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Summary In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Kant undertakes to expose the illusory basis of the rational psychologist's claim to offer cognition of the nature and existence of the soul and its condition after the death of the body. In doing so, Kant has in his crosshairs not only the views on the soul of Descartes and Leibniz but also those of his rationalist contemporaries such as Christian Wolff (who claims to have invented the discipline of rational psychology), Martin Knutzen (one of Kant's teachers and author of a number of texts on the topic), and Moses Mendelssohn (author of the influential Phaedo or on the Immortality of the Soul).
Key works One of the most provocative discussions of Kant's Paralogisms can be found in Strawson 1966Ameriks 1982, in its efforts to extract a moderate rational psychology from Kant's discussion in the chapter has also been very influential, and Powell 1990 is another useful book-length treatment. Other discussions of Kant's Paralogisms, with particular attention to its significance with respect to Kant's theory of the self can be found in Kitcher 1994, Brook 1994, and Kitcher 2011.
Introductions Hatfield 1992 contains a helpful discussion of the various forms of psychology at issue in the Paralogisms, Grier 1993 connects Kant's criticism in the chapter with the doctrine of illusion elaborated throughout the Dialectic, and Dyck 2014 presents the immediate context of Kant's criticism in the chapter.
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  1. added 2020-04-03
    Kant, Epistemic Phenomenalism, and the Refutation of Idealism.Michael Oberst - 2018 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 100 (2):172-201.
    This paper takes issue with the widespread view that Kant rejects epistemic phenomenalism. According to epistemic phenomenalism, only cognition of states of one’s own mind can be certain, while cognition of outer objects is necessarily uncertain. I argue that Kant does not reject this view, but accepts a modified version of it. For, in contrast to traditional skeptics, he distinguishes between two kinds of outer objects and holds that we have direct access to outer appearances in our mind; but he (...)
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  2. added 2019-10-20
    Review of Pierre Kerszberg’s Critique and Totality. [REVIEW]Stefanie Rocknak - 2000 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 22 (1):343-347.
    As Pierre Kerszberg retraces Kant’s critical account of the human being’s confounded, if not tortured, attempts to grasp totality, the reader may occasionally lose sight of the general objectives of the book. In fact, my main criticism of the book concerns Kerszberg’s somewhat cavalier approach to presenting a clear structure of thought. Yet, regardless of the occasional confusion, Critique and Totality is rich with insight and fresh historical perspectives.
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  3. added 2019-10-07
    Kant on de Se.Luca Forgione - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlino, Germania: De Gruyter. pp. 3779-3786.
    Since the classic works by Castañeda, Perry and Lewis, de se thoughts have been described as thoughts about oneself ‘as oneself’. In recent years, various theoretical perspectives have gained ground, and even if the transcendental system does not seem to contemplate an explicit articulation of de se thoughts, apparently a few features of transcendental apperception and I think do anticipate a few points in Perry and Recanati’s claims on the so-called implicit de se thoughts in the specific terms of Transcendentalism.
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  4. added 2019-06-07
    Selbstbewußtsein und Objektbewußtsein bei Kant: Eine Studie zu den Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft.Richard Schantz - 2000 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 60 (1):151-169.
    In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason Kant casts a critical glance at that doctrine of the soul which was called "rational psychology" by the classical metaphysics of his time, and which can best be understood as a systematic reconstruction of Descartes' theory of mind. Kant agrees with the proponents of rational psychology that our representation of a subject of experience is necessarily the representation of a simple, unitary and persisting subject. But Kant's decisive objection to his opponents is that from (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-07
    Der transzendentale Schein in den Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft nach der ersten Auflage der Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Ein Kommen-tar zu KrV, A 396-405.Matthias Koßler - 1998 - Kant-Studien 90 (1):1-22.
    At the end of the chapter on paralogisms in the first edition of his _Critique of Pure Reason, Kant treats the problem of the transcendental illusion in a very detailed way which is not exceeded in the second edition. The essay gives an exhaustive commentary to this passage leading to the result that the unavoidability of transcendental illusion has to be taken seriously in that sense that human reason in his theoretical use cannot conceived other than liable to illusion.
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    Was ist der Mensch? – Das Gehirn-Geist-Problem aus kantischer Sicht Plädoyer für eine transzendentale Anthropologie.Thorsten Streubel - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):370-376.
    : It is the aim of the following considerations to use Kantian epistemology to advance the current debate about the relation between mind and brain. First of all the naturalistic assumption that all mental phenomena are based on neuronal processes is called into question. Secondly it is shown that naturalism leads necessarily to an absurd constructivism that is very similar to Kant’s transcendental position, but which conflicts with naturalism’s empirical premise. In spite of the progress in brain research Kant’s transcendental (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Fundamental Singleness: How to Turn the 2nd Paralogism Into a Valid Argument: Galen Strawson.Galen Strawson - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:61-92.
    [1] Experience is a real concrete phenomenon. The existence of experience entails the existence of a subject of experience. Therefore subjects of experience are concretely real. [2] The existence of a subject of experience in the lived present or living moment of experience, e.g. the period of time in which the grasping of a thought occurs, provably involves the existence of singleness or unity of an unsurpassably strong kind. The singleness or unity in question is a metaphysically real, concrete entity. (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Transcendental and Empirical Psychology of Cognition.Claudia M. Schmidt - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):462-472.
    One of the perennially intriguing questions regarding Kant’s approach to the human sciences is the relation between his ‘transcendental psychology’ and empirical cognitive psychology. In this paper I compare his analysis of the a priori conditions of human cognition in the Critique of pure reason with his empirical account of the human cognitive faculties in his Anthropology from a pragmatic point of view. In comparing his approach to self-consciousness, sensibility, imagination, and understanding in these two works, I argue that Kant (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Fichte’s Critique of Kant’s Doctrine of Inner Sense.Garth W. Green - 2007 - Idealistic Studies 37 (3):157-178.
    In this paper, the thematic context for Fichte’s early concern with the character of the forms of intuition, and specifically inner intuition, is adumbrated. This context is provided by means of a brief exposition of Kant’s doctrine of time as the form of inner sense, and its dual role; its positive role in the “order of cognition” or ordo cognoscendi, and its negative role in the critique of Seelenlehre or “doctrine of the soul.” It is then argued, on this basis, (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Karl Ameriks, Kant's Theory of Mind. An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. New Edn, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Xxxviii, 348 Pp. ISBN 0-19-823896-7, £45.00 ; ISBN 0-19-823897-5, £4.99. [REVIEW]Udo Thiel - 2003 - Kantian Review 7:152-154.
  11. added 2019-06-06
    Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness. [REVIEW]Frederick Rauscher - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (2):285.
    Keller (Univ. of California, Riverside) offers an original reading of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason that combines thematic focus and comprehensive scope." Choice \n\nBook Description\n\nIn Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness, Pierre Keller examines\nKant's theory of self-consciousness and argues that it succeeds in\nexplaining how both subjective and objective experience are possible.\nPrevious interpretations of Kant's theory have held that he treats\nall self-consciousness as knowledge of objective states of affairs,\nand also that self-consciousness can be interpreted as knowledge\nof personal identity. By developing this (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. By Susan Meld Shell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1996. Pp. Vii, 483. ISBN 0-226-75215-1 , ISBN 0-226-75217-8. [REVIEW]Andrew N. Carpenter - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:134-143.
  13. added 2019-06-06
    Personal Identity and Kant’s Third Person Perspective.Pierre Keller - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24 (2):123-146.
    In recent philosophy there has been increasing interest in the relation between the first and third person perspective on experience. The first person perspective has a certain epistemic priority with regard to the ascription of inner states. An agent knows his or her beliefs and desires in a way which no one else can. There is thus a presumption in favor of the agent’s self-ascriptions when it comes to the ascription of inner states. This first person authority over such inner (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Kant's Transcendental Psychology by P. Kitcher. [REVIEW]Arthur Melnick - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (3):513-515.
  15. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Transcendental Psychology. [REVIEW]Steve Naragon - 1991 - International Studies in Philosophy 23 (3):126-127.
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    Karl Ameriks, "Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason". [REVIEW]Michael Washburn - 1984 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (2):245.
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. [REVIEW]Paul Guyer - 1983 - Review of Metaphysics 37 (1):97-100.
    This work makes the revisionist claim that "the theory of mind in the Critique [of Pure Reason] is much more traditional and rationalistic than it at first appears, but that it is also more defensible than is generally recognized". Specifically, Ameriks aims to show that "Kant can be seen as wanting, above all else, to put... into a respectable form" the "core of the rationalist commitment" "to the idea that we have a special kind of identity that can withstand all (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Personal Identity and Kant’s “Refutation of Idealism”.Richard E. Aquila - 1979 - Kant-Studien 70 (3):259.
  19. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Criticism of Metaphysics.Arthur Melnick & W. H. Walsh - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):181.
  20. added 2019-06-06
    V. Satura, Kants Erkenntnispsychologie in den Nachschriften seiner Vorlesungen über empirische Psychologie. [REVIEW]H. Drüe - 1974 - Kant-Studien 65 (4):479.
  21. added 2019-04-15
    Béatrice Longuenesse, I, Me, Mine: Back to Kant, and Back Again Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017 Pp. Xx+257 ISBN 9780199665761 $45.00. [REVIEW]Curtis Sommerlatte - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):504-510.
  22. added 2019-04-11
    Kant’s Critique of Mysticism: The Critical Dreams.Stephen R. Palmquist - 1989 - Philosophy and Theology 3 (4):355-383.
    This is a series of two articles examining Kant’s attitude toward mystical experiences and the relation between his interest in these and his interest in constructing a Critical system of metaphysics.“The Critical Dreams” begins by questioning the traditional division between “Critical” and “pre-Critical” periods in Kant’s development. After explaining Kant’s Critical method, his 1766 book, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer... is examined and found to contain all the essential elements of that method. The onlykey element which is missing is his “Copernican” (...)
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  23. added 2018-03-08
    Transcendental Paralogisms as Formal Fallacies - Kant’s Refutation of Pure Rational Psychology.Toni Kannisto - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (2):195-227.
    : According to Kant, the arguments of rational psychology are formal fallacies that he calls transcendental paralogisms. It remains heavily debated whether there actually is any formal error in the inferences Kant presents: according to Grier and Allison, they are deductively invalid syllogisms, whereas Bennett, Ameriks, and Van Cleve deny that they are formal fallacies. I advance an interpretation that reconciles these extremes: transcendental paralogisms are sound in general logic but constitute formal fallacies in transcendental logic. By formalising the paralogistic (...)
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  24. added 2018-02-18
    A Double Edged Sword? Kant's Refutation Of Mendelssohn's Proof Of The Immortality Of The Soul And Its Implications For His Theory Of Matter.Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):561-588.
  25. added 2017-06-26
    Uberzeugender Beweis Aus der Vernunft von der Unsterblichkeit Sowohl der Menschen Seelen Insgemein, Als Besonders der Kinder-Seelen.Israel Gottlieb Canz & Corey W. Dyck (eds.) - 2017 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Israel Gottlieb Canz’s Uberzeugender Beweiß, first published in 1741 and reprinted here in its second, expanded edition stands as his most influential discussion of the soul’s immortality, with one contemporary pronouncing it to be “one of the best [treatments of immortality] that we have.” In this text, Canz seeks to augment and supplement traditional Wolffian proofs by considering, first, the grounds for the soul’s immortality that are contained in its own nature and, second, the grounds for the same that are (...)
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  26. added 2017-01-14
    Physiologische Psychologie des Selbstbewusstseins zwischen Wolff und Kant.Udo Thiel - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  27. added 2017-01-14
    Schwärmerei und Geisterseherei, Aufklärung und analytische Psychologie: Kant und Swedenborg aus der Sicht von C. G. Jung.Friedemann Stengel - 2008 - In Kant Und Swedenborgkant and Swedenborg. Approaches to a Controversial Relationship: Zugänge Zu Einem Umstrittenen Verhältnis. Walter de Gruyter – Max Niemeyer Verlag.
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  28. added 2017-01-14
    Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion.Michelle Grier - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
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  29. added 2017-01-14
    Le Moi de Descartes et la « Psychologie de la Connaissance ».Siegfried Marck - 1937 - Travaux du IXe Congrès International de Philosophie 1:173-180.
    Dans la doctrine cartésienne du Cogito, ergo sum, on peut dégager deux idées : l’idée d’une vérité indépendante, fournissant d’elle-même des preuves suffisantes d’authenticité ; l’idée d’une évidence vécue dont toute la force tiendrait à la conscience plus ou moins riche et plus ou moins précise que le moi pourrait prendre de sa réalité intime. L’interprétation cartésienne du moi flotte entre le moi qui se définit par la pensée et le moi qui se définit par l’expérience. Kant, inspiré lui aussi (...)
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  30. added 2017-01-12
    Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness.Pierre Keller - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness, Pierre Keller examines Kant's theory of self-consciousness and argues that it succeeds in explaining how both subjective and objective experience are possible. Previous interpretations of Kant's theory have held that he treats all self-consciousness as knowledge of objective states of affairs, and also that self-consciousness can be interpreted as knowledge of personal identity. By developing this striking new interpretation Keller is able to argue that transcendental self-consciousness underwrites a general theory of objectivity and (...)
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  31. added 2017-01-12
    Kant and the Mind.Andrew Brook - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
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  32. added 2016-12-05
    Kant and Rational Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Corey W. Dyck presents a new account of Kant's criticism of the rational investigation of the soul in his monumental Critique of Pure Reason, in light of its eighteenth-century German context. When characterizing the rational psychology that is Kant's target in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason chapter of the Critique commentators typically only refer to an approach to, and an account of, the soul found principally in the thought of Descartes and Leibniz. But Dyck argues that to do so is (...)
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  33. added 2016-12-05
    Problems From Kant.James Van Cleve - 1999 - Oup Usa.
    James Van Cleve examines the main topics from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, such as transcendental idealism, necessity and analyticity, space and time, substance and cause, noumena and things-in-themselves, problems of the self, and rational theology. He also discusses the relationship between Kant's thought and that of modern anti-realists, such as Putnam and Dummett. Because Van Cleve focuses upon specific problems rather than upon entire passages or sections of the Critique, he makes Kant's work more accessible to the serious student (...)
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  34. added 2016-08-29
    Mental Powers and the Soul in Kant’s Subjective Deduction and the Second Paralogism.Steven Tester - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):426-452.
    Kant’s claim in the Subjective Deduction that we have multiple fundamental mental powers appears to be susceptible to some a priori metaphysical arguments made against multiple fundamental mental powers by Christian Wolff who held that these powers would violate the unity of thought and entail that the soul is an extended composite. I argue, however, that in the Second Paralogism and his lectures on metaphysics, Kant provides arguments that overcome these objections by showing that it is possible that a composite (...)
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  35. added 2016-04-06
    Lust, Schmerz, Apathie: Über einige Quellen der vorkritischen Psychologie Kants.Maria Antonietta Prantenda - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 481-496.
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  36. added 2016-04-06
    Die Wissenschaftskonzeption der Psychologie bei Kant und Wundt.Jochen Fahrenberg - 2008 - E-Journal Philosophie der Psychologie 10.
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  37. added 2016-04-06
    Ein “so lange aufgenommener Fremdling”. Kant und die Entwicklung der Psychologie.R. Martinelli - 2004 - .
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  38. added 2016-04-06
    Apperzeption, Leben und Natur. Zur Subjekt- und Naturphilosophie bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel.Martin Bondeli - 2003 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 50 (3):537-554.
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  39. added 2016-04-06
    Kant et le procès de la psychologie rationnelle.Jean Paumen - 1981 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 35 (136/137):315.
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  40. added 2016-04-06
    Kant und die Psychologie.Max Dessoir - 1924 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 29:98.
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  41. added 2016-04-06
    Moog, Willy, Logik, Psychologie und Psychologismus.Willy Moog - 1920 - Kant-Studien 25 (1).
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  42. added 2016-04-06
    Zur Psychologie der Metaphysik.Arthur Liebert - 1917 - Kant-Studien 21 (1-3):42.
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  43. added 2016-04-06
    Klemm, Otto, Dr., Privatdozent. Geschichte der Psychologie.Otto Klemm - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
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  44. added 2016-04-06
    Ehrenberg, Kritik der Psychologie als Wissenschaft.K. Sternberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16:100.
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  45. added 2016-04-06
    Ehrenberg, Hans, Dr., Privatdozent. Kritik der Psychologie als Wissenschaft, Forschungen nach den systematischen Prinzipien der Erkenntnislehre Kants.Hans Ehrenberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
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  46. added 2016-04-06
    Klemm, Geschichte der Psychologie.Kurt Sternberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16:350.
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  47. added 2016-04-06
    Eisler-Lachelier, Psychologie und Metaphysik.Max Wundt - 1909 - Kant-Studien 14:130.
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  48. added 2016-04-06
    Palme, Sulzers Psychologie und die Anfänge der Dreivermögenslehre.J. W. Hickson - 1905 - Kant-Studien 10:582.
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  49. added 2016-04-06
    Dessoir, Geschichte der neueren deutschen Psychologie.R. Falckenberg - 1902 - Kant-Studien 7:374.
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  50. added 2016-04-06
    L'idée de la personnalité dans la psychologie moderne. — Etude sur le moi, la conscience et la connaissanee de soi-même dans les doctrines psychologiques dérivées de Hume, de Kant et de Maine de Biran.Charles Jeanmaire - 1883 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 16:309-316.
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1 — 50 / 218