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Summary In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason, Kant undertakes to expose the illusory basis of the rational psychologist's claim to offer cognition of the nature and existence of the soul and its condition after the death of the body. In doing so, Kant has in his crosshairs not only the views on the soul of Descartes and Leibniz but also those of his rationalist contemporaries such as Christian Wolff (who claims to have invented the discipline of rational psychology), Martin Knutzen (one of Kant's teachers and author of a number of texts on the topic), and Moses Mendelssohn (author of the influential Phaedo or on the Immortality of the Soul).
Key works One of the most provocative discussions of Kant's Paralogisms can be found in Strawson 1966Ameriks 1982, in its efforts to extract a moderate rational psychology from Kant's discussion in the chapter has also been very influential, and Powell 1990 is another useful book-length treatment. Other discussions of Kant's Paralogisms, with particular attention to its significance with respect to Kant's theory of the self can be found in Kitcher 1994, Brook 1994, and Kitcher 2011.
Introductions Hatfield 1992 contains a helpful discussion of the various forms of psychology at issue in the Paralogisms, Grier 1993 connects Kant's criticism in the chapter with the doctrine of illusion elaborated throughout the Dialectic, and Dyck 2014 presents the immediate context of Kant's criticism in the chapter.
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  1. Fictionalism and Illusion: Comments on Chapter 5 of Kraus' Kant on Self-Knowledge and Self-Formation. [REVIEW]Corey W. Dyck - manuscript
    These comments are my contribution to the author-meets-critics session on Katharina Kraus' recently published Kant on Self-Knowledge and Self-Formation, at the APA Pacific meeting. In my comments, I challenge Kraus' characterization of my fictionalism concerning the idea of the soul, and contend for the importance of transcendental illusion in that idea's function of guiding the empirical investigation of inner appearances.
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  2. Kant’s Criticism of Swedenborg: Parapsychology and the Origin of the Copernican Hypothesis.Stephen Palmquist - manuscript
    Parapsychology, Philosophy and the Mind: A Festschrift in Honour of John Beloff’s 80th Birthday, ed. Fiona Steinkamp (McFarland Press, 2002).
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  3. Kant on de Se.Luca Forgione - 2018 - In Violetta Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit: Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlino, Germania: De Gruyter. pp. 3779-3786.
    Since the classic works by Castañeda, Perry and Lewis, de se thoughts have been described as thoughts about oneself ‘as oneself’. In recent years, various theoretical perspectives have gained ground, and even if the transcendental system does not seem to contemplate an explicit articulation of de se thoughts, apparently a few features of transcendental apperception and I think do anticipate a few points in Perry and Recanati’s claims on the so-called implicit de se thoughts in the specific terms of Transcendentalism.
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  4. Transcendental Paralogisms as Formal Fallacies - Kant’s Refutation of Pure Rational Psychology.Toni Kannisto - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (2):195-227.
    : According to Kant, the arguments of rational psychology are formal fallacies that he calls transcendental paralogisms. It remains heavily debated whether there actually is any formal error in the inferences Kant presents: according to Grier and Allison, they are deductively invalid syllogisms, whereas Bennett, Ameriks, and Van Cleve deny that they are formal fallacies. I advance an interpretation that reconciles these extremes: transcendental paralogisms are sound in general logic but constitute formal fallacies in transcendental logic. By formalising the paralogistic (...)
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  5. Kant, Epistemic Phenomenalism, and the Refutation of Idealism.Michael Oberst - 2018 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 100 (2):172-201.
    This paper takes issue with the widespread view that Kant rejects epistemic phenomenalism. According to epistemic phenomenalism, only cognition of states of one’s own mind can be certain, while cognition of outer objects is necessarily uncertain. I argue that Kant does not reject this view, but accepts a modified version of it. For, in contrast to traditional skeptics, he distinguishes between two kinds of outer objects and holds that we have direct access to outer appearances in our mind; but he (...)
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  6. Immaterial Spirits and the Reform of First Philosophy: The Compatibility of Kant’s Pre-Critical Metaphysics with the Arguments in Dreams of a Spirit-Seer.Matthew Rukgaber - 2018 - Journal of the History of Ideas 79 (3):363-383.
  7. Béatrice Longuenesse, I, Me, Mine: Back to Kant, and Back Again Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017 Pp. Xx+257 ISBN 9780199665761 $45.00. [REVIEW]Curtis Sommerlatte - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):504-510.
  8. Uberzeugender Beweis Aus der Vernunft von der Unsterblichkeit Sowohl der Menschen Seelen Insgemein, Als Besonders der Kinder-Seelen.Israel Gottlieb Canz & Corey W. Dyck (eds.) - 2017 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Israel Gottlieb Canz’s Uberzeugender Beweiß, first published in 1741 and reprinted here in its second, expanded edition stands as his most influential discussion of the soul’s immortality, with one contemporary pronouncing it to be “one of the best [treatments of immortality] that we have.” In this text, Canz seeks to augment and supplement traditional Wolffian proofs by considering, first, the grounds for the soul’s immortality that are contained in its own nature and, second, the grounds for the same that are (...)
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  9. The Scope of Inner Sense: The Development of Kant’s Psychology In The Silent Decade.Corey W. Dyck - 2016 - Con-Textos Kantianos 3:1-19.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to a widely influential account of Kant’s development in the “silent decade,” that key changes in his empirical and rational psychology throughout the 1770’s are traceable to changes in the scope he assigns to inner sense. Kant’s explicit inclusion of our access to the I or soul within the scope of inner sense in the early 1770’s (after its apparent exclusion in the Dissertation) yields a more robust empirical psychology. Given the Wolffian character of (...)
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  10. Mental Powers and the Soul in Kant’s Subjective Deduction and the Second Paralogism.Steven Tester - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):426-452.
    Kant’s claim in the Subjective Deduction that we have multiple fundamental mental powers appears to be susceptible to some a priori metaphysical arguments made against multiple fundamental mental powers by Christian Wolff who held that these powers would violate the unity of thought and entail that the soul is an extended composite. I argue, however, that in the Second Paralogism and his lectures on metaphysics, Kant provides arguments that overcome these objections by showing that it is possible that a composite (...)
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  11. Beyond the Paralogisms: The Proofs of Immortality in the Lectures on Metaphysics.Corey W. Dyck - 2015 - In Robert Clewis (ed.), Reading Kant's Lectures. De Gruyter. pp. 115-134.
    Considered in light of the reader’s expectation of a thoroughgoing criticism of the pretensions of the rational psychologist, and of the wealth of discussions available in the broader 18th century context, which includes a variety of proofs that do not explicitly turn on the identification of the soul as a simple substance, Kant’s discussion of immortality in the Paralogisms falls lamentably short. However, outside of the Paralogisms (and the published works generally), Kant had much more to say about the arguments (...)
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  12. Immanuel Kant: Die Einheit des Bewusst- seins. Die „Deduktion der Kategorien“ und die „Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft“.Rudolf Mösenbacher - 2015 - Kant-Studien 106 (3):523-527.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 106 Heft: 3 Seiten: 523-527.
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  13. Kant and Rational Psychology. [REVIEW]Steven Tester - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):205-207.
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  14. Kant and Rational Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Corey W. Dyck presents a new account of Kant's criticism of the rational investigation of the soul in his monumental Critique of Pure Reason, in light of its eighteenth-century German context. When characterizing the rational psychology that is Kant's target in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason chapter of the Critique commentators typically only refer to an approach to, and an account of, the soul found principally in the thought of Descartes and Leibniz. But Dyck argues that to do so is (...)
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  15. Kant, Rational Psychology and Practical Reason.Joe Saunders - 2014 - Kant Yearbook 6 (1).
    In his pre-critical lectures on rational psychology, Kant employs an argument from the I to the transcendental freedom of the soul. In the (A-edition of the) first Critique, he distances himself from rational psychology, and instead offers four paralogisms of this doctrine, insisting that ‘I think’ no longer licenses any inferences about a soul. Kant also comes alive to the possibility that we could be thinking mechanisms – rational beings, but not agents. These developments rob him of his pre-critical rationalist (...)
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  16. Physiologische Psychologie des Selbstbewusstseins zwischen Wolff und Kant.Udo Thiel - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  17. Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
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  18. Kant and Collingwood on the Mind-Body Problem.Katie Harrington - 2013 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 19 (1):95-111.
    In this paper, I explore both Kant's and Collingwood's accounts of themind-body problem. I discuss how both philosophers think that this problem arises and how it can be resolved. I start by discussing the similarities between the attempts of the two philosophers at solving philosophical problems through analysing the conceptual structures that make experience possible. I then turn to the differences between the views of the two philosophers, paying particular attention to Kant's claims that a combination of a natural (so-called (...)
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  19. Kant Versus the Asymmetry Dogma.Patricia Kitcher - 2013 - Kant Yearbook 5 (1).
    One of the most widely accepted contemporary constraints on theories of self-knowledge is that they must account for the very different ways in which cognitive subjects know their own minds and the ways in which they know other minds. Through the influence of Peter Strawson, Kant is often taken to be an original source for this view. I argue that Kant is quite explicit in holding the opposite position. In a little discussed passage in the Paralogisms chapter, he argues that (...)
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  20. Lust, Schmerz, Apathie: Über einige Quellen der vorkritischen Psychologie Kants.Maria Antonietta Prantenda - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 481-496.
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  21. Some Eighteenth Century Contributions to the Mind–Body Problem (Wolff, Taurellus, Knutzen, Bülfiger and the Pre-Critical Kant).Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (3):567-577.
    This work speaks about very special solution of the mind–body problem. This solution based on the so-called Principle of Co-existence stands out as one of the most interesting attempts at solving the mind–body problem. It states that substances can only exert a mutual influence on one another if they have something in common. This does not have to be a common property but rather, a binding relationship. Thus, substances co-exist when they remain bound by a common relationship, for instance, to (...)
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  22. G.C. Lichtenberg on Self-Consciousness and Personal Identity.Steven Tester - 2013 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 95 (3):336-359.
    This paper investigates the philosophy of the eighteenth-century German physicist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742–1799), situating his views in the context of early-modern views of the self, and providing an interpretation and assessment of his remarks on self-consciousness and personal identity in his Waste Books. In these remarks, which include his famous observation that we are warranted only in saying “it thinks” rather than “I think,” Lichtenberg criticizes the rationalist metaphysics of the soul for confusing conceivability with cognizability and argues that (...)
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  23. The Role of Kant’s Refutation of Idealism.Ralf M. Bader - 2012 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
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  24. Was weiss ich vom Ich? : Kants Lehre vom Faktum der reinen praktischen Vernunft, seine Neufassung der Paralogismen und die verborgenen Fortschritte der Kritischen Metaphysik im Jahre 1786.Bernd Ludwig - 2012 - In Mario Brandhorst, Andree Hahmann & Bernd Ludwig (eds.), Sind Wir Bürger Zweier Welten?: Freiheit Und Moralische Verantwortung Im Transzendentalen Idealismus. Meiner.
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  25. Was ist der Mensch? – Das Gehirn-Geist-Problem aus kantischer Sicht Plädoyer für eine transzendentale Anthropologie.Thorsten Streubel - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):370-376.
    : It is the aim of the following considerations to use Kantian epistemology to advance the current debate about the relation between mind and brain. First of all the naturalistic assumption that all mental phenomena are based on neuronal processes is called into question. Secondly it is shown that naturalism leads necessarily to an absurd constructivism that is very similar to Kant’s transcendental position, but which conflicts with naturalism’s empirical premise. In spite of the progress in brain research Kant’s transcendental (...)
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  26. Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume.Brian A. Chance - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  27. A Wolff in Kant’s Clothing: Christian Wolff’s Influence on Kant’s Accounts of Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (1):44-53.
    In attempts to come to grips with Kant’s thought, the influence of the philosophy of Christian Wolff (1679-1754) is often neglected. In this paper, I consider three topics in Kant’s philosophy of mind, broadly construed, where Wolff’s influence is particularly visible: consciousness, self-consciousness, and psychology. I argue that we can better understand Kant’s particular arguments and positions within this context, but also gain a more accurate sense of which aspects of Kant’s accounts derive from the antecedent traditions and which constitute (...)
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  28. Sur le Rôle de la Psychologie En Théorie de la Connaissance. Kant À L’École de Brentano.Guillaume Frechette - 2011 - In M. Lequan, S. Grapotte & M. Ruffing (eds.), Kant et les sciences. Vrin.
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  29. Rational Faith: God, Immortality, Grace.Patrick Frierson - 2011 - In Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen Publishing.
    This article offers an explanation and analysis of Kant’s philosophy of religion. It starts with Kant’s criticisms of the ontological, cosmological, and physico-teleological arguments for the existence of God from the ’Critique of Pure Reason’. It then explains Kant’s moral arguments in the ’Critique of Practical Reason’ for the existence and nature of God and for humans’ personal immorality. Finally, it lays out the argument for the necessity of grace from Kant’s ’Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reaso.'.
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  30. Kant's Thinker.Patricia Kitcher - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Overview -- Locke's internal sense and Kant's changing views -- Personal identity amd its problems -- Rationalist metaphysics of mind -- Consciousness, self-consciousness, and cognition -- Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachlass -- A transcendental deduction for a priori concepts -- Synthesis : why and how? -- Arguing for apperception -- The power of apperception -- "I-think" as the destroyer of rational psychology -- Is Kant's theory consistent? -- The normativity objection -- Is Kant's thinker (as such) a free (...)
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  31. Transcendental Arguments for Personal Identity in Kant’s Transcendental Deduction.Jacqueline Mariña - 2011 - Philo 14 (2):109-136.
    One of the principle aims of the B version of Kant’s transcendental deduction is to show how it is possible that the same “I think” can accompany all of my representations, which is a transcendental condition of the possibility of judgment. Contra interpreters such as A. Brook, I show that this “I think” is an a priori (reflected) self-consciousness; contra P. Keller, I show that this a priori self-consciousness is first and foremost a consciousness of one’s personal identity from a (...)
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  32. Critical Idealism and Transcendental Materialism: A Speculative Analysis of the Second Paralogism.Michael J. Olson - 2011 - Cosmos and History 7 (1):49-61.
    his paper argues that the critical doctrine of the necessary unity of the thinking subject propounded in Kant’s Second Paralogism contains an idealist commitment to the metaphysically exceptional nature of the unifying activity of thought. Rather than rejecting Kant’s transcendental framework as necessarily idealist and antagonistic to the current projects of speculative materialism, it is argued that transcendental philosophy should remain an important ingredient of any contemporary metaphysics. The implicit metaphysical idealism of Kantian critical idealism, it is claimed, in the (...)
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  33. The Realm of Ends as a Community of Spirits: Kant and Swedenborg on the Kingdom of Heaven and the Cleansing of the Doors of Perception.Lucas Thorpe - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (1):52-75.
    In this paper I examine the genesis of Kant’s conception of a realm of ends, arguing that Kant first started to think of morality in terms of striving to be a member of a realm of ends, understood as an ideal community, in the early 1760s, and that he was influenced in this by his encounter with the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. In 1766 Kant published Dreams of a Spirit Seer, a commentary on Swedenborg’s magnum opus, Heavenly Secrets. Most commentators (...)
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  34. Personal Identity, Agency and the Multiplicity Thesis.Dave Ward - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (4):497-515.
    I consider whether there is a plausible conception of personal identity that can accommodate the ‘Multiplicity Thesis’ (MT), the thesis that some ways of creating and deploying multiple distinct online personae can bring about the existence of multiple persons where before there was only one. I argue that an influential Kantian line of thought, according to which a person is a unified locus of rational agency, is well placed to accommodate the thesis. I set out such a line of thought (...)
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  35. Kant on the Soul’s Intensity.Kirill Chepurin - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1):75-94.
    In this paper I propose to consider a certain set of notions in Kant as subsumable under a single notion – that of the soul’s intensity – as well as the possibility of a transcendental grounding of this notion within Kant ’s critical framework. First, I discuss what it means for Kant to attribute intensive magnitude to the soul, starting with his response to Mendelssohn where Kant introduces the soul’s intensity as a metaphysical notion immanent to the principles of rational (...)
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  36. The Aeneas Argument: Personality and Immortality in Kant’s Third Paralogism.Corey W. Dyck - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1):95-122.
    In this paper, I challenge the assumption that Kant’s Third Paralogism has to do, first and foremost, with the question of personal identity.
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  37. Personhood, Bodily Self-Ascription, and Resurrection: An Kantian Approach.Johannes Haag - 2010 - In Gasser G. (ed.), Personal Identity ans Resurrection. How do we survive our death. Ashgate. pp. 127-143.
  38. Kant's Theory of Self (Review).Apaar Kumar - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (4):535-536.
    Melnick interprets the Kantian self from the first-person perspective as real abiding intellectual action. It unfolds in time but does not arise in inner or outer attending. Hence, it is neither a noumenal entity nor Kantian intuitable substance. Melnick thinks that his interpretation not only clarifies Kant’s arguments in the Paralogisms of the first Critique, but also illuminates Kant’s positive theory of self.Melnick argues that a thought is inchoate, unformed, and unsettled until the thinking self as intellectual marshaling action brings (...)
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  39. Kant's Metaphysics of the Self.Colin Marshall - 2010 - Philosophers' Imprint 10:1-21.
    I argue that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason offers a positive metaphysical account of the thinking self. Previous interpreters have overlooked this account, I believe, because they have held that any metaphysical view of the self would be incompatible with both Kant's insistence on the limitations of cognition and with his project in the Paralogisms. Closer examination, however, shows that neither of those aspects of the Critique precludes a metaphysical account of the self, and that other aspects (namely, the structure (...)
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  40. Kant's First Paralogism.Ian Proops - 2010 - Philosophical Review 119 (4):449–495.
    In the part of the first Critique known as “The Paralogisms of Pure Reason” Kant seeks to explain how even the most acute metaphysicians could have arrived, through speculation, at the ruefully dogmatic conclusion that the self (understood as the subject of thoughts or "thinking I") is a substance. His diagnosis has two components: first, the positing of the phenomenon of “Transcendental Illusion”—an illusion, modelled on but distinct from, optical illusion--that predisposes human beings to accept as sound--and as known to (...)
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  41. Fundamental Singleness: How to Turn the 2nd Paralogism Into a Valid Argument: Galen Strawson.Galen Strawson - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:61-92.
    [1] Experience is a real concrete phenomenon. The existence of experience entails the existence of a subject of experience. Therefore subjects of experience are concretely real. [2] The existence of a subject of experience in the lived present or living moment of experience, e.g. the period of time in which the grasping of a thought occurs, provably involves the existence of singleness or unity of an unsurpassably strong kind. The singleness or unity in question is a metaphysically real, concrete entity. (...)
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  42. The Paralogisms of Pure Reason.Julian Wuerth - 2010 - In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
  43. The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Kant's Paralogisms of Pure Reason in Context.Corey W. Dyck - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 249-275.
    I consider Kant's criticism of rational psychology in the Paralogisms of Pure Reason in light of his German predecessors. I first present Wolff's foundational account of metaphysical psychology with the result that Wolff's rational psychology is not comfortably characterized as a naïvely rationalist psychology. I then turn to the reception of Wolff's account among later German metaphysicians, and show that the same claim of a dependence of rational upon empirical psychology is found in the publications and lectures of Kant's pre-Critical (...)
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  44. Die Reaktion der spekulativen Weltweisheit: Kant und die Kritik an den einfachen Substanzen.Andree Hahmann - 2009 - Kant-Studien 100 (4):454-475.
    In the second half of the 18th century the voices criticizing the concept of simple substances as proposed by Leibniz and Wolff became increasingly louder. In response, Kant altered his theory of substances as first proposed in the 1750s. So for example, while his notion of substance in the Monadologia physica is simple and not merely in space, but fills space entirely, the Kantian position in the 1760s and early 1770s is quite different. This essay examines the solution Kant offers (...)
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  45. Destruction ontologique de la critique kantienne du paralogisme de la psychologie rationnelle.Michel Henry - 2009 - Studia Phaenomenologica 9:17-53.
    This previously unpublished text of Michel Henry’s was written during the preparation of his first major work published in 1963: The Essence of Manifestation. Being devoted to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, this extensive text could be as well integrated in the above mentioned book, namely in the context where the author criticizes the ontological monism privileged by the strong tradition of German philosophy, from Jacob Boehme and Kant to Heidegger. Starting from the topic of self-knowledge, this text focuses on (...)
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  46. System of Efficient Causes (1735) ; Philosophical Treatise on the Immaterial Nature of the Soul (1744). Knutzen - 2009 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press.
  47. Christian Wolff: Rational Thoughts on God, the World and the Soul of Human Beings; Also All Things in General (1720). Wolff - 2009 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press.
  48. The Postulate of Immortality in Kant: To What Extent is It Culturally Conditioned?Edward A. Beach - 2008 - Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 492-523.
    Kant's noncognitive argument based on practical reason claims that moral considerations alone suffice to justify the idea of personal immortality as a postulate. Some recent objections are considered here that have charged him with overstepping his own distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. After examining the arguments, Kant is exonerated of having violated his own principles. More troubling, however, is the peculiarity involved in postulating an infinite progression toward a goal whose attainment, by hypothesis, would undermine the very foundations of morality (...)
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  49. Kant’s View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self.Andrew Brook - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  50. Die Wissenschaftskonzeption der Psychologie bei Kant und Wundt.Jochen Fahrenberg - 2008 - E-Journal Philosophie der Psychologie 10.
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