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Summary With respect to rational (or natural) theology, Kant is best known for his criticism of the ontological proof for God's existence in the Ideal of Pure Reason (though he had already formulated this counter-argument in the pre-Critical period). While Kant also offers criticisms of cosmological and physico-theological (i.e., from design) proofs for God's existence, the notion of a supreme being, whether as an ens realissimum or as a practical postulate, plays an important role in Kant's mature thought.
Key works Wood 1978 is perhaps the most detailed and influential discussion of Kant's rational theology. Longuenesse offers one account of the positive role that the idea of God plays in Kant's thought in Longuenesse 2005. Some recent discussion has focused on the significance of Kant's conception of God as the most real being (ens realissimum) for the interpretation of his modal metaphysics, as in Chignell 2012
Introductions Michelle Grier's  contribution to the Cambridge Companion to the first Critique offers a useful introduction to the Ideal. Readers interested in Kant's pre-Critical presentation of the argument can consult the translation in Kant 1992, while those interested in the broader historical context in 18th century German school philosophy might consult (Lehner 2007).
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  1. Kant's Critique of the Ontological Argument: FAIL.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper, I argue that Kant's famous critique of the Ontological Argument largely begs the question against that argument, and is no better when supplemented by the modern quantificational analysis of "exists." In particular, I argue that the claim, common to Hume and Kant, that conceptual truths can never entail substantive existential claims is false,and thus no ground for rejecting the Ontological Argument.
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  2. Kant's Pre-Critical Proof for God's Existence.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In his Beweisgrund (1762), Kant presents a sketch of "the only possible basis" for a proof of God's existence. In this essay, I attempt to present that proof as a valid and sound argument for the existence of God.
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  3. God, Powers, and Possibility in Kant’s Beweisgrund.Michael Oberst - manuscript
    This paper proposes a novel reading of Kant’s account of the dependence of possibility on God in the pre-Critical Beweisgrund. I argue that Kant has a theistic-potentialist conception of the way God grounds possibility, according to which God grounds possibility by his understanding and will. The reason is that Kant accepts what I call the Principle of Possible Existence: If something is possible, then it is possible that it exists. Furthermore, I explore the connection between causal powers and possibility, the (...)
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  4. Kant's Panentheism: The Possibility Proof of 1763 and Its Fate in the Critical Period.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Ina Goy (ed.), Kant's Religious Arguments. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    This chapter discusses Kant's 1763 "possibility proof" for the existence of God. I first provide a reconstruction of the proof in its two stages, and then revisit my earlier argument according to which the being the proof delivers threatens to be a Spinozistic-panentheistic God—a being whose properties include the entire spatio-temporal universe—rather than the traditional, ontologically distinct God of biblical monotheism. I go on to evaluate some recent alternative readings that have sought to avoid this result by arguing that the (...)
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  5. Moses Mendelssohn’s Original Modal Proof for the Existence of God.Noam Hoffer - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    In his 1785 book Morning hours, Moses Mendelssohn presents a proof for the existence of God from the grounding of possibility. Although Mendelssohn claims that this proof is original, it has not received much attention in the secondary literature. In this paper, I will analyze this proof and present its historical context. I will show that although it resembles Leibniz’s proof from eternal truths and Kant’s pre-critical possibility proof, it has unique characteristics which can be regarded as responses to deficiencies (...)
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  6. The Development of Kant's Conception of Divine Freedom.Patrick Kain - forthcoming - In Brandon Look (ed.), Leibniz and Kant. Oxford University Press. pp. 293-317.
    In his lectures, Kant suggested to his students that the freedom of a divine holy will is “easier to comprehend than that of the human will,”(28:609) but this suggestion has remained neglected. After a review of some of Kant’s familiar claims about the will (in general), and about the divine holy will in particular, I consider how these claims give rise to some initial objections to that conception. Then I defend an interpretation of Kant’s conception of the divine will, and (...)
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  7. The Religious A Priori in Otto and its Kantian Origins.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Heinrich Assel, Christine Helmer & Bruce McCormack (eds.), Luther, Barth, and Movements of Theological Renewal 1918-1833. De Gruyter.
    This paper provides an analysis of Rudolph Otto's understanding of the structures of human consciousness making possible the appropriation of revelation. Already in his dissertation on Luther's understanding of the Holy Spirit, Otto was preoccupied with how the " outer " of revelation could be united to these inner structures. Later, in his groundbreaking Idea of the Holy, Otto would explore the category of the numinous, an element of religious experience tied to the irrational element of the holy. This paper (...)
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  8. Kant and Spinoza.Colin Marshall - forthcoming - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. New York: Blackwell.
    In this chapter, I explore the connections between Spinoza’s philosophy and Immanuel Kant's. I begin by considering whether Kant engaged with Spinoza's actual views, and conclude that he did not. Despite that, I argue that there some philosophically-striking points of near-convergence between them. In addition to both privileging substance monism over other traditional metaphysical views, both Spinoza and Kant advance arguments for (a) epistemic humility based on the passivity of our senses and for (a) the timelessness of the mind based (...)
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  9. "Kant's Fourfold Critique of the Ontological Argument: Conceptual Containment, Predication, and the Portents of Free Logic".Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series). Cambridge University Press.
  10. Machine-Believers Learning Faiths & Knowledges: The New Gospel of Artificial Intelligence.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - Internationales Jahrbuch Für Medienphilosophie 7 (1):97-121.
    One is occasionally reminded of Foucault's proclamation in a 1970 interview that "perhaps, one day this century will be known as Deleuzian." Less often is one compelled to update and restart with a supplementary counter-proclamation of the mathematician, David Lindley: "the twenty-first century would be a Bayesian era..." The verb tenses of both are conspicuous. // To critically attend to what is today often feared and demonized, but also revered, deployed, and commonly referred to as algorithm(s), one cannot avoid the (...)
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  11. Rationalism and Kant's Rejection of the Ontological Argument.Dai Heide - 2021 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 59 (4):583-606.
    Kant rejects the ontological argument on the grounds that the ontological argument inescapably must assume that existence is a “determination” or “real predicate,” which it is not. Most understand Kant’s argument for this claim to be premised upon his distinctive proto-Fregean theory of existence. But this leaves Kant dialectically vulnerable: the defender of the ontological argument can easily reject this as question-begging. I show that Kant relies upon two distinct arguments, both of which contend that the claim that existence is (...)
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  12. The Dialectical Illusion in Kant’s Only Possible Argument for the Existence of God.Noam Hoffer - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):339-363.
    The nature of Kant’s criticism of his pre-Critical ‘possibility proof’ for the existence of God, implicit in the account of the Transcendental Ideal in the Critique of Pure Reason, is still under dispute. Two issues are at stake: the error in the proof and diagnosis of the reason for committing it. I offer a new way to connect these issues. In contrast with accounts that locate the motivation for the error in reason’s interest in an unconditioned causal ground of all (...)
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  13. Baumgarten and Kant on Rational Theology: Deism, Theism, and the Role of Analogy.Brian Chance & Lawrence Pasternack - 2019 - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures of Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    In both his published works and lecture notes Kant distinguishes between Transcendental and Natural Theology, associating the former with Deism and the latter with Theism. The purpose of this paper is to explore these distinctions, particularly as they are shaped by Kant’s engagement with Baumgarten’s Philosophical Theology.
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  14. Kant’s Regulative Metaphysics of God and the Systematic Lawfulness of Nature.Noam Hoffer - 2019 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 57 (2):217-239.
    In the ‘Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic’ of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant contends that the idea of God has a positive regulative role in the systematization of empirical knowledge. But why is this regulative role assigned to this specific idea? Kant’s account is rather opaque and this question has also not received much attention in the literature. In this paper I argue that an adequate understanding of the regulative role of the idea of God depends on the specific (...)
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  15. Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn, by Edward Kanterian. Routledge, 2017, Xvii + 444 Pp. ISBN 10/13: 9781138908581 Hb £110; ISBN 10/13: 9780203729588 eBook £35.99. [REVIEW]Noam Hoffer - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):796-799.
  16. Clipping Our Dogmatic Wings: The Role of Religion’s Parerga in Our Moral Education.Pablo Muchnik - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13):1381-1391.
    In a note introduced into the second edition of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Kant assigns a systematic role to the General Remarks at the end of each Part of his bo...
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  17. The Implied Theodicy of Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason : Love as a Response to Radical Evil.Matthew Rukgaber - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (2):213-233.
    This article begins with a brief survey of Kant’s pre-Critical and Critical approaches to theodicy. I maintain that his theodical response of moral faith during the Critical period appears to be a dispassionate version of what Leibniz called Fatum Christianum. Moral rationality establishes the existence and goodness of God and translates into an endless and unwavering commitment to following the moral law. I then argue that Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason offers a revision of Kant’s 1791 conception of (...)
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  18. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (1):131-145.
    In this essay, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  19. Kant e a Defesa da Causa de Deus: algumas considerações acerca do opúsculo kantiano sobre a teodiceia.Bruno Cunha - 2018 - Ética E Filosofia Política 1 (21):5-21.
    The article On the Miscarriage of All Philosophical Trials in Theodicy was published in 1791 on the pages of the monthly periodical berlinische Monatsschrift. By itself, the title of the article already seems to us quite enlightening. What would it be but a criticism of every attempt to justify the God's cause? Nevertheless, there are evidences that there is much more at stake. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to raise the question about the true meaning of the Kant`s (...)
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  20. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-15.
    In this article, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
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  21. Public Religion & Secular State: A Kantian Approach.Mehmet Ruhi Demiray - 2017 - Diametros 54:30-55.
    This paper argues that Kant’s distinction between “civil union” and “ethical community” can be of great value in dealing with a problem that causes considerable trouble in contemporary political and social philosophy, namely the question of the normative significance and role of religion in political and social life. The first part dwells upon the third part of Kant`s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason with the intention of exposing the general features of ethical community. It highlights the fact that (...)
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  22. On Christopher Insole's "Kant and the Creation of Freedom".Wolfgang Ertl - 2017 - Critique.
    Insole claims that the Critical Kant is by and large a mere conservationist, transcendental-idealistically modified through the distinction between things in themselves and appearances. ‘Mere conservationism’ is a position within the debate about the interplay of God as the first cause and the created entities as secondary causes and belongs to the doctrine of divine concursus. For Insole, it is by virtue of this mere conservationism with regard to things in themselves as opposed to appearances, that transcendental freedom of man, (...)
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  23. Preparation for Natural Theology: With Kant's Notes and the Danzig Rational Theology Transcript. [REVIEW]Derek A. Michaud - 2017 - Reading Religion 2017.
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  24. Kant’s Model for Building the True Church: Transcending “Might Makes Right” and “Should Makes Good” Through the Idea of a Non-Coercive Theocracy.Stephen Palmquist - 2017 - Diametros 54:76-94.
    Kant’s Religion postulates the idea of an ethical community as a necessary requirement for humanity to become good. Few interpreters acknowledge Kant’s claims that realizing this idea requires building a “church” characterized by unity, integrity, freedom, and unchangeability, and that this new form of community is a non-coercive version of theocracy. Traditional theocracy replaces the political state of nature with an ethical state of nature ; non-coercive theocracy transcends this distinction, uniting humanity in a common vision of a divine legislator (...)
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  25. The ‘Two Experiments’ of Kant’s Religion: Dismantling the Conundrum.Lawrence Pasternack - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):107-131.
    The past decade has seen a sizable increase in scholarship on Kant’s Religion. Yet, unlike the centuries of debate that inform our study of his other major works, scholarship on the Religion is still just in its infancy. As such, it is in a particularly vulnerable state where errors made now could hinder scholarship for decades to come. It is the purpose of this paper to mitigate one such danger, a danger issuing from the widely assumed view that the Religion (...)
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  26. Nick Stang on Omri Boehm's "Kant's Critique of Spinoza". [REVIEW]Nicholas Stang - 2017 - Critique 2017:N/A.
  27. Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Self-Expression, and Kant’s Public Use of Reason.Geert Van Eekert - 2017 - Diametros 54:118-137.
    This article turns to early modern and Enlightenment advocates of tolerance in order to discover and lay bare the line of argument that informed their commitment to free speech. This line of argument will subsequently be used to assess the shift from free speech to the contemporary ideal of free self-expression. In order to take this assessment one step further, this article will finally turn to Immanuel Kant’s famous defense of the public use of reason. In the wake of Katerina (...)
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  28. Der Streit Um Die Hundert Taler: Begriff Und Erkenntnis des Wirklichen Bei Kant Und Hegel.Hector Ferreiro - 2016 - Revista Eletrônica Estudos Hegelianos 21:23-38.
    In the Transcendental Dialectic (KrV, A 599-560/B 627-628), Kant presents the argument of the hundred talers as a concrete example of his general claim against conceiving existence as a real predicate. According to Kant, the content of concepts can be completely determined as merely possible content; in the existential judgment, the subject then relates the completely determined content of his internal thoughts with perception: it is only through perception that the subject knows the content of his concepts as real things (...)
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  29. Preparation for Natural Theology: With Kant’s Notes and the Danzig Rational Theology Transcript.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers, Johann August Eberhard & Immanuel Kant - 2016 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Designed as a textbook for use in courses on natural theology and used by Immanuel Kant as the basis for his Lectures on The Philosophical Doctrine of Religion, Johan August Eberhard's Preparation for Natural Theology (1781) is now available in English for the first time. -/- With a strong focus on the various intellectual debates and historically significant texts in late renaissance and early modern theology, Preparation for Natural Theology influenced the way Kant thought about practical cognition as well as (...)
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  30. The Relation Between God and the World in the Pre-Critical Kant: Was Kant a Spinozist?Noam Hoffer - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (2):185-210.
    Andrew Chignell and Omri Boehm have recently argued that Kant’s pre-Critical proof for the existence of God entails a Spinozistic conception of God and hence substance monism. The basis for this reading is the assumption common in the literature that God grounds possibilities by exemplifying them. In this article I take issue with this assumption and argue for an alternative Leibnizian reading, according to which possibilities are grounded in essences united in God’s mind (later also described as Platonic ideas intuited (...)
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  31. Preface to Preparation for Natural Theology by Johann August Eberhard.Lawrence Pasternack & Pablo Muchnik - 2016 - In Lawrence Pasternack & Pablo Muchnik (eds.), Preparation for Natural Theology. Bloomsbury Academic.
    In this paper, I develop a quasi-transcendental argument to justify Kant’s infamous claim “man is evil by nature.” The cornerstone of my reconstruction lies in drawing a systematic distinction between the seemingly identical concepts of “evil disposition” (böseGesinnung) and “propensity to evil” (Hang zumBösen). The former, I argue, Kant reserves to describe the fundamental moral outlook of a single individual; the latter, the moral orientation of the whole species. Moreover, the appellative “evil” ranges over two different types of moral failure: (...)
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  32. A importância das Reflexões sobre o otimismo para o desenvolvimento intelectual kantiano. Tradução e texto introdutório.Bruno Cunha - 2015 - Studia Kantiana 18:206-226.
    As Reflexões sobre o otimismo são as mais antigas reflexões kantianas sobre metafísica que aparecem no legado manuscrito [ handschiftlicher Nachlass ], remetendo-se ao fecho de 1753 ou 1754. Para justificar a importância de sua tradução, eu argumento que as consequências oriundas do problema da teodicéia, que cerceiam sua problemática, apresentam-se como alguns dos aspectos fundamentais do desenvolvimento intelectual kantiano no que concerne aos âmbitos da teologia racional e da ética. Por um lado, argumento que a crítica à teodicéia de (...)
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  33. Robert Theis: La raison et son Dieu. Étude sur la théologie kantienne.Jean Ferrari - 2015 - Kant Studien 106 (2):360-362.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 106 Heft: 2 Seiten: 360-362.
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  34. Is the Final Chapter of the Metaphysics of Morals Also the Final Chapter of the Practical Postulates?Samuel Kahn - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (2):309-332.
    In this paper I trace the arc of Kant’s critical stance on the belief in God, beginning with the Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and culminating in the final chapter of the Metaphysics of Morals (1797). I argue that toward the end of his life, Kant changed his views on two important topics. First, despite his stinging criticism of it in the Critique of Pure Reason, by the time of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant seems to endorse the physico-theological argument. (...)
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  35. Where Have All the Monads Gone? Substance and Transcedental Freedom in Schleiermacher.Jacqueline Mariña - 2015 - Journal of Religion 95 (4):477-505.
    This article explores the later Schleiermacher’s metaphysics of substance and what it entails concerning the question of transcendental freedom. I show that in espousing a metaphysics of substance, Schleiermacher also abandoned an understanding of nature as a mere mechanism, a view implying what I call a “state-state view of causation” (“SSV” for short). Adoption of the view of the self as substance was motivated by the primacy of practical and religious concerns in Schleiermacher’s later work: in Christian Faith, an analysis (...)
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  36. Kant's 'Appraisal' of Christianity: Biblical Interpretation and the Pure Rational System of Religion.Lawrence Pasternack - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):485-506.
    The First Preface to Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason contains various characterizations of the distinction between biblical and philosophical theology. Similar characterizations are also found in the Preface to The Conflict of the Faculties. In both, Kant warns the philosopher against trespassing into the purview of the biblical theologian. Yet, in the actual body of both texts, we find numerous occasions where Kant deviates from the rules he initially articulates. The purpose of this paper is to identify (...)
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  37. Kant on the Ontological Argument.Ian Proops - 2015 - Noûs 49 (1):1-27.
    The article examines Kant's various criticisms of the broadly Cartesian ontological argument as they are developed in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is argued that each of these criticisms is effective against its intended target, and that these targets include—in addition to Descartes himself—Leibniz, Wolff, and Baumgarten. It is argued that Kant's most famous criticism—the charge that being is not a real predicate—is directed exclusively against Leibniz. Kant's argument for this thesis—the argument proceeding from his example of a hundred (...)
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  38. Kant's Argument That Existence is Not a Determination.Nicholas F. Stang - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):583-626.
    In this paper, I examine Kant's famous objection to the ontological argument: existence is not a determination. Previous commentators have not adequately explained what this claim means, how it undermines the ontological argument, or how Kant argues for it. I argue that the claim that existence is not a determination means that it is not possible for there to be non-existent objects; necessarily, there are only existent objects. I argue further that Kant's target is not merely ontological arguments as such (...)
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  39. Aquinas, the a Priori/a Posteriori Distinction, and the Kantian Dependency Thesis.Jacob Archambault - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (2):175-192.
    This article re-examines the applicability of Kant's dependency thesis to Aquinas’ cosmological proofs for the existence of God. The first part of the article provides a summary of Kant's dependency thesis, followed by a review of a defence of Aquinas by J. William Forgie. The second part of the article explains some of the logical apparatus upon which Aquinas’ argument hinges – specifically his understanding of the a priori/a posteriori distinction. I conclude by calling attention to certain distinct metaphysical assumptions (...)
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  40. Kant on the Cosmological Argument.Ian Proops - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-21.
    In the first Critique Kant levels two main charges against the cosmological argument. First, it commits the fallacy of ignoratio elenchi. Second, in two rather different ways, it presupposes the ontological argument. Commentators have struggled to find merit in either of these charges. The paper argues that they can nonetheless be shown to have some merit, so long as one takes care to correctly identify the version of the cosmological argument that Kant means to be attacking. That turns out to (...)
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  41. Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
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  42. Kant, Schelling und das,,übersinnliche Substrat“. Zwei naturphilosophische Denkfiguren zur Bestimmung des Absoluten.Karsten Kleber - 2013 - Perspektiven der Philosophie 39 (1):325-356.
    Nach wie vor findet Kants Interesse an der,,Physiko-Theologie“ zu wenig Beachtung. Sowohl in der _Kritik der reinen Vernunft_ als in der _Kritik der Urteilskraft_ finden sich gehaltvolle naturphilosophische Argumente, deren komplexe Ausarbeitung nicht zuletzt die Frage nach der Möglichkeit eines physiko-theologischen Gottesbeweises beantworten soll. Der Aufsatz sichtet diese Argumente, wobei er sich auf Kants Ausführungen zu den,,objektiven Naturzwecken“ bzw. Organismen in der _Kritik der Urteilskraft_ konzentriert. Ferner wird dargelegt, wie der junge Schelling von der transzendentalphilosophischen,,Physiko-Theologie“ gelernt hat, indem er Kants (...)
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  43. Review: DiCenso, Kant's Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary. [REVIEW]Lawrence Pasternack - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (3):479-483.
  44. Kant : Théologie et religion.Robert Theis (ed.) - 2013 - Vrin.
    Est analysée dans ce volume la question de la place et de la signification de la réflexion théologique dans l’œuvre de Kant; le point de départ étant que le traitement de la problématique théologique chez Kant ne se limite pas à la seule critique des preuves traditionnelles de l’existence de Dieu, mais qu’il existe effectivement une pensée théologique même à l’intérieur du discours « critique ». Un premier volet thématique des contributions porte sur cette question théologique en partant des premières (...)
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  45. Kant’s Two Touchstones for Conviction.Joseph S. Trullinger - 2013 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (2):369-403.
    This paper uncovers a much-neglected ambiguity in Kant’s conception of rational religion, namely, a confusion regarding the public communicability of moral faith, which would in turn render faith and knowledge indistinguishable. The few scholars who have noticed this ambiguity pursue its epistemic dimensions, but this paper explores its ramifications for Kant’s claim that coherent moral agency requires religious faith, taking issue with Lawrence Pasternack’s recent interpretation. Once one notices Kant has two methods for distinguishing conviction from persuasion, one is better (...)
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  46. A ideia de Deus em Kant: da ilusão da razão pura ao postulado de agente moral.Rose Silvania Figueiredo do Vale - 2013 - Horizonte 11 (30):802-803.
    Dissertação de Mestrado. VALE, Rose Silvania Figueiredo do. A ideia de Deus em Kant: da ilusão da razão pura ao postulado de agente moral. 2012. 132 folhas. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte. Palavras-chave : Ideias transcendentais. Ilusão. Razão. Moral. Deus. Homem. Key works : Transcendental ideas, Illusion, Reason, Moral, God, Man.
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  47. Kant's Philosophy of Religion and Practical Rationality.Eugen Andreansky - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (3):195-207.
  48. Kant’s Regulative Spinozism.Omri Boehm - 2012 - Kant Studien 103 (3):292-317.
    : The question of Kant’s relation to Spinozist thought has been virtually ignored over the years. I analyze Kant’s pre-critical ‘possibility-proof’ of God’s existence, elaborated in the Beweisgrund, as well as the echoes that this proof has in the first Critique, in beginning to uncover the connection between Kant’s thought and Spinoza’s. Kant’s espousal of the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR] for the analysis of modality during the pre-critical period committed him, I argue, to Spinozist substance monism. Much textual evidence (...)
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  49. Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza.Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  50. Ulrich Lehner, Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie , pp. 532 + ix, $139. [REVIEW]Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):143-147.
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