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Summary In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Kant undertakes to expose the illusory basis of the rational psychologist's claim to offer cognition of the nature and existence of the soul and its condition after the death of the body. In doing so, Kant has in his crosshairs not only the views on the soul of Descartes and Leibniz but also those of his rationalist contemporaries such as Christian Wolff (who claims to have invented the discipline of rational psychology), Martin Knutzen (one of Kant's teachers and author of a number of texts on the topic), and Moses Mendelssohn (author of the influential Phaedo or on the Immortality of the Soul).
Key works One of the most provocative discussions of Kant's Paralogisms can be found in Strawson 1966Ameriks 1982, in its efforts to extract a moderate rational psychology from Kant's discussion in the chapter has also been very influential, and Powell 1990 is another useful book-length treatment. Other discussions of Kant's Paralogisms, with particular attention to its significance with respect to Kant's theory of the self can be found in Kitcher 1990, Brook 1997, and Kitcher 2011.
Introductions Hatfield 1992 contains a helpful discussion of the various forms of psychology at issue in the Paralogisms, Grier 1993 connects Kant's criticism in the chapter with the doctrine of illusion elaborated throughout the Dialectic, and Dyck 2014 presents the immediate context of Kant's criticism in the chapter.
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  1. added 2018-03-08
    Transcendental Paralogisms as Formal Fallacies - Kant’s Refutation of Pure Rational Psychology.Toni Kannisto - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (2):195-227.
    : According to Kant, the arguments of rational psychology are formal fallacies that he calls transcendental paralogisms. It remains heavily debated whether there actually is any formal error in the inferences Kant presents: according to Grier and Allison, they are deductively invalid syllogisms, whereas Bennett, Ameriks, and Van Cleve deny that they are formal fallacies. I advance an interpretation that reconciles these extremes: transcendental paralogisms are sound in general logic but constitute formal fallacies in transcendental logic. By formalising the paralogistic (...)
  2. added 2018-02-18
    A Double Edged Sword? Kant's Refutation Of Mendelssohn's Proof Of The Immortality Of The Soul And Its Implications For His Theory Of Matter.Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):561-588.
  3. added 2017-06-26
    Uberzeugender Beweis Aus der Vernunft von der Unsterblichkeit Sowohl der Menschen Seelen Insgemein, Als Besonders der Kinder-Seelen.Israel Gottlieb Canz & Corey W. Dyck (eds.) - 2017 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Israel Gottlieb Canz’s Uberzeugender Beweiß, first published in 1741 and reprinted here in its second, expanded edition stands as his most influential discussion of the soul’s immortality, with one contemporary pronouncing it to be “one of the best [treatments of immortality] that we have.” In this text, Canz seeks to augment and supplement traditional Wolffian proofs by considering, first, the grounds for the soul’s immortality that are contained in its own nature and, second, the grounds for the same that are (...)
  4. added 2017-01-14
    Physiologische Psychologie des Selbstbewusstseins zwischen Wolff und Kant.Udo Thiel - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
  5. added 2017-01-14
    Schwärmerei und Geisterseherei, Aufklärung und analytische Psychologie: Kant und Swedenborg aus der Sicht von C. G. Jung.Friedemann Stengel - 2008 - In Kant Und Swedenborgkant and Swedenborg. Approaches to a Controversial Relationship: Zugänge Zu Einem Umstrittenen Verhältnis. Walter de Gruyter – Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  6. added 2017-01-14
    Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion.Michelle Grier - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
  7. added 2017-01-14
    Le Moi de Descartes et la « Psychologie de la Connaissance ».Siegfried Marck - 1937 - Travaux du IXe Congrès International de Philosophie 1:173-180.
    Dans la doctrine cartésienne du Cogito, ergo sum, on peut dégager deux idées : l’idée d’une vérité indépendante, fournissant d’elle-même des preuves suffisantes d’authenticité ; l’idée d’une évidence vécue dont toute la force tiendrait à la conscience plus ou moins riche et plus ou moins précise que le moi pourrait prendre de sa réalité intime. L’interprétation cartésienne du moi flotte entre le moi qui se définit par la pensée et le moi qui se définit par l’expérience. Kant, inspiré lui aussi (...)
  8. added 2017-01-12
    Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness.Pierre Keller - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness, Pierre Keller examines Kant's theory of self-consciousness and argues that it succeeds in explaining how both subjective and objective experience are possible. Previous interpretations of Kant's theory have held that he treats all self-consciousness as knowledge of objective states of affairs, and also that self-consciousness can be interpreted as knowledge of personal identity. By developing this striking new interpretation Keller is able to argue that transcendental self-consciousness underwrites a general theory of objectivity and (...)
  9. added 2017-01-12
    Kant and the Mind.Andrew Brook - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
  10. added 2016-12-05
    Kant and Rational Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Corey W. Dyck presents a new account of Kant's criticism of the rational investigation of the soul in his monumental Critique of Pure Reason, in light of its eighteenth-century German context. When characterizing the rational psychology that is Kant's target in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason chapter of the Critique commentators typically only refer to an approach to, and an account of, the soul found principally in the thought of Descartes and Leibniz. But Dyck argues that to do so is (...)
  11. added 2016-12-05
    Problems From Kant.James Van Cleve - 1999 - Oup Usa.
    James Van Cleve examines the main topics from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, such as transcendental idealism, necessity and analyticity, space and time, substance and cause, noumena and things-in-themselves, problems of the self, and rational theology. He also discusses the relationship between Kant's thought and that of modern anti-realists, such as Putnam and Dummett. Because Van Cleve focuses upon specific problems rather than upon entire passages or sections of the Critique, he makes Kant's work more accessible to the serious student (...)
  12. added 2016-08-29
    Mental Powers and the Soul in Kant’s Subjective Deduction and the Second Paralogism.Steven Tester - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):426-452.
    Kant’s claim in the Subjective Deduction that we have multiple fundamental mental powers appears to be susceptible to some a priori metaphysical arguments made against multiple fundamental mental powers by Christian Wolff who held that these powers would violate the unity of thought and entail that the soul is an extended composite. I argue, however, that in the Second Paralogism and his lectures on metaphysics, Kant provides arguments that overcome these objections by showing that it is possible that a composite (...)
  13. added 2016-04-06
    Lust, Schmerz, Apathie: Über einige Quellen der vorkritischen Psychologie Kants.Maria Antonietta Prantenda - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 481-496.
  14. added 2016-04-06
    Die Wissenschaftskonzeption der Psychologie bei Kant und Wundt.Jochen Fahrenberg - 2008 - E-Journal Philosophie der Psychologie 10.
  15. added 2016-04-06
    Ein “so lange aufgenommener Fremdling”. Kant und die Entwicklung der Psychologie.R. Martinelli - 2004 - .
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    Apperzeption, Leben und Natur. Zur Subjekt- und Naturphilosophie bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel.Martin Bondeli - 2003 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 50 (3):537-554.
  17. added 2016-04-06
    Kant et le procès de la psychologie rationnelle.Jean Paumen - 1981 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 35 (136/137):315.
  18. added 2016-04-06
    Kant und die Psychologie.Max Dessoir - 1924 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 29:98.
  19. added 2016-04-06
    Moog, Willy, Logik, Psychologie und Psychologismus.Willy Moog - 1920 - Kant-Studien 25 (1).
  20. added 2016-04-06
    Zur Psychologie der Metaphysik.Arthur Liebert - 1917 - Kant-Studien 21 (1-3):42.
  21. added 2016-04-06
    Ehrenberg, Kritik der Psychologie als Wissenschaft.K. Sternberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16:100.
  22. added 2016-04-06
    Klemm, Geschichte der Psychologie.Kurt Sternberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16:350.
  23. added 2016-04-06
    Klemm, Otto, Dr., Privatdozent. Geschichte der Psychologie.Otto Klemm - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
  24. added 2016-04-06
    Ehrenberg, Hans, Dr., Privatdozent. Kritik der Psychologie als Wissenschaft, Forschungen nach den systematischen Prinzipien der Erkenntnislehre Kants.Hans Ehrenberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
  25. added 2016-04-06
    Eisler-Lachelier, Psychologie und Metaphysik.Max Wundt - 1909 - Kant-Studien 14:130.
  26. added 2016-04-06
    Palme, Sulzers Psychologie und die Anfänge der Dreivermögenslehre.J. W. Hickson - 1905 - Kant-Studien 10:582.
  27. added 2016-04-06
    Dessoir, Geschichte der neueren deutschen Psychologie.R. Falckenberg - 1902 - Kant-Studien 7:374.
  28. added 2016-04-06
    L'idée de la personnalité dans la psychologie moderne. — Etude sur le moi, la conscience et la connaissanee de soi-même dans les doctrines psychologiques dérivées de Hume, de Kant et de Maine de Biran.Charles Jeanmaire - 1883 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 16:309-316.
  29. added 2016-04-06
    La psychologie de Kant.Mamiani Mamiani - 1878 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 5:457.
  30. added 2016-01-21
    The Scope of Inner Sense: The Development of Kant's Psychology in the Silent Decade.Corey W. Dyck - 2016 - Con-Textos Kantianos 3:1-19.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to a widely influential account of Kant’s development in the “silent decade,” that key changes in his empirical and rational psychology throughout the 1770’s are traceable to changes in the scope he assigns to inner sense. Kant’s explicit inclusion of our access to the I or soul within the scope of inner sense in the early 1770’s (after its apparent exclusion in the Dissertation) yields a more robust empirical psychology. Given the Wolffian character of (...)
  31. added 2015-12-09
    Immanuel Kant: Die Einheit des Bewusst- seins. Die „Deduktion der Kategorien“ und die „Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft“.Rudolf Mösenbacher - 2015 - Kant-Studien 106 (3):523-527.
  32. added 2015-11-15
    Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
  33. added 2015-08-24
    Was weiss ich vom Ich? : Kants Lehre vom Faktum der reinen praktischen Vernunft, seine Neufassung der Paralogismen und die verborgenen Fortschritte der Kritischen Metaphysik im Jahre 1786.Bernd Ludwig - 2012 - In Mario Brandhorst, Andree Hahmann & Bernd Ludwig (eds.), Sind Wir Bürger Zweier Welten?: Freiheit Und Moralische Verantwortung Im Transzendentalen Idealismus. Meiner.
  34. added 2015-08-24
    Review: Walsh, Kant's Criticism of Metaphysics[REVIEW]Arthur Melnick - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):181-184.
  35. added 2015-08-24
    Review: Bennett, Kant's Dialectic[REVIEW]Arthur Melnick - 1976 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 14 (2):236-239.
  36. added 2015-08-21
    Kants Paralogismen.Rolf-Peter Horstmann - 1993 - Kant-Studien 84 (4):408-425.
  37. added 2015-08-07
    Kants Paralogismen.Dina Emundts, Stefanie Grüne & Ulrich Schlösser - 2006 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 54 (2):261-263.
  38. added 2015-03-29
    Critical Idealism and Transcendental Materialism: A Speculative Analysis of the Second Paralogism.Michael J. Olson - 2011 - Cosmos and History 7 (1):49-61.
    his paper argues that the critical doctrine of the necessary unity of the thinking subject propounded in Kant’s Second Paralogism contains an idealist commitment to the metaphysically exceptional nature of the unifying activity of thought. Rather than rejecting Kant’s transcendental framework as necessarily idealist and antagonistic to the current projects of speculative materialism, it is argued that transcendental philosophy should remain an important ingredient of any contemporary metaphysics. The implicit metaphysical idealism of Kantian critical idealism, it is claimed, in the (...)
  39. added 2015-03-29
    Kant's Theory of Self (Review).Apaar Kumar - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (4):535-536.
    Melnick interprets the Kantian self from the first-person perspective as real abiding intellectual action. It unfolds in time but does not arise in inner or outer attending. Hence, it is neither a noumenal entity nor Kantian intuitable substance. Melnick thinks that his interpretation not only clarifies Kant’s arguments in the Paralogisms of the first Critique, but also illuminates Kant’s positive theory of self.Melnick argues that a thought is inchoate, unformed, and unsettled until the thinking self as intellectual marshaling action brings (...)
  40. added 2015-03-29
    Die Paralogismen und die Widerlegung des Idealismus in Kants „Kritik der reinen Vernunft“.Dina Emundts - 2006 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 54 (2):295-309.
    Der Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit Kants Paralogismen der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Im ersten Teil wird die These entwickelt, dass Kants Kritik an der rationalen Psychologie wesentlich auf der Behauptung beruht, dass etwas, das nur in der Zeit und nicht im Raum gegeben ist, nicht anhand des Begriffs der Substanz bestimmt werden kann. Im zweiten Teil wird gefragt, ob und wie das Ich als Begleitvorstellung wahrgenommen werden kann.
  41. added 2015-03-29
    Kant on Swedenborg: Dreams of a Spirit-Seer & Other Writings.Immanuel Kant - 2003 - Swedenborg Foundation Publishers.
  42. added 2015-03-29
    A Commentary on Kant's "Dreams of a Spirit-Seer".Gregory Robert Johnson - 2001 - Dissertation, The Catholic University of America
    Kant's Dreams of a Spirit-Seer is usually interpreted as a skeptical-empiricist attempt to discredit the dogmatic metaphysics of the Leibniz-Wolff school by showing its similarities to Swedenborg's thought. I argue instead that Kant took Swedenborg's ideas serious as candidates for truth and that Swedenborg had a significant positive influence on the development of Kant's mature critical philosophy. ;Chapter one argues that Dreams is not unambiguously hostile to Swedenborg but rather systematically ambiguous and ironic. Kant constructs his text on two levels, (...)
  43. added 2015-03-29
    The Development of Kant's Refutation of Idealism.Luigi Caranti - 2001 - Dissertation, Boston University
    The dissertation analyzes Kant's arguments against Cartesian skepticism from the precritical period up to the "Reflexionen zum Idealismus" . It is argued that in the silent decade , the skeptical challenge leads Kant to reinterpret the foundation of his philosophy, namely, the distinction between appearances and things in themselves. Realizing the impossibility of refuting the skeptic through the identification of appearances with mental entities and the affirmation of the mind-independent existence of things in themselves as causes of the appearances , (...)
  44. added 2015-03-29
    Between Wolff and Kant: Merian's Theory of Apperception.Udo Thiel - 1996 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (2):213-232.
    Between Wolff and Kant: Merian's Theory of Apperception UDO THIEL IT IS WELL KNOWN that the nodon of apperception or self-consciousness is central to Kant's theoretical philosophy. Kant introduces the notion in one of the crucial parts of the Critique of Pure Reason, the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories, and assigns it an important role in his critique of traditional metaphysics of the soul in the Transcendental Dialectic.' It is also well known that Kant did not invent the term "apperception." (...)
  45. added 2015-03-29
    A Study of Kant's Theoretical Philosophy and Idealism.Camilla Serck-Hanssen - 1996 - Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    The main purpose of this dissertation is to show how Kant's critical understanding of "apperception" emerged from systematic reasoning on the problem of cognition. I argue that my inquiry yields new insights into the meaning of "transcendental apperception" which resolve problems other interpreters have had with reconciling Kant's apparently vacillating and conflicting views on the self and the awareness thereof, show that Kant has a novel and radical conception of the self, and are pivotal for a proper understanding of Kant's (...)
  46. added 2015-03-29
    Kant's Transcendental Psychology.Matthew Sean Mccormick - 1995 - Dissertation, The University of Rochester
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant argues, partly in response to Hume, that the mind brings an elaborate a priori structure to its interactions with the world. In his transcendental psychology, Kant argues for a number of theses about the nature of the mind of a subject that has cognition of empirical objects. This dissertation presents Kant's transcendental psychology and argues against a number of Patricia Kitcher's and Peter Strawson's criticisms. ;As a prelude to Kant's philosophical psychology, I reconstruct (...)
  47. added 2015-03-29
    Georg MOHR, "Das sinnliche Ich. Innerer Sinn und Bewusstsein bei Kant". [REVIEW]L. Freuler - 1992 - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 124:441.
  48. added 2015-03-29
    Kant's Epistemic Self.Charles Thomas Powell - 1986 - Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    In the Paralogisms of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant challenges the possibility of a priori knowledge of the self. Implicit in this attack is a positive theory of mind which is comprehensible only through a reading of the Transcendental Deduction. There Kant argues that the possibility of experience requires that experience be represented as had by a Cartesian Ego, since only the representation of such a unitary subject can provide the necessary framework for representing a coherent course of experiences. (...)
  49. added 2015-03-29
    AMERIKS, K. "Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason". [REVIEW]C. Janaway - 1984 - Mind 93:632.
  50. added 2015-03-29
    K. AMERIKS, Kant's Theory of Mind. [REVIEW]K. Schanné - 1984 - Theologie Und Philosophie 59 (1):107.
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