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Summary Kant's Antinomy of Pure Reason is the heart of the Transcendental Dialectic of the Critique of Pure Reason. There, he demonstrates that claims to cognize the duration of the world in time and the extent of its divisibility in space lead to contradictions that are insoluble so long as the metaphysician does not adopt the perspective of transcendental idealism. Kant also takes himself to demonstrate that transcendental freedom is not inconsistent with the claim that events in space and time are causally determined.
Key works Influential treatments (in English) of the individual antinomies can be found in Bennett 1974, Guyer 1987Watkins 2004, while Grier 2001 and Allison 1988 present Kant's Antinomy chapter in the context of the general account of error and illusion in the DIalectic.
Introductions In addition to the above key works, ʻAẓm 1972 attempts to trace Kant's arguments in the individual antinomies to issues arising in the course of the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. The individual antinomies (particularly the third) have also been the subject of extensive discussion in their own right, with a helpful overview (as well as some broader context) provided in Wood 2010.
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  1. added 2019-06-06
    Freedom, Spontaneity and the Noumenal Perspective.Chong-Fuk Lau - 2008 - Kant-Studien 99 (3):312-338.
    For Kant, both morality and the possibility of objective knowledge presuppose freedom. His theory of freedom is based on the distinction between phenomena and noumena, concepts which represent two different ways of viewing things. The question, however, is whether it is justified to take the noumenal perspective in addition to the phenomenal one. Isn’t freedom an illusion, if we regard ourselves as free, while in fact we are not? The crux of the problem lies in recognizing that there is no (...)
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  2. added 2019-06-06
    Hegel on Kant’s Antinomies and Distinction Between General and Transcendental Logic.Sally Sedgwick - 1991 - The Monist 74 (3):403-420.
    A common reaction to Hegel’s suggestion that we collapse Kant’s distinction between form and content is that, since such a move would also deprive us of any way of distinguishing the merely logical from the real possibility of our concepts, it is incoherent and ought to be rejected. It is true that these two distinctions are intimately related in Kant, such that if one goes, the other does as well. But it is less obvious that giving them up as Kant (...)
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  3. added 2019-06-06
    The Logical Structure of the First Antinomy.Zeljko Loparic - 1990 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 81 (3):280.
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  4. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Antinomies of Reason: Their Origin and Resolution. [REVIEW]A. C. Genova - 1986 - International Studies in Philosophy 18 (3):111-112.
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Criticism of Metaphysics.Arthur Melnick & W. H. Walsh - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):181.
  6. added 2019-06-06
    An Interpretation of Kant’s Solution to the Third Antinomy.W. Michael Hoffman - 1975 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 13 (2):173-185.
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Antinomies and Their Solution.Paul Carus - 1915 - The Monist 25 (4):627-632.
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  8. added 2019-06-05
    A Freewheeling Defense of Kant’s Resolution of the Third Antinomy.Todd D. Janke - 2008 - Kritike 2 (1):110-122.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, in a chapter of the Transcendental Dialectic entitled "The Antinomy of Pure Reason," Kant addresses the question whether a thoroughgoing mechanistic determinism is reconcilable with the ascription of free agency to human beings. In the third antinomy, reason is shown to be divided against itself insofar as both of two competing, and seemingly irreconcilable claims, can be justified on independent grounds; on the one hand, the claim that everything in nature proceeds according to the (...)
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  9. added 2019-03-28
    Kant and Spinoza.Colin Marshall - forthcoming - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. New York: Blackwell.
    In this chapter, I explore the connections between Spinoza’s philosophy and Immanuel Kant's. I begin by considering whether Kant engaged with Spinoza's actual views, and conclude that he did not. Despite that, I argue that there some philosophically-striking points of near-convergence between them. In addition to both privileging substance monism over other traditional metaphysical views, both Spinoza and Kant advance arguments for (a) epistemic humility based on the passivity of our senses and for (a) the timelessness of the mind based (...)
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  10. added 2019-03-13
    Die Radikale Unbegreiflichkeit von Gott Für den Menschlichen Verstand.Markus Kohl - forthcoming - In Heiner F. Klemme & Bernd Dörflinger (eds.), Die Gottesidee in Kants theoretischer und praktischer Philosophie (Studien und Materialien zur Geschichte der Philosophie). Hildesheim, Germany:
    I examine the extent to which God is inscrutable to human reason in Kant's critical philosophy. I argue that Kant's view here is much more radical than the rationalist commonplace that we cannot grasp how divine perfection is compatible with the existence of (apparent) imperfections. In Kant's considered view, we are absolutely incapable of accurately representing God's nature in any minimally determinate way: when we try to go beyond the empty idea of a mere 'something', we inevitably distort the nature (...)
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  11. added 2017-01-14
    What Is Kant's Second Antinomy About.Oscar Schmiege - 2006 - Kant-Studien 97 (3):272-300.
    The central questions in this study are: What does Kant consider the essence of the dispute between Rationalists and Realist Empiricists which he titles the “Second Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas?” Why does he believe it supports such wider aims of the Critical Philosophy as: showing the impossibility of a Transcendental Realist explanation of the spatiotemporal world, which amounts to an indirect proof of Transcendental Idealism ; being the only means for detecting the transcendental illusion which leads to Transcendental Realism (...)
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  12. added 2017-01-14
    Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion.Michelle Grier - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
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  13. added 2016-04-06
    Transcendental and Practical Freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason.Markus Kohl - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (3).
    To many readers, it has seemed that Kant's discussion of the relation between practical and transcendental freedom in the Transcendental Dialectic is inconsistent with his discussion of the same relation in the Canon of Pure Reason. In this paper I argue for a novel way of preserving the consistency of Kant's view: in both the Dialectic and the Canon, 'transcendental freedom' requires the absence of determination by all natural causes, whereas 'practical freedom' requires the absence of determination by, specifically, sensuous (...)
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  14. added 2016-01-22
    To Suspend Finitude Itself: Hegel’s Reaction to Kant’s First Antinomy.Reed Winegar - 2016 - Hegel Bulletin 37 (1):81-103.
    Hegel famously criticizes Kant’s resolution of the antinomies. According to Sedgwick, Hegel primarily chastises Kant’s resolution for presupposing that concepts are ‘one-sided’, rather than identical to their opposites. If Kant had accepted the dialectical nature of concepts, then (according to Sedgwick) Kant would not have needed to resolve the antinomies. However, as Ameriks has noted, any such interpretation faces a serious challenge. Namely, Kant’s first antinomy concerns the universe’s physical dimensions. Even if we grant that the concept of the finite (...)
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  15. added 2015-11-15
    Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
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  16. added 2015-09-29
    David Hume Und Die Dissertation von 1770.Wolfgang Ertl - 1999 - Peter Lang.
    I pursue a suggestion by Kreimendahl according to which it was Hamann's translation of Section I.4.7 of Hume's "Treatise" which triggered Kant's critical turn in 1768/69. In the section Hume put forward the idea that the principles at work in the human mind might be radically at odds with each other, i.e., that there might be an "antinomy" in the original meaning of the word. My claims are (i) that in his dissertation Kant attempted to solve the problem of antinomy (...)
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  17. added 2015-09-21
    Illusion and Fallacy in Kant’s First Paralogism.Michelle Gilmore Grier - 1993 - Kant-Studien 84 (3):257-282.
  18. added 2015-08-29
    Kant on Rational Cosmology.Eric Watkins - 2001 - In Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 70--89.
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  19. added 2015-08-24
    Review: Bennett, Kant's Dialectic[REVIEW]Arthur Melnick - 1976 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 14 (2):236-239.
  20. added 2015-03-29
    Das Weltproblem in Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft Kommentar Und Strukturanalyse des Ersten Buches Und des Zweiten Hauptstücks des Zweiten Buches der Transzendentalen Dialektik.Josef Schmucker - 1990
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  21. added 2015-03-29
    Le Rationalisme Kantien Et la Cosmologie Vitaliste.Francis Courtès - 1972 - J. Vrin.
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  22. added 2015-03-29
    Josef Schmucker, Das problem der kontingenz der welt. Versuch einer positiven aufarbeitung der kritik kants am kosmologischen argument. [REVIEW]H. Ogiermann - 1970 - Theologie Und Philosophie 45 (1):100.
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  23. added 2015-03-29
    Two Treatises of Government. By John Locke. Ed. Peter Laslett. [REVIEW]James Collins - 1968 - Modern Schoolman 46 (1):89-89.
  24. added 2015-03-29
    D. Neumark: Die Freiheitslehre bei Kant und Schopenhauer. [REVIEW]C. Zimara - 1965 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 12:353-359.
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  25. added 2014-07-17
    'Ludewig' Molina and Kant's Libertarian Compatibilism.Wolfgang Ertl - 2014 - In Matthias Kaufmann & Alexander Aichele (eds.), A Companion to Luis de Molina. Brill. pp. 405-445.
    Elaborating on the substantial parallels between Molina’s and Kant’s attempts to reconcile human freedom with divine foreknowledge and natural causal determinism respectively, my aim is to establish a proper historical connection as well. Leibniz is shown to be the crucial mediator in two respects: (i) Kant knew Molina’s account of divine knowledge in general in its Leibnizian version through Baumgarten’s Metaphysica. In this work, scientia media plays no role in the explication as to how God knows absolute future contingents. (ii) (...)
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  26. added 2014-07-17
    Nicht Naturalisierbar. Kants Freiheitsbegriff.S. K. A. Wendel - 2005 - In Georg Essen & Magnus Striet (eds.), Kant Und Die Theologie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. pp. 13--45.
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  27. added 2014-07-17
    Eugen Fink et Emmanuel Kant: La place de la philosophie dans la cosmologie.Francois Dion - 2003 - Kairos (Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail. Faculté de philosophie) 22:83-98.
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  28. added 2014-07-17
    Les antinomies cosmologiques de Kant.Leo Freuler - 1992 - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 124 (1):19-39.
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  29. added 2014-07-17
    Kantian Antinomy and Hegelian Dialectic.John Llewelyn - 1987 - In Stephen Priest (ed.), Hegel's Critique of Kant. Oxford University Press. pp. 87--101.
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  30. added 2014-05-01
    Kants Begriff der Antithetik und seine Herkunft aus der protestantischen Kontroverstheologie des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts.Norbert Hinske - 1972 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 16:48-59.
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  31. added 2014-04-21
    The Concept of World From Kant to Derrida.Sean Gaston - 2013 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    A clear and concise account of the metaphysical concept of world, its possibilities and limitations, from Kant to Derrida.
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  32. added 2014-04-03
    Die kosmologischen Antinomien in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft und die moderne physikalische Kosmologie.Peter Mittelstaedt & Ingeborg Strohmeyer - 1990 - Kant-Studien 81 (2):145-169.
  33. added 2014-04-02
    Kant’s Second Antinomy and Hume’s Theory of Extensionless Indivisibles.Dale Jacquette - 1993 - Kant-Studien 84 (1):38-50.
  34. added 2014-04-02
    "Kant's Theory of Form: An Essay on the Critique of Pure Reason," by Robert B. Pippin; "Kant's Antinomies of Reason: Their Origin and Their Resolution," by Victoria S. Wike. [REVIEW]James Collins - 1984 - Modern Schoolman 61 (3):204-205.
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  35. added 2014-03-31
    Zum kosmotheologischen ursprung der kantischen freiheitsantinomie.Heinz Heimsoeth - 1966 - Kant-Studien 57 (1-4):206-229.
  36. added 2014-03-28
    The Antinomies of Pure Reason.Allen W. Wood - 2010 - In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
  37. added 2014-03-27
    Kant Über Die Teilbarkeit der Materie.Wolfgang Malzkorn - 1998 - Kant-Studien 89 (4):385-409.
    In this paper it is argued that the _Physical Monadology of 1756 has to be seen as an attempt to evade the same paradox as the one given in the second antinomy of the _Critique of Pure Reason. Since this attempt presupposes the claim that space rests upon relations between substances, it contradicts the thesis that it is a mere form of intuition, presented by Kant in his dissertation of 1770. Therefore, at least since 1770 the paradox of the divisibility (...)
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  38. added 2014-03-24
    Kant Et l'Équivoque du Monde.Michaël Foessel - 2007 - Cnrs.
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  39. added 2014-03-24
    Hume's Antinomy and Kant's Critical Turn.Wolfgang Ertl - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (4):617-640.
    The aim of this paper is to confirm that it was Hamann's translation of Hume's "Treatise" (I.4.7) which triggered Kant's critical turn in 1768/69. If this is indeed so, then Kant's inaugural dissertation must be reassessed, in particular the doctrine, to be found there, that we have cognitive access to the intelligible world. This doctrine is part of a strategy for tackling the problem highlighted by Hume; that there may be conflicting principles at work in the human mind, i.e., an (...)
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  40. added 2014-03-20
    Kant’s Treatment of the Mathematical Antinomies in the First Critique and in the Prolegomena.Alberto Vanzo - 2005 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):505-531.
    This paper discusses an apparent contrast between Kant’s accounts of the mathematical antinomies in the first Critique and in the Prolegomena. The Critique claims that the antitheses are infinite judgements. The Prolegomena seem to claim that they are negative judgements. For the Critique, theses and antitheses are false because they presuppose that the world has a determinate magnitude, and this is not the case. For the Prolegomena, theses and antitheses are false because they presuppose an inconsistent notion of world. The (...)
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  41. added 2014-03-06
    Intuition and Infinity: A Kantian Theme with Echoes in the Foundations of Mathematics.Carl Posy - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 63:165-193.
    Kant says patently conflicting things about infinity and our grasp of it. Infinite space is a good case in point. In his solution to the First Antinomy, he denies that we can grasp the spatial universe as infinite, and therefore that this universe can be infinite; while in the Aesthetic he says just the opposite: ‘Space is represented as a given infinite magnitude’ (A25/B39). And he rests these upon consistently opposite grounds. In the Antinomy we are told that we can (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-04
    Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume.Brian A. Chance - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  43. added 2014-03-04
    Bird on Kant's Mathematical Antinomies.A. W. Moore - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):235-243.
    The interpretation of Kant's Critical philosophy as a version of traditional idealism has a long history. In spite of Kant's and his commentators’ various attempts to distinguish between traditional and transcendental idealism, his philosophy continues to be construed as committed to various features usually associated with the traditional idealist project. As a result, most often, the accusation is that his Critical philosophy makes too strong metaphysical and epistemological claims.In his The Revolutionary Kant, Graham Bird engages in a systematic and thorough (...)
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  44. added 2014-03-04
    The First Antinomy and Spinoza.Omri Boehm - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):683 - 710.
    Scholars commonly assume that Kant never seriously engaged with Spinoza or Spinozism. However, in his later writings Kant argues several times that Spinozism is the most consistent form of transcendental realism. In the first part of the paper, I argue that the first Antinomy, debating the age and size of the world, already reflects Kant's confrontation with Spinozist metaphysics. Specifically, the position articulated in the Antithesis ? according to which the world is infinite and uncreated ? is Spinozist, not Leibnizian, (...)
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  45. added 2014-02-28
    From a Mereotopological Point of View.Alexander Gebharter & Alexander Mirnig - 2010 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):78-90.
    In his Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant presents four antinomies. In his attempt to solve the first of these antinomies he examines and analyzes "thesis" and "antithesis" more thoroughly and employs the terms `part', `whole' and `boundary' in his argumentation for their validity. According to Kant, the whole problem surrounding the antinomy was caused by applying the concept of the world to nature and then using both terms interchangeably. While interesting, this solution is still not that much more than (...)
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  46. added 2014-02-18
    The Drama of Reason: Hume's Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion and the Antinomies of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Conor Barry - 2010 - Analecta Hermeneutica 2.
  47. added 2014-01-19
    La Théorie Des Antinomies Dans la Critique de Kant Par Hegel.Gerhard Funke - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
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  48. added 2014-01-19
    The Square of Opposition: From Russell's Logic to Kant's Cosmology.Giovanni Mion - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (4):377-382.
    In this paper, I will show to what extent we can use our modern understanding of the Square of Opposition in order to make sense of Kant 's double standard solution to the cosmological antinomies. Notoriously, for Kant, both theses and antitheses of the mathematical antinomies are false, while both theses and antitheses of the dynamical antinomies are true. Kantian philosophers and interpreters have criticized Kant 's solution as artificial and prejudicial. In the paper, I do not dispute such claims, (...)
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  49. added 2014-01-19
    Maimonides on Creation, Kant's First Antinomy, and Hermann Cohen.Mark A. Kaplowitz - 2012 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 20 (2):147-171.
    This paper describes a “double move“ made by Maimonides, Kant, and Hermann Cohen when they simultaneously dismiss and resolve the cosmological problem of the origin of the universe in time in order to represent creation as a moral issue. Maimonides claims to lack a compelling metaphysical argument regarding creation. However, a reading of Maimonides inspired by the views of Hermann Cohen finds him to be a Platonist who accepts creation from absolute privation so as to establish a moral world in (...)
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  50. added 2014-01-19
    The Origins of Kant's Arguments in the Antinomies.J. L. Gorman - 1988 - Philosophical Books 29 (4):202-204.
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