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Summary Immanuel Kant argued for a transcendental, a priori, systematic foundation for science. In the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, and other Critical (post-1781) works, Kant defends a "pure" (non-empirical), a priori philosophy of natural science, which extends to the famous statement in MFNS that only sciences with a pure, formal foundation are sciences at all. The neo-Kantian reception of Kant's work, especially by the Marburg School of neo-Kantianism (Ernst Cassirer, Hermann Cohen, and others) sustained interest in the Kantian methodology of science. Contemporary articulations and defenses of Kantian positions in the philosophy of science are eclectic. Some focus on Kant's defense of the mathematical method, and his theory of geometry: as one foundation for Newtonian natural philosophy, and as an independent science of space. Some focus on Kant's foundation for Newtonian mechanics. Early objections to such revivals of Kant's thought focused on the development of non-Euclidean geometry, on the rigorization of analysis, and on the challenges posed to Kant's accounts by relativity theory and by quantum mechanics. Many defenses of Kant and of neo-Kantianism in the philosophy of science appeal to the continuity or preservation of a priori reasoning in successive scientific theories. Recent appreciations of Kant on the sciences have expanded to the biological and other life sciences, including anthropology and psychology.
Key works Kant 2004 Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, translated and edited by Günter Zöller. Kant 1998   Critique of Pure Reason, translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allan Wood. Kant 1970   Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, translated and edited by Michael Friedman Kant 2012 Natural Science, edited by Eric Watkins. Kant 2000 Critique of the Power of Judgment, translated by Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews.
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  1. Concept Construction in Kant's "Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science".Jennifer Nadine Mcrobert - 1995 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to ground Newtonian science. (...)
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  2. Kantian and Neo-Kantian First Principles for Physical and Metaphysical Cognition.Michael E. Cuffaro - manuscript
    I argue that Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy—in particular the doctrine of transcendental idealism which grounds it—is best understood as an `epistemic' or `metaphilosophical' doctrine. As such it aims to show how one may engage in the natural sciences and in metaphysics under the restriction that certain conditions are imposed on our cognition of objects. Underlying Kant's doctrine, however, is an ontological posit, of a sort, regarding the fundamental nature of our cognition. This posit, sometimes called the `discursivity thesis', while considered (...)
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  3. Kant on Mathematical Construction and Quantity of Matter.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Kant's special metaphysics is intended to provide the a priori foundation for Newtonian science, which is to be achieved by exhibiting the a priori content of Newtonian concepts and laws. Kant envisions a two-step mathematical construction of the dynamical concept of matter involving a geometrical construction of matter’s bulk and a symbolic construction of matter’s density. Since Newton himself defines quantity of matter in terms of bulk and density, there is no reason why we shouldn’t interpret Kant’s Dynamics as a (...)
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  4. Dimensionality, Symmetry, and the Inverse Square Law (with Rex Ramsier), April 2020 (E-Print).Dimitria Gatzia - forthcoming - Notes and Records: Royal Society Journal of the History of Science.
    Kant suggested that Newton’s Inverse Square Law (ISL) determines the dimensions of space to be three. Much has been written in the philosophical literature about Kant’s suggestion, including specific arguments attempting to link the ISL to three-dimensionality. In this paper, we explore one such argument and demonstrate that it fails to support the link Kant purports to make between the ISL and the three-dimensionality of space. At best, the link that can be made is between the ISL and symmetry.
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  5. Kant’s Original Attractive Force.Samuel J. M. Kahn - forthcoming - In Nature and Freedom. Proceedings of the XII. International Kant Congress. Walter de Gruyter.
  6. Kant, Schelling and the Organization of Matter.Dalia Nassar - forthcoming - In Gerad Gentry (ed.), Kantian Legacies in German Idealism. Routledge.
    Over the last two decades there has been a significant increase of interest in Schelling’s philosophy, and in particular his philosophy of nature. However, even the most generous of Schelling’s interpreters are confused by one of Schelling’s key theses: his view that nature as a whole (including non-living nature) is “organized,” and his related rejection of the hard-and-fast distinction between living and non-living. My aim is to offer an explanation of these two related points. Given that Schelling regards all of (...)
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  7. Synthetic a Priori Judgments and Kant’s Response to Hume on Induction.Hsueh Qu - forthcoming - Synthese:1-27.
    This paper will make the case that we can find in Kant’s Second Analogy a substantive response to Hume’s argument on induction. This response is substantive insofar as it does not merely consist in independently arguing for the opposite conclusion, but rather, it identifies and exploits a gap in this argument. More specifically, Hume misses the possibility of justifying the uniformity of nature as a synthetic a priori proposition, which Kant looks to establish in the Second Analogy. Note that the (...)
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  8. Rationalist Foundations and the Science of Force.Marius Stan - forthcoming - In Brandon Look & Frederick Beiser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of German Eighteenth-Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  9. Kant’s Ideal of Systematicity in Historical Context.Hein van den Berg - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-26.
    This article explains Kant’s claim that sciences must take, at least as their ideal, the form of a ‘system’. I argue that Kant’s notion of systematicity can be understood against the background of de Jong & Betti’s Classical Model of Science (2010) and the writings of Georg Friedrich Meier and Johann Heinrich Lambert. According to my interpretation, Meier, Lambert, and Kant accepted an axiomatic idea of science, articulated by the Classical Model, which elucidates their conceptions of systematicity. I show that (...)
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  10. Berichte und diskussionen, Kants Beweis des Kausalgesetzes.Kiel von Walter Brocker - forthcoming - Kant-Studien.
  11. The Priority of Natural Laws in Kant’s Early Philosophy.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - Res Philosophica.
    It is widely held that, in his pre-Critical works, Kant endorsed a necessitation account of laws of nature, where laws are grounded in essences or causal powers. Against this, I argue that the early Kant endorsed the priority of laws in explaining and unifying the natural world, as well as their irreducible role in in grounding natural necessity. Laws are a key constituent of Kant’s explanatory naturalism, rather than undermining it. By laying out neglected distinctions Kant draws among types of (...)
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  12. Kant, Causation and Laws of Nature.James Hutton - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 86:93-102.
    In the Second Analogy, Kant argues that every event has a cause. It remains disputed what this conclusion amounts to. Does Kant argue only for the Weak Causal Principle that every event has some cause, or for the Strong Causal Principle that every event is produced according to a universal causal law? Existing interpretations have assumed that, by Kant’s lights, there is a substantive difference between the two. I argue that this is false. Kant holds that the concept of cause (...)
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  13. Kant and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 74:301–30.
    Leibniz, and many following him, saw the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) as pivotal to a scientific (demonstrated) metaphysics. Against this backdrop, Kant is expected to pay close attention to PSR in his reflections on the possibility of metaphysics, which is his chief concern in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is far from clear, however, what has become of PSR in the Critique. On one reading, Kant has simply turned it into the causal principle of the Second Analogy. On (...)
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  14. Metaphysics and Contemporary Science: Why the Question of the Synthetic a Priori Shouldn’T Not Be Abandoned Prematurely.Kay Herrmann - 2020 - Philosophie.Ch. Swiss Portal for Philosophy (07.10.2020).
    The problem of synthetic judgements touches on the question of whether philosophy can draw independent statements about reality in the first place. For Kant, the synthetic judgements a priori formulate the conditions of the possibility for objectively valid knowledge. Despite the principle fallibility of its statements, modern science aims for objective knowledge. This gives the topic of synthetic a priori unbroken currency. This paper aims to show that a modernized version of transcendental philosophy, if it is to be feasible at (...)
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  15. Kant on the Continuity of Alterations.Tim Jankowiak - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):49-66.
    The metaphysical “Law of Continuity of Alterations” says that whenever an object alters from one state to another, it passes through a continuum of intermediate states. Kant treated LCA as a transcendental law of understanding. The primary purpose of the paper is to reconstruct and evaluate Kant’s three arguments for LCA. All three are found to be inadequate. However, a secondary goal of the paper is to show that LCA would have more naturally been construed as a regulative principle of (...)
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  16. The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and Their Parts in Kant.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):26-45.
    I argue that Kant has developed a broad systematic account of the architectonic functionality of pure reason that can be used and advanced in contemporary contexts. Reason, in the narrow sense, is responsible for the picture of a well-ordered universe of science consisting of architectonic ideas of science, sciences and parts of sciences. In the first section (I), I show what Kant means by the architectonic ideas by explaining and interrelating the concepts of (a) the faculty of reason, (b) ideas (...)
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  17. »Es ist so, weil ich es so mache.« Fichtes Methode der Konstruktion.Jelscha Schmid - 2020 - Fichte-Studien 48 (2):389-412.
    In this paper I develop an account of Fichte’s conception of philosophical construction. Following the latter’s definition of philosophy as the ‘science of science’, philosophy is to be understood as a normative theory of what should qualify as science. In order to ground scientific knowledge-production as such, philosophy itself has to acquire a scientific method, through the application of which the constitution of scientific knowledge is secured. In systematic continuity to Kant’s account of geometrical construction, Fichte develops a philosophical method (...)
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  18. Kant on the Ends of the Sciences.Thomas Sturm - 2020 - Kant-Studien 111 (1):1-28.
    Kant speaks repeatedly about the relations between ends or aims and scientific research, but the topic has mostly been ignored. What is the role of ends, especially practical ones, in his views on science? I will show that while Kant leaves ample space for recognizing a function of ends both in the definition and the pursuit of inquiry, and in the further practical application of scientific cognition, he does not claim that science is simply an instrument for achieving practical ends. (...)
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  19. Nature at the Limits of Science and Phenomenology.David Suarez - 2020 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 1 (1):109-133.
    Kant and Heidegger argue that our subjectivity escapes scientific explanation, while also providing the conditions that enable it. This understanding of the relationship between subjectivity and science places limits on the explanatory scope of the sciences. But what makes transcendental reflection on the structure of subjectivity possible in the first place? Fink argues that transcendental philosophy encounters its own limits in attempting to characterize its own conditions of possibility. I argue that the limits of science and transcendental philosophy entail that (...)
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  20. Axiomatic Natural Philosophy and the Emergence of Biology as a Science.Hein van den Berg & Boris Demarest - 2020 - Journal of the History of Biology 53 (3):379-422.
    Ernst Mayr argued that the emergence of biology as a special science in the early nineteenth century was possible due to the demise of the mathematical model of science and its insistence on demonstrative knowledge. More recently, John Zammito has claimed that the rise of biology as a special science was due to a distinctive experimental, anti-metaphysical, anti-mathematical, and anti-rationalist strand of thought coming from outside of Germany. In this paper we argue that this narrative neglects the important role played (...)
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  21. Kant, Linnaeus, and the Economy of Nature.Aaron Wells - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 83:101294.
    Ecology arguably has roots in eighteenth-century natural histories, such as Linnaeus's economy of nature, which pressed a case for holistic and final-causal explanations of organisms in terms of what we'd now call their environment. After sketching Kant's arguments for the indispensability of final-causal explanation merely in the case of individual organisms, and considering the Linnaean alternative, this paper examines Kant's critical response to Linnaean ideas. I argue that Kant does not explicitly reject Linnaeus's holism. But he maintains that the indispensability (...)
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  22. Kant's Parasite: Sublime Biodeconstruction.Jonathan Basile - 2019 - CR: The New Centennial Review 19 (3):173-200.
    In Kant's Critique of Judgment, his exploration of how something like life (organized matter) can appear to the faculties of a finite consciousness makes life as possible as it is impossible. A passing reference Kant makes to the idea that every organ of an organism can be seen as a parasite is taken as a lever to deconstruct his notion of organized beings as forming an ultimately coherent nature (an ethicoteleological whole). This reading is placed alongside Paul de Man's deconstruction (...)
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  23. An Antinomy Between Regulative Principles: An Aporetic Resolution to the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment.Aaron Halper - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (2):211-235.
    The antinomy of teleological judgment has increasingly been understood as a conflict between regulative principles. But it is not clear why regulative principles can be in conflict at all, since Kant otherwise takes the realization that two conflicting principles are regulative to be sufficient to resolve an antinomy. I argue that in Kant’s view regulative principles do not conflict with one another only if they are reducible to reason’s interest in systematicity. Given that the principles of this antinomy do conflict, (...)
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  24. The Transition Within the Transition: The Übergang From the Selbstsetzungslehre to the Ether Proofs in Kant’s Opus Postumum.Stephen Howard - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):595-617.
    Recent literature on Kant’s Opus postumum has typically focused on two parts of the drafts: the ether proofs and the Selbstsetzungslehre. Eckart Förster’s interpretation is representative of this tendency and, moreover, presents the Selbstsetzungslehre as the culmination of Kant’s late project. By contrast, I argue that the drafts of fascicles X/XI, written in between the ether proofs and the Selbstsetzungslehre, are of primary importance for understanding the Opus postumum. Through a close reading of a page from fascicle XI, I show (...)
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  25. Kant on Time I: The Kinematics of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.David Hyder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (3):477-497.
    The theory of space-time developed in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science is connected to Leonhard Euler’s proof of invariance under Galilean transformations in the “On Motion in General” of the latter’s 1736 Analytical Mechanics. It is argued that Kant, by using the Principle of Relativity that is the output of Euler’s proof as an input to his own proof of the kinematic parallelogram law, makes essential use of absolute simultaneity. This is why, in (...)
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  26. Kenneth R. Westphal: How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. XVI U. 252 Seiten. ISBN: 9780198747055. [REVIEW]Michael Pluder - 2019 - Kant-Studien 110 (4):685-686.
  27. A Suspicion of Architectonic in Kant’s Transition Project.Terrence Thomson - 2019 - Angelaki 24 (5):11-28.
    This essay explores the undervalued methodological elements underpinning Kant’s Transition from Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics in Opus postumum. I do this by drawing...
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  28. Kant on Laws.Eric Watkins - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on the unity, diversity, and centrality of the notion of law as it is employed in Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy. Eric Watkins argues that, by thinking through a number of issues in various historical, scientific, and philosophical contexts over several decades, Kant is able to develop a univocal concept of law that can nonetheless be applied to a wide range of particular cases, despite the diverse demands that these contexts give rise to. In addition, Watkins shows (...)
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  29. The Beauty of Science Without the Science of Beauty: Kant and the Rationalists on the Aesthetics of Cognition.Angela Breitenbach - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (2):281-304.
    it is common to praise the beauty of theories, the elegance of proofs, and the pleasing simplicity of explanations. We may admire, for example, the beauty of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the simplicity of Darwin’s idea of natural selection, and the elegance of a geometrical proof of Pythagoras’s theorem. Aesthetic judgments such as these have much currency among scientists, and they are employed in the search for knowledge more broadly. But while the use of aesthetic judgments in science is (...)
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  30. Evil, the Laws of Nature, and Miracles.George Huxford - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):43-62.
    This paper takes a less trodden path in its approach to Kant’s philosophy of religion. Rather than a detailed study of his mature works on the subject, some of his pre-Critical works are examined. These reveal what I hold to be four foundations which remain unchanged through Kant’s philosophical career and thus act to hold up his later work on the subject. The main body of the paper is presented in two parts. In the first, we see that Kant finds (...)
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  31. Kant’s Influence on the Development of Biology: A Critical Consideration From Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.Andrew Jones - 2018 - Dissertation, Cardiff University
    Previous discussions of Kant’s influence on German biology have resulted in contradictory accounts. Zammito argues both that Kant could not have influenced German biology because his account is fundamentally incompatible with the presuppositions of biological naturalism, and biology only emerged because biologists misunderstood Kant’s philosophy. I argue that his account exposes an important difficulty when considering Kant’s influence on the development of biology, since it correctly identifies a fundamental incompatibility between biological naturalism and Kant. However, this does not demonstrate that (...)
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  32. The Soul as the ‘Guiding Idea’ of Psychology: Kant on Scientific Psychology, Systematicity, and the Idea of the Soul.Katharina T. Kraus - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 71:77-88.
    This paper examines whether Kant’s Critical philosophy offers resources for a conception of empirical psychology as a theoretical science in its own right, rather than as a part of applied moral philosophy or of pragmatic anthropology. In contrast to current interpretations, this paper argues that Kant’s conception of inner experience provides relevant resources for the theoretical foundation of scientific psychology, in particular with respect to its subject matter and its methodological presuppositions. Central to this interpretation is the regulative idea of (...)
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  33. Between Du Châtelet’s Leibniz Exegesis and Kant’s Early Philosophy: A Study of Their Responses to the Vis Viva Controversy.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2018 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 21 (1):177-94.
    This paper examines Du Châtelet’s and Kant’s responses to the famous vis viva controversy – Du Châtelet in her Institutions Physiques (1742) and Kant in his debut, the Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces (1746–49). The Institutions was not only a highly influential contribution to the vis viva controversy, but also a pioneering attempt to integrate Leibnizian metaphysics and Newtonian physics. The young Kant’s evident knowledge of this work has led some to speculate about his indebtedness to her (...)
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  34. Motion and the Affection Argument.Colin McLear - 2018 - Synthese 195 (11):4979-4995.
    In the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant presents an argument for the centrality of <motion> to our concept <matter>. This argument has long been considered either irredeemably obscure or otherwise defective. In this paper I provide an interpretation which defends the argument’s validity and clarifies the sense in which it aims to show that <motion> is fundamental to our conception of matter.
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  35. Kant on Empirical Psychology and Experimentation.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 2707-2714.
  36. Michela Massimi and Angela Breitenbach , Kant and the Laws of Nature Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017 Pp. Xii+ 288 ISBN 9781107120983 £64.99. [REVIEW]Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (2):338-343.
  37. Chemical Dissolution and Kant’s Critical Theory of Nature.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (4):537-556.
    Kant conceives of chemical dissolutions as involving the infinite division and subsequent blending of solvent and solute. In the resulting continuous solution, every subvolume contains a uniform proportion of each reactant. Erich Adickes argues that this account stands in tension with other aspects of Kant’s Critical philosophy and his views on infinity. I argue that although careful analysis of Kant’s conception of dissolution addresses Adickes’ objections, the infinite division inherent to the process is beyond our human cognition, for Kant. Nevertheless, (...)
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  38. Kant, Schlick and Friedman on Space, Time and Gravity in Light of Three Lessons From Particle Physics.J. Pitts - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (2):135-161.
    Kantian philosophy of space, time and gravity is significantly affected in three ways by particle physics. First, particle physics deflects Schlick’s General Relativity-based critique of synthetic a priori knowledge. Schlick argued that since geometry was not synthetic a priori, nothing was—a key step toward logical empiricism. Particle physics suggests a Kant-friendlier theory of space-time and gravity presumably approximating General Relativity arbitrarily well, massive spin-2 gravity, while retaining a flat space-time geometry that is indirectly observable at large distances. The theory’s roots (...)
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  39. Paolo Grillenzoni: Kant E la Scienza 1755-1760: Parte 1. Rome 2016. 575 P., ISBN 978-88-548-9523-2.Kant E la Scienza 1755-1760: Parte 1. [REVIEW]Prof Dr Riccardo Pozzo - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (3):476-477.
  40. Kant on the Peculiarity of the Human Understanding and the Antinomy of the Teleological Power of Judgment.Idan Shimony - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter. pp. 1677–1684.
    Kant argues in the Critique of the Teleological Power of Judgment that the first stage in resolving the problem of teleology is conceiving it correctly. He explains that the conflict between mechanism and teleology, properly conceived, is an antinomy of the power of judgment in its reflective use regarding regulative maxims, and not an antinomy of the power of judgment in its determining use regarding constitutive principles. The matter in hand does not concern objective propositions regarding the possibility of objects (...)
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  41. Kant’s First Antinomy and Modern Cosmology.Idan Shimony - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    Kant’s first antinomy in the Critique of Pure Reason deals with the question of the size of the world. The temporal portion of the problem, on which I will focus in this paper, concerns the question of whether the world has a beginning in time or whether it exists eternally. Kant is sometimes understood as arguing that since neither one of the conflicting options can be confirmed, one needs to reject the common mistake of both opponents, namely, that we know (...)
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  42. William Whewell’s philosophy of science and Immanuel Kant’s apriorism.Tatiana D. Sokolova - 2018 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 55 (2):180-185.
    The article is the introduction to the Russian translation of the preface and Book I of William Whewell’s classic work “Novum Organon Renovatum”. In his theory for the philosophy of science, Whewell of­fers a conception, which radically differs from a positivist or an inductivist models of science – the most influential doctrines of his time. Presupposing that the scientific activity is impossible without acceptance of a metaphysical doctrine, Whewell goes against the contemporary tendencies in phi­losophy. Nevertheless, eclecticism of his views (...)
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  43. Hermann Cohen and Kant's Concept of Experience.Nicholas Stang - 2018 - In Christian Damböck (ed.), Philosophie und Wissenschaft bei Hermann Cohen. pp. 13–40.
    In this essay I offer a partial rehabilitation of Cohen’s Kant interpretation. In particular, I will focus on the center of Cohen’s interpretation in KTE, reflected in the title itself: his interpretation of Kant’s concept of experience. “Kant hat einen neuen Begriff der Erfahrung entdeckt,”7 Cohen writes at the opening of the first edition of KTE (henceforth, KTE1), and while the exact nature of that new concept of experience is hard to pin down in the 1871 edition, he states it (...)
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  44. A Blooming and Buzzing Confusion: Buffon, Reimarus, and Kant on Animal Cognition.Hein van den Berg - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 72:1-9.
    Kant’s views on animals have received much attention in recent years. According to some, Kant attributed the capacity for objective perceptual awareness to non-human animals, even though he denied that they have concepts. This position is difficult to square with a conceptualist reading of Kant, according to which objective perceptual awareness requires concepts. Others take Kant’s views on animals to imply that the mental life of animals is a blooming, buzzing confusion. In this article I provide a historical reconstruction of (...)
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  45. Kant and the Scope of Analogy in the Life Sciences.Hein van den Berg - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 71:67-76.
    In the present paper I investigate the role that analogy plays in eighteenth-century biology and in Kant’s philosophy of biology. I will argue that according to Kant, biology, as it was practiced in the eighteenth century, is fundamentally based on analogical reflection. However, precisely because biology is based on analogical reflection, biology cannot be a proper science. I provide two arguments for this interpretation. First, I argue that although analogical reflection is, according to Kant, necessary to comprehend the nature of (...)
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  46. Kant’s Response to Hume in the Second Analogy: A Critique of Gerd Buchdahl’s and Michael Friedman’s Accounts.Saniye Vatansever - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (2):310–346.
    This article presents a critical analysis of two influential readings of Kant’s Second Analogy, namely, Gerd Buchdahl’s “modest reading” and Michael Friedman’s “strong reading.” After pointing out the textual and philosophical problems with each, I advance an alternative reading of the Second Analogy argument. On my reading, the Second Analogy argument proves the existence of necessary and strictly universal causal laws. This, however, does not guarantee that Kant has a solution for the problem of induction. After I explain why the (...)
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  47. Le schématisme de la substance dans les Premiers principes métaphysiques de la science de la nature de Kant.Éric Beauron - 2017 - Philosophie 134 (3):38.
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  48. Laws in Biology and the Unity of Nature.Angela Breitenbach - 2017 - In Michela Massimi & Angela Breitenbach (eds.), Kant and the Laws of Nature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 237-255.
    Kant's views on the laws of nature in the physical and life sciences.
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  49. Kant on the Analytic-Synthetic or Mechanistic Model of Causal Explanation.Ido Geiger - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):19-42.
  50. Kant on Demarcation and Discovery.Nathaniel Goldberg - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):43-62.
    Kant makes two claims in the Critique of Pure Reason that anticipate concerns of twentieth-century philosophy of science. The first, that the understanding and sensibility are constitutive of knowledge, while reason is responsible for transcendental illusion, amounts to his solution to Karl Popper’s “problem” of demarcating science from pseudoscience. The second, that besides these constitutive roles of the understanding and sensibility, reason is itself needed to discover new empirical knowledge, anticipates Hans Reichenbach’s distinction between the “contexts” of justification and discovery. (...)
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