space-generating processes to be found in Kant, J.F. Herbart and the mathematician Bernhard Riemann's philosophical writings.
  18. Kant and the Conventionality of Simultaneity.Adrian Bardon - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (5):845-856.
    Kant’s three Analogies of Experience, in his Critique of Pure Reason, represent a highly condensed attempt to establish the metaphysical foundations of Newtonian physics. His strategy is to show that the organization of experience in terms of a world of enduring substances undergoing mutual causal interaction is a necessary condition of the temporal ordering even of one’s own subjective states, and thus of coherent experience itself. In his Third Analogy—an examination of the necessary conditions of judgments of simultaneous existence—he argues (...)
  19. Über den Begriff des Naturgesetzes.Bruno Bauch - 1914 - Kant-Studien 19 (1-3):303-337.
  20. Immanuel Kant und sein Verhältnis zur Naturwissenschaft.Bruno Bauch - 1912 - Kant-Studien 17 (1-3):9-27.
  21. Kant on the Uniformity of Nature.Lewis White Beck - 1981 - Synthese 47 (3):449 - 464.
  22. B. K. Milmed's "Kant and Current Philosophical Issues". [REVIEW]Lewis White Beck - 1962 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (3):426.
  23. Galilei und die astronomie seiner zeit.Friedrich Becker - 1964 - Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):129-142.
  24. Kant and Naturphilosophie.Frederick Beiser - 2006 - In Michael Friedman & Alfred Nordmann (eds.), NA. MIT Press.
  25. Kant on Perception, Experience and Judgements Thereof.Banafsheh Beizaei - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (3):347-371.
    It is commonly thought that the distinction between subjectively valid judgements of perception and objectively valid judgements of experience in the Prolegomena is not consistent with the account of judgement Kant offers in the B Deduction, according to which a judgement is ‘nothing other than the way to bring given cognitions to the objective unity of apperception’. Contrary to this view, I argue that the Prolegomena distinction maps closely onto that drawn between the mathematical and dynamical principles in the System (...)
  26. Kant und die gegenwärtige kritik der naturwissenschaften in frankreich.J. Benrubi - 1930 - Kant-Studien 35 (1-4):273-288.
  27. Kant's Conception of Proper Science.Berg H. Van den - unknown
  28. Kant's Conception of Proper Science.Hein Berg - 2011 - Synthese 183 (1):7-26.
    Kant is well known for his restrictive conception of proper science. In the present paper I will try to explain why Kant adopted this conception. I will identify three core conditions which Kant thinks a proper science must satisfy: systematicity, objective grounding, and apodictic certainty. These conditions conform to conditions codified in the Classical Model of Science. Kant’s infamous claim that any proper natural science must be mathematical should be understood on the basis of these conditions. In order to substantiate (...)
  29. Über Einige Philosophische Argumente Gegen Die Relativitätstheorie.Hugo Bergmann - 1928 - Kant-Studien 33 (1-2):387-404.
  30. Jennifer Mensch, Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy.Jonathan H. Berk - 2013 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 34 (2):487-491.
  31. Zum Problem Einer Theoretischen Biologie.Ludwig Bertalanffy - 1929 - Kant-Studien 34 (1-4):374-390.
  32. Der zeitbegriff in der modernen naturwissenschaft und Das kausalitätsprinzip.Karl Beurlen - 1936 - Kant-Studien 41 (1):16-37.
  33. What Does It Mean That “Space Can Be Transcendental Without the Axioms Being So”?Francesca Biagioli - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):1-21.
    In 1870, Hermann von Helmholtz criticized the Kantian conception of geometrical axioms as a priori synthetic judgments grounded in spatial intuition. However, during his dispute with Albrecht Krause (Kant und Helmholtz über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung der Raumanschauung und der geometrischen Axiome. Lahr, Schauenburg, 1878), Helmholtz maintained that space can be transcendental without the axioms being so. In this paper, I will analyze Helmholtz’s claim in connection with his theory of measurement. Helmholtz uses a Kantian argument that can be (...)
  34. Michael Friedman, Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). Xix +624. £70.00 Hb. [REVIEW]Graham Bird - 2014 - Philosophical Investigations 37 (2):173-178.
  35. A Companion to Kant.Graham Bird (ed.) - 2006 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This _Companion_ provides an authoritative survey of the whole range of Kant’s work, giving readers an idea of its immense scope, its extraordinary achievement, and its continuing ability to generate philosophical interest. Written by an international cast of scholars Covers all the major works of the critical philosophy, as well as the pre-critical works Subjects covered range from mathematics and philosophy of science, through epistemology and metaphysics, to moral and political philosophy.
  36. Kantian Themes in Contemporary Philosophy: Graham Bird.Graham Bird - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):131–152.
    [Michael Friedman] This paper considers the extent to which Kant's vision of a distinctively 'transcendental' task for philosophy is essentially tied to his views on the foundations of the mathematical and physical sciences. Contemporary philosophers with broadly Kantian sympathies have attempted to reinterpret his project so as to isolate a more general philosophical core not so closely tied to the details of now outmoded mathematical-physical theories (Euclidean geometry and Newtonian physics). I consider two such attempts, those of Strawson and McDowell, (...)
  37. Traces of Objectivity: Causality and Probabilities in Quantum Physics.Michel Bitbol - 2011 - Diogenes 58 (4):30-57.
    It is pointed out that the probabilistic character of a theory does not indicate by itself a distancing with respect to the norms of objectification. Instead, the very structure of the calculation of probabilities utilised by this theory is capable of bearing the trace of a constitution of objectivity in Kant’s sense. Accordingly, the procedure of the constitution of objectivity is first studied in standard and in quantum cases with due reference to modern cognitive science. Then, an examination of the (...)
  38. Kant's Refutation of Anti-Realism.Edward Blatnik - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Research 19:127-146.
    In Language, Logic, and Experience, Michael Luntley successfully employs a Kantian-style transcendental argument to refute Michael Dummett’s anti-realist view that we are incapable of grasping “recognition-transcendent” truth-conditions. But he also contends that his own purified version of antirealism is immune to thi s sort of attack. This version is purified because it is concerned solely with the question of whether a given statement possesses a determinate truth value, and thus with whether the reality it is about exists determinately. I show (...)
  39. On Scientific Representations: From Kant to a New Philosophy of Science.Giovanni Boniolo - 2007 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Scientific concepts, laws, theories, models and thought experiments are representations but uniquely different. In On Scientific Representation each is given a full philosophical exploration within an original, coherent philosophical framework that is strongly rooted in the Kantian tradition (Kant, Hertz, Vaihinger, Cassirer). Through a revisionist historical approach, Boniolo shows how the Kantian tradition can help us renew and rethink contemporary issues in epistemology and the philosophy of science.
  40. Leggi trascendentali, metafisiche ed empiriche in Kant.Giovanni Boniolo - 2001 - In Giovanni Boniolo & Mauro Dorato (eds.), Leggi di natura: Analisi storico-critica di un concetto. McGraw-Hill. pp. 101-153.
  41. Kant’s Critique of Newton.Edward Booth - 1996 - Kant-Studien 87 (2):149-165.
  42. Mary Domski and Michael Dickson, Eds. , Discourse on a New Method. Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science . Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Giacomo Borbone - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (4):264-266.
  43. Laws in Biology and the Unity of Nature.Angela Breitenbach - 2017 - In Michela Massimi & Angela Breitenbach (eds.), Kant and the Laws of Nature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 237-255.
  44. Biological Purposiveness and Analogical Reflection.Angela Breitenbach - 2014 - In Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.), Kant's Theory of Biology. De Gruyter. pp. 131-148.
  45. Two Views on Nature: A Solution to Kant's Antinomy of Mechanism and Teleology.Angela Breitenbach - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (2):351 – 369.
  46. Mechanical Explanation of Nature and its Limits in Kant's Critique of Judgment.Angela Breitenbach - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):694-711.
    In this paper I discuss two questions. What does Kant understand by mechanical explanation in the Critique of judgment? And why does he think that mechanical explanation is the only type of the explanation of nature available to us? According to the interpretation proposed, mechanical explanations in the Critique of judgment refer to a particular species of empirical causal laws. Mechanical laws aim to explain nature by reference to the causal interaction between the forces of the parts of matter and (...)
  47. Incongruent Counterparts and Modal Relationism.Carolyn Brighouse - 1999 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (1):53 – 68.
    Kant's argument from incongruent counterparts for substantival space is examined; it is concluded that the argument has no force against a relationist. The argument does suggest that a relationist cannot give an account of enantiomorphism, incongruent counterparts and orientability. The prospects for a relationist account of these notions are assessed, and it is found that they are good provided the relationist is some kind of modal relationist. An illustration and interpretation of these modal commitments is given.
  48. Kant and Cognitive Science.Andrew Brook - 2003 - Teleskop.
    Some of Kant's ideas about the mind have had a huge influence on cognitive science, in particular his view that sensory input has to be worked up using concepts or concept-like states and his conception of the mind as a system of cognitive functions. We explore these influences in the first part of the paper. Other ideas of Kant's about the mind have not been assimilated into cognitive science, including important ideas about processes of synthesis, mental unity, and consciousness and (...)
  49. The Conception of Lawlikeness in Kant's Philosophy of Science.Gerd Buchdahl - 1971 - Synthese 23 (1):24 - 46.
    A demarcation between kant's general metaphysics (transcendental principles) and his special metaphysics is attempted, through a discussion of kant's three accounts of lawlikeness, 'transcendental', 'empirical' and 'metaphysical'. the distinctions are defended via a number of 'indicators' in kant's writings, and the 'looseness of fit' between the different types of lawlikeness is discussed.
  50. The Relation Between 'Understanding' and 'Reason' in the Architectonic of Kant's Philosophy.Gerd Buchdahl - 1966 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67:209 - 226.
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