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Summary With respect to rational (or natural) theology, Kant is best known for his criticism of the ontological proof for God's existence in the Ideal of Pure Reason (though he had already formulated this counter-argument in the pre-Critical period). While Kant also offers criticisms of cosmological and physico-theological (i.e., from design) proofs for God's existence, the notion of a supreme being, whether as an ens realissimum or as a practical postulate, plays an important role in Kant's mature thought.
Key works Wood 1978 is perhaps the most detailed and influential discussion of Kant's rational theology. Longuenesse offers one account of the positive role that the idea of God plays in Kant's thought in Longuenesse 2005. Some recent discussion has focused on the significance of Kant's conception of God as the most real being (ens realissimum) for the interpretation of his modal metaphysics, as in Chignell 2012
Introductions Michelle Grier's  contribution to the Cambridge Companion to the first Critique offers a useful introduction to the Ideal. Readers interested in Kant's pre-Critical presentation of the argument can consult the translation in Kant 1992, while those interested in the broader historical context in 18th century German school philosophy might consult (Lehner 2007).
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  1. added 2020-04-04
    God, Powers, and Possibility in Kant’s Beweisgrund.Michael Oberst - manuscript
    This paper proposes a novel reading of Kant’s account of the dependence of possibility on God in the pre-Critical Beweisgrund. I argue that Kant has a broadly Aristotelian conception of possibility, according to which grounds of possibility are potential grounds of actuality. Since Kant also thinks that the order of the world requires an intelligent being as its originator, he holds that God grounds possibility by his understanding and will. Furthermore, I explore the significance of the distinction between internal and (...)
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  2. added 2020-01-21
    Kant e a Defesa da Causa de Deus: algumas considerações acerca do opúsculo kantiano sobre a teodiceia.Bruno Cunha - 2018 - Ética E Filosofia Política 1 (21):5-21.
    The article On the Miscarriage of All Philosophical Trials in Theodicy was published in 1791 on the pages of the monthly periodical berlinische Monatsschrift. By itself, the title of the article already seems to us quite enlightening. What would it be but a criticism of every attempt to justify the God's cause? Nevertheless, there are evidences that there is much more at stake. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to raise the question about the true meaning of the Kant`s (...)
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  3. added 2019-12-09
    The Dialectical Illusion in Kant’s Only Possible Argument for the Existence of God.Noam Hoffer - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3).
    The nature of Kant’s criticism of his pre-Critical ‘possibility proof’ for the existence of God, implicit in the account of the Transcendental Ideal in the Critique of Pure Reason, is still under dispute. Two issues are at stake: the error in the proof and diagnosis of the reason for committing it. I offer a new way to connect these issues. In contrast with accounts that locate the motivation for the error in reason’s interest in an unconditioned causal ground of all (...)
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  4. added 2019-09-23
    Immanuel Kant - Lições sobre a Doutrina Filosófica da Religião (estudo introdutório [extrato]) [Extrato].Bruno Cunha - 2019 - In Lições sobre a Doutrina Filosófica da Religião. Petrópolis - Cascatinha, Petrópolis - RJ, Brasil: pp. 7-53.
    O manuscrito estudantil das Lições sobre a Doutrina Filosófica da Religião, ministradas muito provavelmente no semestre de inverno de 1783/84, foi publicado pela primeira vez em 1817 por Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz. Kant ministrou essas Lições tendo como base escritos metafísicos e teológicos que tinham sido publicados por influentes filósofos alemães de sua época (Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Johann August Eberhard und Christoph Meiners). Mas, em suas Lições, Kant não apenas faz referência à posição desses filósofos. Ao contrário, ele também os (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-21
    Kant’s Regulative Metaphysics of God and the Systematic Lawfulness of Nature.Noam Hoffer - 2019 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 57 (2):217-239.
    In the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant contends that the idea of God has a positive regulative role in the systematization of empirical knowledge. But why is this regulative role assigned to this specific idea? Kant’s account is rather opaque and this question has also not received much attention in the literature. In this paper I argue that an adequate understanding of the regulative role of the idea of God depends on the specific (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-07
    Ulrich Lehner, Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie , pp. 532 + ix, $139. [REVIEW]Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):143-147.
  7. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Regulative Spinozism.Omri Boehm - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):292-317.
    : The question of Kant’s relation to Spinozist thought has been virtually ignored over the years. I analyze Kant’s pre-critical ‘possibility-proof’ of God’s existence, elaborated in the Beweisgrund, as well as the echoes that this proof has in the first Critique, in beginning to uncover the connection between Kant’s thought and Spinoza’s. Kant’s espousal of the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR] for the analysis of modality during the pre-critical period committed him, I argue, to Spinozist substance monism. Much textual evidence (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Chris Firestone, Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2009, Pp. 194 + X, Hbk, ISBN: 978-0-7546-6130-6; £65. [REVIEW]Lawrence Pasternack - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):495-498.
  9. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Religious Argument for the Existence of God: The Ultimate Dependence of Human Destiny on Divine Assistance.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):3-22.
    After reviewing Kant’s well-known criticisms of the traditional proofs of God’s existence and his preferred moral argument, this paper presents a detailedanalysis of a densely-packed theistic argument in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Humanity’s ultimate moral destiny can be fulfilled only through organized religion, for only by participating in a religious community can we overcome the evil in human nature. Yet we cannot conceive how such a community can even be founded without presupposing God’s existence. Viewing God as (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Review of The Existence of God: Mulla Sadra's Seddiqin Argument Versus Criticisms of Kant and Hume, by Hamidreza Ayatollahy. [REVIEW]Nazif Muhtaroğlu - 2008 - Philosophy East and West 58 (2):283-285.
  11. added 2019-06-06
    Kant Und Die Theologie, Edited by Georg Essen and Magnus Striet. Darmstadt:Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2005. Pp. 348, €74.90. [REVIEW]Jeffrey L. Wilson - 2007 - Kantian Review 12 (2):194-196.
  12. added 2019-06-06
    Rival Enlightenments: Civil and Metaphysical Philosophy in Early Modern Germany.Ian Hunter - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    Rival Enlightenments, first published in 2001, is a major reinterpretation of early modern German intellectual history. Ian Hunter approaches philosophical doctrines as ways of fashioning personae for envisaged historical circumstances, here of confessional conflict and political desacralization. He treats the civil philosophy of Pufendorf and Thomasius and the metaphysical philosophy of Leibniz and Kant as rival intellectual cultures or paideiai, thereby challenging all histories premised on Kant's supposed reconciliation and transcendence of the field. This study reveals the extraordinary historical self-consciousness (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Religion and Rational Theology. By Immanuel Kant. Translated and Edited by Allen Wood and George di Giovanni. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. Xxiv, 518. £45. ISBN 0-521-35416-1. [REVIEW]Walford Gealy - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:143-149.
  14. added 2019-06-06
    Kant a Christian? A Reply to Palmquist.Anthony N. Perovich Jr - 1992 - Faith and Philosophy 9 (1):95-104.
  15. added 2019-06-06
    Proofs of God’s Existence in German Idealism. The Justification of the Absolute by Means of Modal Theory in Kant, Hegel and Weisse. [REVIEW]Günter Bleickert - 1977 - Philosophy and History 10 (1):24-27.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    Kant’s Criticism of Metaphysics.Arthur Melnick & W. H. Walsh - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):181.
  17. added 2019-06-06
    H.-G. Wittig, Wiedergeburt als radikaler Sinneswandel. Über den Zusammenhang von Theologie, Anthropologie und Pädagogik bei Rousseau, Kant un dPestalozzi. [REVIEW]R. Malter - 1972 - Kant-Studien 63 (2):269.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Principles of Reason, Degrees of Judgment, and Kant’s Argument for the Existence of God.Mary-Barbara Zeldin - 1970 - The Monist 54 (2):285-301.
    I. Immanuel Kant claims that the existence of God cannot be proved by speculative theology, yet that speculative theology is the only means by which the existence of God can definitively be proved. All knowledge, Kant argues, including that of God’s existence, must be based on the forms of possible experience or deduced from premises known to be true: in the case of the existence of God, however, the former is impossible because God transcends experience, and the latter is impossible (...)
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  19. added 2019-03-28
    Kant and Spinoza.Colin Marshall - forthcoming - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. New York: Blackwell.
    In this chapter, I explore the connections between Spinoza’s philosophy and Immanuel Kant's. I begin by considering whether Kant engaged with Spinoza's actual views, and conclude that he did not. Despite that, I argue that there some philosophically-striking points of near-convergence between them. In addition to both privileging substance monism over other traditional metaphysical views, both Spinoza and Kant advance arguments for (a) epistemic humility based on the passivity of our senses and for (a) the timelessness of the mind based (...)
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  20. added 2019-03-15
    Nick Stang on Omri Boehm's "Kant's Critique of Spinoza". [REVIEW]Nicholas Stang - 2017 - Critique 2017:N/A.
  21. added 2019-03-15
    Book Review : "Kant's Anatomy of Evil". [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):150-156.
    Book review of Sharon Anderson-Gold, and Pablo Muchnik, "Kant's Anatomy of Evil", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, Pp 251, ISBN 9780521514323.
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  22. added 2019-03-04
    Kant and the Ontological Argument.Graeme Hunter - 1989 - Proceedings of the Sixth International Kant Congress 2 (2):3-10.
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  23. added 2018-12-31
    Public Religion & Secular State: A Kantian Approach.Mehmet Ruhi Demiray - 2017 - Diametros 54:30-55.
    This paper argues that Kant’s distinction between “civil union” and “ethical community” can be of great value in dealing with a problem that causes considerable trouble in contemporary political and social philosophy, namely the question of the normative significance and role of religion in political and social life. The first part dwells upon the third part of Kant`s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason with the intention of exposing the general features of ethical community. It highlights the fact that (...)
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  24. added 2018-12-31
    Kant’s Model for Building the True Church: Transcending “Might Makes Right” and “Should Makes Good” Through the Idea of a Non-Coercive Theocracy.Stephen Palmquist - 2017 - Diametros 54:76-94.
    Kant’s Religion postulates the idea of an ethical community as a necessary requirement for humanity to become good. Few interpreters acknowledge Kant’s claims that realizing this idea requires building a “church” characterized by unity, integrity, freedom, and unchangeability, and that this new form of community is a non-coercive version of theocracy. Traditional theocracy replaces the political state of nature with an ethical state of nature ; non-coercive theocracy transcends this distinction, uniting humanity in a common vision of a divine legislator (...)
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  25. added 2018-12-31
    Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Self-Expression, and Kant’s Public Use of Reason.Geert Van Eekert - 2017 - Diametros 54:118-137.
    This article turns to early modern and Enlightenment advocates of tolerance in order to discover and lay bare the line of argument that informed their commitment to free speech. This line of argument will subsequently be used to assess the shift from free speech to the contemporary ideal of free self-expression. In order to take this assessment one step further, this article will finally turn to Immanuel Kant’s famous defense of the public use of reason. In the wake of Katerina (...)
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  26. added 2018-11-28
    The Religious A Priori in Otto and its Kantian Origins.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Heinrich Assel, Christine Helmer & Bruce McCormack (eds.), Luther, Barth, and Movements of Theological Renewal 1918-1833. De Gruyter.
    This paper provides an analysis of Rudolph Otto's understanding of the structures of human consciousness making possible the appropriation of revelation. Already in his dissertation on Luther's understanding of the Holy Spirit, Otto was preoccupied with how the " outer " of revelation could be united to these inner structures. Later, in his groundbreaking Idea of the Holy, Otto would explore the category of the numinous, an element of religious experience tied to the irrational element of the holy. This paper (...)
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  27. added 2018-11-28
    Where Have All the Monads Gone? Substance and Transcedental Freedom in Schleiermacher.Jacqueline Mariña - 2015 - Journal of Religion 95 (4):477-505.
    This article explores the later Schleiermacher’s metaphysics of substance and what it entails concerning the question of transcendental freedom. I show that in espousing a metaphysics of substance, Schleiermacher also abandoned an understanding of nature as a mere mechanism, a view implying what I call a “state-state view of causation” (“SSV” for short). Adoption of the view of the self as substance was motivated by the primacy of practical and religious concerns in Schleiermacher’s later work: in Christian Faith, an analysis (...)
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  28. added 2018-06-13
    Preparation for Natural Theology: With Kant's Notes and the Danzig Rational Theology Transcript. [REVIEW]Derek A. Michaud - 2017 - Reading Religion 2017.
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  29. added 2018-05-14
    Ideal Und Singularität: Über Die Funktion des Gottesbegriffes in Kants Theoretischer Philosophie.Svend Andersen - 1983 - De Gruyter.
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  30. added 2018-04-30
    Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (1):131-145.
    In this essay, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  31. added 2018-03-05
    Chris L. Firestone: Kant and Theology at the Boundaries of Reason : Ashgate, Burlington, VT, 2009, Xii and 194 Pages, $99.95.Robert Gressis - 2010 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 67 (3):187-191.
  32. added 2018-03-05
    Chris L. Firestone, Nathan Jacobs, In Defense of Kant’s Religion : Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2008, Xvi and 280 Pp, $24.95.Robert Gressis - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (3):167-171.
  33. added 2018-02-17
    Aquinas, the a Priori/a Posteriori Distinction, and the Kantian Dependency Thesis.Jacob Archambault - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (2):175-192.
    This article re-examines the applicability of Kant's dependency thesis to Aquinas’ cosmological proofs for the existence of God. The first part of the article provides a summary of Kant's dependency thesis, followed by a review of a defence of Aquinas by J. William Forgie. The second part of the article explains some of the logical apparatus upon which Aquinas’ argument hinges – specifically his understanding of the a priori/a posteriori distinction. I conclude by calling attention to certain distinct metaphysical assumptions (...)
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  34. added 2018-02-17
    Regulative Principles and ‘the Wise Author of Nature’: Lawrence Pasternack.Lawrence Pasternack - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (4):411-429.
    There is much more said in the Critique of Pure Reason about the relationship between God and purposiveness than what is found in Kant's analysis of the physico-theological argument. The ‘Wise Author of Nature’ is central to his analysis of regulative principles in the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ and also appears in the ‘Canon’, first with regards to the Highest Good and then again in relation to our theoretical use of purposiveness. This paper will begin with a brief discussion (...)
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  35. added 2017-07-31
    Baumgarten and Kant on Rational Theology: Deism, Theism, and the Role of Analogy.Brian Chance & Lawrence Pasternack - 2019 - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures of Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    In both his published works and lecture notes Kant distinguishes between Transcendental and Natural Theology, associating the former with Deism and the latter with Theism. The purpose of this paper is to explore these distinctions, particularly as they are shaped by Kant’s engagement with Baumgarten’s Philosophical Theology.
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  36. added 2017-07-14
    On Christopher Insole's "Kant and the Creation of Freedom".Wolfgang Ertl - 2017 - Critique.
    Insole claims that the Critical Kant is by and large a mere conservationist, transcendental-idealistically modified through the distinction between things in themselves and appearances. ‘Mere conservationism’ is a position within the debate about the interplay of God as the first cause and the created entities as secondary causes and belongs to the doctrine of divine concursus. For Insole, it is by virtue of this mere conservationism with regard to things in themselves as opposed to appearances, that transcendental freedom of man, (...)
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  37. added 2017-02-15
    Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-15.
    In this article, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  38. added 2017-02-03
    The ‘Two Experiments’ of Kant’s Religion: Dismantling the Conundrum.Lawrence Pasternack - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):107-131.
    The past decade has seen a sizable increase in scholarship on Kant’s Religion. Yet, unlike the centuries of debate that inform our study of his other major works, scholarship on the Religion is still just in its infancy. As such, it is in a particularly vulnerable state where errors made now could hinder scholarship for decades to come. It is the purpose of this paper to mitigate one such danger, a danger issuing from the widely assumed view that the Religion (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-14
    Der Streit Um Die Hundert Taler: Begriff Und Erkenntnis des Wirklichen Bei Kant Und Hegel.Hector Ferreiro - 2016 - Revista Eletrônica Estudos Hegelianos 21:23-38.
    In the Transcendental Dialectic (KrV, A 599-560/B 627-628), Kant presents the argument of the hundred talers as a concrete example of his general claim against conceiving existence as a real predicate. According to Kant, the content of concepts can be completely determined as merely possible content; in the existential judgment, the subject then relates the completely determined content of his internal thoughts with perception: it is only through perception that the subject knows the content of his concepts as real things (...)
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  40. added 2017-01-14
    Kants Theodizee-Aufsatz – Die Bedingungen des Gelingens philosophischer Theodizee.Johannes Brachtendorf - 2002 - Kant-Studien 93 (1):57-83.
    1. Einleitung Kants Aufsatz: „Über das Mißlingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodizee” wird in der Forschungsliteratur sowohl sachlich als auch historisch diskutiert. In philosophiegeschichtlicher Perspektive steht zum einen das Verhältnis der Auffassung Kants zur Theodizee des 18. Jhdts., insbesondere zu Leibniz' Theodizee zur Debatte, zum anderen aber die Frage nach der Stellung des Theodizee-Aufsatzes im Werk Kants selbst, insbesondere im Vergleich zu früheren Äußerungen Kants zum Theodizee-Thema. Daß die Entwürfe der vorkritischen Zeit von denen der kritischen Phase zu trennen (...)
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  41. added 2017-01-14
    Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion.Michelle Grier - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major study of Kant provides a detailed examination of the development and function of the doctrine of transcendental illusion in his theoretical philosophy. The author shows that a theory of 'illusion' plays a central role in Kant's arguments about metaphysical speculation and scientific theory. Indeed, she argues that we cannot understand Kant unless we take seriously his claim that the mind inevitably acts in accordance with ideas and principles that are 'illusory'. Taking this claim seriously, we can make much (...)
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  42. added 2017-01-14
    1. Kants Postulatenlehre im Rahmen einer erweiterten und modifizierten Ethiko-theologie.Rudolf Langthaler - 1991 - In Kants Ethik Als System der Zwecke: Perspektiven Einer Modifizierten Idee der "Moralischen Teleologie" Und Ethikotheologie. De Gruyter. pp. 279-387.
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  43. added 2016-12-12
    Kant on the Human Standpoint.Béatrice Longuenesse - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this collection of essays Béatrice Longuenesse considers the three aspects of Kant's philosophy, his epistemology and metaphysics of nature, his moral philosophy and his aesthetic theory, under one unifying standpoint: Kant's conception of our capacity to form judgements. She argues that the elements which make up our cognitive access to the world - what Kant calls the 'human point of view' - have an equally important role to play in our moral evaluations and our aesthetic judgements. Her discussion ranges (...)
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  44. added 2016-12-12
    Religion and Rational Theology.Allen W. Wood & George di Giovanni (eds.) - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume collects for the first time in a single volume all of Kant's writings on religion and rational theology. These works were written during a period of conflict between Kant and the Prussian authorities over his religious teachings. His final statement of religion was made after the death of King Frederick William II in 1797. The historical context and progression of this conflict are charted in the general introduction to the volume and in the translators' introductions to particular texts. (...)
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  45. added 2016-12-08
    Review: Essen & Striet (eds), Kant und die Theologie. [REVIEW]Jeffrey L. Wilson - 2007 - Kantian Review 12 (2):194-196.
  46. added 2016-12-08
    The Ens Realissimum and Necessary Being in The Critique of Pure Reason.Lawrence Pasternack - 2001 - Religious Studies 37 (4):467-474.
    Just prior to The Critique of Pure Reason's examination of the various arguments for God's existence, Kant discusses the conceptual relationship between the idea of an ens realissimum and that of a necessary being. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the extent to which this discussion informs his claim that the cosmological argument depends upon the ontological argument.
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  47. added 2016-12-05
    Kant: Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary.James J. DiCenso - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is one of the great modern examinations of religion's meaning, function and impact on human affairs. In this volume, the first complete English-language commentary on the work, James J. DiCenso explains the historical context in which the book appeared, including the importance of Kant's conflict with state censorship. He shows how the Religion addresses crucial Kantian themes such as the relationship between freedom and morality, the human propensity to evil, the status of (...)
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  48. added 2016-11-01
    Kant's Philosophy of Religion and Practical Rationality.Eugen Andreansky - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (3):195-207.
  49. added 2016-06-01
    The Relation Between God and the World in the Pre-Critical Kant: Was Kant a Spinozist?Noam Hoffer - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (2):185-210.
    Andrew Chignell and Omri Boehm have recently argued that Kant’s pre-Critical proof for the existence of God entails a Spinozistic conception of God and hence substance monism. The basis for this reading is the assumption common in the literature that God grounds possibilities by exemplifying them. In this article I take issue with this assumption and argue for an alternative Leibnizian reading, according to which possibilities are grounded in essences united in God’s mind (later also described as Platonic ideas intuited (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-25
    "Kant's Fourfold Critique of the Ontological Argument: Conceptual Containment, Predication, and the Portents of Free Logic".Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series). Cambridge University Press.
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