About this topic
Summary In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Kant undertakes to expose the illusory basis of the rational psychologist's claim to offer cognition of the nature and existence of the soul and its condition after the death of the body. In doing so, Kant has in his crosshairs not only the views on the soul of Descartes and Leibniz but also those of his rationalist contemporaries such as Christian Wolff (who claims to have invented the discipline of rational psychology), Martin Knutzen (one of Kant's teachers and author of a number of texts on the topic), and Moses Mendelssohn (author of the influential Phaedo or on the Immortality of the Soul).
Key works One of the most provocative discussions of Kant's Paralogisms can be found in Strawson 1966Ameriks 1982, in its efforts to extract a moderate rational psychology from Kant's discussion in the chapter has also been very influential, and Powell 1990 is another useful book-length treatment. Other discussions of Kant's Paralogisms, with particular attention to its significance with respect to Kant's theory of the self can be found in Kitcher 1990, Brook 1997, and Kitcher 2011.
Introductions Hatfield 1992 contains a helpful discussion of the various forms of psychology at issue in the Paralogisms, Grier 1993 connects Kant's criticism in the chapter with the doctrine of illusion elaborated throughout the Dialectic, and Dyck 2014 presents the immediate context of Kant's criticism in the chapter.
Related categories

215 found
1 — 50 / 215
  1. On Naturalizing Kant's Transcendental Psychology.Henry E. Allison - 1995 - Dialectica 49 (2‐4):335-356.
  2. Kant's Refutation of Materialism.Henry E. Allison - 1989 - The Monist 72 (2):190-208.
  3. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.Karl Ameriks - 1982 - Oxford University Press.
    This seminal contribution to Kant studies, originally published in 1982, was the first to present a thorough survey and evaluation of Kant's theory of mind. Ameriks focuses on Kant's discussion of the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, and examines how the themes raised there are treated in the rest of Kant's writings. Ameriks demonstrates that Kant developed a theory of mind that is much more rationalistic and defensible than most interpreters have allowed.
  4. Kant's Paralogism of Personhood.James G. Anderson - 1980 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 10:73-86.
    Jonathan Bennett's two interpretations of Kant's Third Paralogism are shown to be inadequate. The Third Paralogism attempts to show that rational psychology provides an inadequate basis for the application of the concepts of "personhood" and "substance". The criteria for the application of "personhood" and "substance" must be empirical, and in the case of "personhood" they are bodily criteria. These criteria are available to each of us but only upon pains of abandoning what Bennett calls the Cartesian basis, i.e. rational psychology.
  5. The Singularity and the Unity of Transcendental Consciousness in Kant.Richard E. Aquila - 2004 - History of European Ideas 30 (3):349-376.
    Transcendental consciousness is described by Kant as 'the one single thing' in which 'as in the transcendental subject, our perceptions must be encountered.' The unity of that subject depends on intellectual functions. I argue that its singularity is just the same as that of Kant's pre-intellectual 'form' of spatiotemporal 'intuition.' This may seem excluded by Kant's claim that it is through intellect that 'space or time are first given as intuitions.' But while preintellectual form is insufficient for space and time (...)
  6. Self as Matter and Form: Some Reflections on Kant’s View of the Soul.Richard E. Aquila - 1997 - In David Klemm and Zöller (ed.), Figuring the Self. SUNY Press.
  7. Kant and the Mind.Richard E. Aquila - 1996 - International Studies in Philosophy 28 (4):105-107.
  8. Personal Identity and Kant’s “Refutation of Idealism”.Richard E. Aquila - 1979 - Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):259-278.
  9. The Role of Kant’s Refutation of Idealism.Ralf M. Bader - 2012 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
  10. Kant's Transcendental Imagination.Gary Banham - 2005 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The role and place of transcendental psychology in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason has been a source of some contention. This work presents a detailed argument for restoring transcendental psychology to a central place in the interpretation of Kant's Analytic, in the process providing a detailed response to more "austere" analytic readings.
  11. The Postulate of Immortality in Kant: To What Extent is It Culturally Conditioned?Edward A. Beach - 2008 - Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 492-523.
    Kant's noncognitive argument based on practical reason claims that moral considerations alone suffice to justify the idea of personal immortality as a postulate. Some recent objections are considered here that have charged him with overstepping his own distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. After examining the arguments, Kant is exonerated of having violated his own principles. More troubling, however, is the peculiarity involved in postulating an infinite progression toward a goal whose attainment, by hypothesis, would undermine the very foundations of morality (...)
  12. The Paralogisms and Kant's Account of Psychology.Graham H. Bird - 2000 - Kant-Studien 91 (2):129-145.
  13. Apperzeption, Leben und Natur. Zur Subjekt- und Naturphilosophie bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel.Martin Bondeli - 2003 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 50 (3):537-554.
  14. Kant's View of Metaphysics.Archibald A. Bowman - 1916 - Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  15. Personality and Immortality in Post-Kantian Thought.Ernest G. Braham - 1926 - London: G. Allen & Unwin.
  16. Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.Eva Brann - 2001 - Review of Metaphysics 55 (2):374-376.
  17. A History of Psychology.George Sidney Brett - 1912 - Thoemmes Press.
    'the whole work is remarkably fresh, vivid and attractively written psychologists will be grateful that a work of this kind has been done ... by one who has the scholarship, science, and philosophical training that are requisite for the task' - Mind This renowned three-volume collection records chronologically the steps by which psychology developed from the time of the early Greek thinkers and the first writings on the nature of the mind, through to the 1920s and such modern preoccupations as (...)
  18. Immortality in Post-Kantian Idealism.Edgar Sheffield Brightman - 1925 - Harvard University Press.
  19. Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Modern Self.Klaus Brinkmann - 2005 - History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):27-48.
    The concept of the self is embedded in a web of relationships of other concepts and phenomena such as consciousness, self-consciousness, personal identity and the mind–body problem. The article follows the ontological and epistemological roles of the concept of selfconsciousness and the structural co-implication of consciousness and self-consciousness from Descartes and Locke to Kant and Sartre while delineating its subject matter from related inquiries into the relationship between the mind and the body, personal identity, and the question whether consciousness is (...)
  20. Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self.Andrew Brook - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21. Kant and the Mind.Andrew Brook - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
  22. Die Krise der Psychologie.Karl Bühler - 1926 - Kant-Studien 31 (1-3):455-526.
  23. Uberzeugender Beweis Aus der Vernunft von der Unsterblichkeit Sowohl der Menschen Seelen Insgemein, Als Besonders der Kinder-Seelen.Israel Gottlieb Canz & Corey W. Dyck (eds.) - 2017 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Israel Gottlieb Canz’s Uberzeugender Beweiß, first published in 1741 and reprinted here in its second, expanded edition stands as his most influential discussion of the soul’s immortality, with one contemporary pronouncing it to be “one of the best [treatments of immortality] that we have.” In this text, Canz seeks to augment and supplement traditional Wolffian proofs by considering, first, the grounds for the soul’s immortality that are contained in its own nature and, second, the grounds for the same that are (...)
  24. The Development of Kant's Refutation of Idealism.Luigi Caranti - 2001 - Dissertation, Boston University
    The dissertation analyzes Kant's arguments against Cartesian skepticism from the precritical period up to the "Reflexionen zum Idealismus" . It is argued that in the silent decade , the skeptical challenge leads Kant to reinterpret the foundation of his philosophy, namely, the distinction between appearances and things in themselves. Realizing the impossibility of refuting the skeptic through the identification of appearances with mental entities and the affirmation of the mind-independent existence of things in themselves as causes of the appearances , (...)
  25. Review: Shell, The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. [REVIEW]Andrew N. Carpenter - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:134-143.
  26. Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem.Andrew Norris Carpenter - 1998 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In 1747, Kant believed that the mind/body problem presupposed several false and interrelated assumptions that fell under the general view that the essential force of body is vis motrix, namely that bodies act only by causing changes of motion, that bodies can be acted upon only by being moved, and that souls and bodies do not share a common force. He argued in Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces that the traditional vis motrix view, which was defended by (...)
  27. Soul and Cosmos in Kant : A Commentary on 'Two Things Fill the Mind ...'.Howard Caygill - 2007 - In Diane Morgan & Gary Banham (eds.), Cosmopolitics and the Emergence of a Future. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  28. Kant, Thought Insertion, and Mental Unity.Ruth F. Chadwick - 1994 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (2):105-113.
  29. Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume.Brian A. Chance - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
  30. Kant on the Soul's Intensity.Kirill Chepurin - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1):75-94.
    In this paper I propose to consider a certain set of notions in Kant as subsumable under a single notion – that of the soul’s intensity – as well as the possibility of a transcendental grounding of this notion within Kant ’s critical framework. First, I discuss what it means for Kant to attribute intensive magnitude to the soul, starting with his response to Mendelssohn where Kant introduces the soul’s intensity as a metaphysical notion immanent to the principles of rational (...)
  31. Problems From Kant.James Van Cleve - 1999 - Oup Usa.
    James Van Cleve examines the main topics from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, such as transcendental idealism, necessity and analyticity, space and time, substance and cause, noumena and things-in-themselves, problems of the self, and rational theology. He also discusses the relationship between Kant's thought and that of modern anti-realists, such as Putnam and Dummett. Because Van Cleve focuses upon specific problems rather than upon entire passages or sections of the Critique, he makes Kant's work more accessible to the serious student (...)
  32. Two Treatises of Government. By John Locke. Ed. Peter Laslett. [REVIEW]James Collins - 1968 - Modern Schoolman 46 (1):89-89.
  33. Kant's Refutation of Idealism and Fourth Paralogism: A Response to Vogel.John Davenport - manuscript
    I will discuss Kant 's arguments in these section in three parts. In Part I, I will try to show how we can make sense of the obviously close relations in theme and content between the Refutation of Idealism and the two version of the Fourth Paralogism, as well as the second Postulate of Empirical Thought. This will serve as a kind of introduction, since on a cursory first reading, the connections might be far from apparent. In the process, I (...)
  34. Enigmatic Ambiguity in the Fourth Paralogism of Kant's 'Kritik der Reinen Vernunft'-A Fine Line Between Reality and Effectivity.J. J. Delfour - 1997 - Kant-Studien 88 (3):280-310.
  35. Kant und die Psychologie.Max Dessoir - 1924 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 29:98.
  36. Der Begriff Geist in der Deutschen Philosophie von Kant Bis Hegel.Hans Dreyer - 1907 - C.A. Kaemmerer & Co.
  37. V. Satura, Kants Erkenntnispsychologie in den Nachschriften seiner Vorlesungen über empirische Psychologie. [REVIEW]H. Drüe - 1974 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 65 (4):479.
  38. Immateriality of Matter: Theorien der Materie Bei Priestley, Kant Und Schopenhauer.Manfred Durner - 1996 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 103 (2):294-322.
  39. Constitution and Structure of Self-Identity: Kant's Theory of Apperception and Hegel's Criticism.Klaus Düsing - 1983 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):409-431.
  40. The Scope of Inner Sense: The Development of Kant's Psychology in the Silent Decade.Corey W. Dyck - 2016 - Con-Textos Kantianos 3:1-19.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to a widely influential account of Kant’s development in the “silent decade,” that key changes in his empirical and rational psychology throughout the 1770’s are traceable to changes in the scope he assigns to inner sense. Kant’s explicit inclusion of our access to the I or soul within the scope of inner sense in the early 1770’s (after its apparent exclusion in the Dissertation) yields a more robust empirical psychology. Given the Wolffian character of (...)
  41. Beyond the Paralogisms: The Proofs of Immortality in the Lectures on Metaphysics.Corey W. Dyck - 2015 - In Robert Clewis (ed.), Reading Kant's Lectures. De Gruyter. pp. 115-134.
    Considered in light of the reader’s expectation of a thoroughgoing criticism of the pretensions of the rational psychologist, and of the wealth of discussions available in the broader 18th century context, which includes a variety of proofs that do not explicitly turn on the identification of the soul as a simple substance, Kant’s discussion of immortality in the Paralogisms falls lamentably short. However, outside of the Paralogisms (and the published works generally), Kant had much more to say about the arguments (...)
  42. Kant and Rational Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Corey W. Dyck presents a new account of Kant's criticism of the rational investigation of the soul in his monumental Critique of Pure Reason, in light of its eighteenth-century German context. When characterizing the rational psychology that is Kant's target in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason chapter of the Critique commentators typically only refer to an approach to, and an account of, the soul found principally in the thought of Descartes and Leibniz. But Dyck argues that to do so is (...)
  43. A Wolff in Kant's Clothing: Christian Wolff's Influence on Kant's Accounts of Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (1):44-53.
    In attempts to come to grips with Kant’s thought, the influence of the philosophy of Christian Wolff (1679-1754) is often neglected. In this paper, I consider three topics in Kant’s philosophy of mind, broadly construed, where Wolff’s influence is particularly visible: consciousness, self-consciousness, and psychology. I argue that we can better understand Kant’s particular arguments and positions within this context, but also gain a more accurate sense of which aspects of Kant’s accounts derive from the antecedent traditions and which constitute (...)
  44. The Aeneas Argument: Personality and Immortality in Kant's Third Paralogism.Corey W. Dyck - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1):95-122.
    In this paper, I challenge the assumption that Kant’s Third Paralogism has to do, first and foremost, with the question of personal identity.
  45. The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Kant's Paralogisms of Pure Reason in Context.Corey W. Dyck - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 249-275.
    I consider Kant's criticism of rational psychology in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason in light of his German predecessors. I first present Wolff's foundational account of metaphysical psychology with the result that Wolff's rational psychology is not comfortably characterized as a naïvely rationalist psychology. I then turn to the reception of Wolff's account among later German metaphysicians, and show that the same claim of a dependence of rational upon empirical psychology is found in the publications and lectures of Kant's pre-Critical (...)
  46. Kant and the Leibnizian Conception of Mind.Corey W. Dyck - 2006 - Dissertation, Boston College
    In what follows, I will detail Kant's criticism of the Leibnizian conception of mind as it is presented in key chapters of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft . Approaching Kant with such a focus goes against the current predominant in contemporary Kant scholarship. Kant's engagement with Leibniz in the KrV is often taken as limited to the refutation of the latter's relational theory of space and time in the Aesthetic and the general criticism presented in the Amphiboly chapter, inasmuch as (...)
  47. Kant's Model of the Mind, by Wayne Waxman.Dirk Effertz - 1993 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 16 (1):285-290.
  48. Ehrenberg, Hans, Dr., Privatdozent. Kritik der Psychologie als Wissenschaft, Forschungen nach den systematischen Prinzipien der Erkenntnislehre Kants.Hans Ehrenberg - 1911 - Kant-Studien 16 (1-3).
  49. Phänomenologie, Psychologie, Erkenntnistheorie.Theodor Elsenhans - 1915 - Kant-Studien 20 (1-3):224-275.
  50. Die Paralogismen und die Widerlegung des Idealismus in Kants „Kritik der reinen Vernunft“.Dina Emundts - 2006 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 54 (2):295-309.
    Der Aufsatz beschäftigt sich mit Kants Paralogismen der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Im ersten Teil wird die These entwickelt, dass Kants Kritik an der rationalen Psychologie wesentlich auf der Behauptung beruht, dass etwas, das nur in der Zeit und nicht im Raum gegeben ist, nicht anhand des Begriffs der Substanz bestimmt werden kann. Im zweiten Teil wird gefragt, ob und wie das Ich als Begleitvorstellung wahrgenommen werden kann.
1 — 50 / 215