About this topic
Summary With respect to rational (or natural) theology, Kant is best known for his criticism of the ontological proof for God's existence in the Ideal of Pure Reason (though he had already formulated this counter-argument in the pre-Critical period). While Kant also offers criticisms of cosmological and physico-theological (i.e., from design) proofs for God's existence, the notion of a supreme being, whether as an ens realissimum or as a practical postulate, plays an important role in Kant's mature thought.
Key works Wood 1978 is perhaps the most detailed and influential discussion of Kant's rational theology. Longuenesse offers one account of the positive role that the idea of God plays in Kant's thought in Longuenesse 2005. Some recent discussion has focused on the significance of Kant's conception of God as the most real being (ens realissimum) for the interpretation of his modal metaphysics, as in Chignell 2012
Introductions Michelle Grier's  contribution to the Cambridge Companion to the first Critique offers a useful introduction to the Ideal. Readers interested in Kant's pre-Critical presentation of the argument can consult the translation in Kant 1992, while those interested in the broader historical context in 18th century German school philosophy might consult (Lehner 2007).
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  1. Is the Concept of Necessary Existence Self-Contradictory?W. E. Abraham - 1962 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 5 (1-4):143 – 157.
    In this article I have tried to rebut certain types of arguments which purport to show not merely that God does not exist but that the notion of necessary existence is itself either self-contradictory or senseless. In showing that it is not self-contradictory I have allowed myself the luxury of a negative and a positive approach. Negatively, I have had to show that when the accusation of self-contradiction is made, it is often accompanied, not by an argument but by a (...)
  2. God, Possibility, and Kant.Robert Merrihew Adams - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (4):425-440.
    In one of his precritical works, Kant defends, as “the only possible” way of demonstrating the existence of God, an argument from the nature of possibility. Whereas Leibniz had argued that possibilities must be thought by God in order to obtain the ontological standing that they need, Kant argued that at least the most fundamental possibilities must be exemplified in God. Here Kant’s argument is critically examined in comparison with its Leibnizian predecessor, and it is suggested that an argument combining (...)
  3. Ideal Und Singularität Über Die Funktion des Gottesbegriffes in Kants Theoretischer Philosophie.Svend Andersen - 1983
  4. Kant's Philosophy of Religion and Practical Rationality.Eugen Andreansky - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (3):195-207.
  5. Aquinas, the a Priori/a Posteriori Distinction, and the Kantian Dependency Thesis.Jacob Archambault - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (2):175-192.
    This article re-examines the applicability of Kant's dependency thesis to Aquinas’ cosmological proofs for the existence of God. The first part of the article provides a summary of Kant's dependency thesis, followed by a review of a defence of Aquinas by J. William Forgie. The second part of the article explains some of the logical apparatus upon which Aquinas’ argument hinges – specifically his understanding of the a priori/a posteriori distinction. I conclude by calling attention to certain distinct metaphysical assumptions (...)
  6. God and the Secular: A Philosophical Assessment of Secular Reasoning From Bacon to Kant.Robin Attfield - 1978 - University College Cardiff Press.
  7. O. HÖFFE: "Immanuel Kant". [REVIEW]B. Baertschi - 1987 - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 119:361.
  8. The Ontological Argument Reconsidered.Oded Balaban & Asnat Avshalom - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:279-310.
    The ontological argument--first proposed by St. Anselm and subsequently deveIoped by Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel and Marx--furnishes a key to understanding the relationship between thought and reality. In this article we shall focus on Hegel’s attitude towards the ontological argument as set out in his Science of Logic, where it appears as a paradigm of the relationship between thought and reality. It should be remarked, moreover, that our choice of the subject was not random and that it was seIected for (...)
  9. Kant on Cosmological Arguments.William H. Baumer - 1967 - The Monist 51 (4):519-535.
  10. Philosophie im Ausgriff auf konkrete Religion. Kants Umgang mit dem Topos» Orthodoxie «.Jörg Baur - 1997 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 39 (2):191-203.
  11. Proofs of God's Existence in German Idealism. The Justification of the Absolute by Means of Modal Theory in Kant, Hegel and Weisse.Günter Bleickert - 1977 - Philosophy and History 10 (1):24-27.
  12. Kants Vorsehungskonzept Auf Dem Hintergrund der Deutschen Schulphilosophie Und -Theologie.Paul Richard Blum - 2009 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (1):161-164.
  13. Kant’s Regulative Spinozism.Omri Boehm - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):292-317.
    The question of Kant's relation to Spinozist thought has been virtually ignored over the years. I analyze Kant's pre-critical 'possibility-proof' of God's existence, elaborated in the Beweisgrund, as well as the echoes that this proof has in the first Critique, in beginning to uncover the connection between Kant's thought and Spinoza's. Kant's espousal of the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR] for the analysis of modality during the pre-critical period committed him, I argue, to Spinozist substance monism. Much textual evidence suggests (...)
  14. Über Ideen, Postulate der praktischen Vernunft und ein wiedererwachtes theologisches Interesse an Kant.Martin Bondeli - 2007 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 54 (1/2):250-263.
  15. Über Ideen, Postulate der praktischen Vernunft und ein wiedererwachtes theologischen Interesse an Kant: Rez. zu Nikolai Klimmek: Kants System der Ideen. Berlin 2005; Giovanni Sala: Kants "Kritik der praktischen Vernunft". Ein Kommentar. Darmstadt 2004. [REVIEW]Martin Bondeli - 2006 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 53 (3):766-780.
  16. Die Religion der Vernunft.Karl Bornhausen - 1924 - Kant-Studien 29 (2):377-385.
  17. Kant's View of Metaphysics.Archibald A. Bowman - 1916 - Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  18. Kants Theodizee-Aufsatz – Die Bedingungen des Gelingens philosophischer Theodizee.Johannes Brachtendorf - 2002 - Kant-Studien 93 (1):57-83.
    1. Einleitung Kants Aufsatz: „Über das Mißlingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodizee” wird in der Forschungsliteratur sowohl sachlich als auch historisch diskutiert. In philosophiegeschichtlicher Perspektive steht zum einen das Verhältnis der Auffassung Kants zur Theodizee des 18. Jhdts., insbesondere zu Leibniz' Theodizee zur Debatte, zum anderen aber die Frage nach der Stellung des Theodizee-Aufsatzes im Werk Kants selbst, insbesondere im Vergleich zu früheren Äußerungen Kants zum Theodizee-Thema. Daß die Entwürfe der vorkritischen Zeit von denen der kritischen Phase zu trennen (...)
  19. Mackie on Kant's Moral Argument.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 1996 - Sophia 35 (1):5-20.
  20. Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume.Brian A. Chance - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
  21. Baumgarten and Kant on Rational Theology: Deism, Theism, and the Role of Analogy.Brian Chance & Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures of Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    In both his published works and lecture notes Kant distinguishes between Transcendental and Natural Theology, associating the former with Deism and the latter with Theism. The purpose of this paper is to explore these distinctions, particularly as they are shaped by Kant’s engagement with Baumgarten’s Philosophical Theology.
  22. Review: Lehner, Kants Vorsehungskonzept Auf Dem Hintergrund der Deutschen Schulphilosophie Und Theologie[REVIEW]Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):143-147.
  23. Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza.Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
  24. 'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy.Andrew Chignell - 2009 - In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 116--135.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown. -/- .
  25. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (1):131-145.
    In this essay, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
  26. Dropping the Debt: A New Conundrum in Kant's Rational Religion.Stewart Clem - 2017 - Religious Studies:1-15.
    In this article, I argue that Immanuel Kant fails to provide a satisfactory account of ‘moral debt’ in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. More precisely, he fails to answer the question of why we should assume that a debt exists in the first place. In light of recent scholarship on this area of his thought, I sketch some possible readings of Kant on the nature of moral transformation that suggest how he might account for this debt. I then (...)
  27. Animadversions on Plantinga's Kant.Robert C. Coburn - 1966 - Journal of Philosophy 63 (19):546-548.
  28. Fichte's Transcendental Theology.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2010 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 92 (1):68-88.
    The relationship between Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre and Kant's philosophy is as important as it is ambiguous. The aim of this paper is to explore one significant and under-examined aspect of this relationship, i.e., the respective views of Fichte and Kant on the concept of God. Fichte's noteworthy divergences from Kant's discussions are described and analyzed. Fichte's explication of the concept of God is considerably sparser than Kant's. Furthermore, Fichte excludes from philosophy some of the sub-disciplines of rational theology allowed by Kant. (...)
  29. Theologie in Kritischer Öffentlichkeit D. Frage Kants an D. Kirchl. Christentum.Karl-Heinz Crumbach - 1977
  30. Kant and Frege on Existence and the Ontological Argument.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2012 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (4):337-354.
    I argue that Kant's and Frege's refutations of the ontological argument are more similar than has generally been acknowledged. As I clarify, for both Kant and Frege, to say that something exists is to assert of a concept that it is instantiated. With such an assertion one expresses that there is a particular relation between the instantiating object and a rational subject - a particular mode of presentation for the object in question. By its very nature such a relation cannot (...)
  31. Kant: Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary.James J. DiCenso - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is one of the great modern examinations of religion's meaning, function and impact on human affairs. In this volume, the first complete English-language commentary on the work, James J. DiCenso explains the historical context in which the book appeared, including the importance of Kant's conflict with state censorship. He shows how the Religion addresses crucial Kantian themes such as the relationship between freedom and morality, the human propensity to evil, the status of (...)
  32. Kant Über Das Defizit der Physikotheologie Und Die Notwendigkeit der Idee Einer Ethikotheologie.Bernd Dörflinger - 2010 - In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Herder.
  33. La realidad del 'ens realissimum'.Irene Borges Duarte - 1999 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 16:149-186.
    El llamado "argumento de los posibles" desarrollado por Kant en el Beweisgrund está destinado a demostrar la existencia del ens realissimum de la tradición metafísica moderna. El presente estudio pretende explorar la importancia de esta prueba en el contexto global del pensamiento kantiano, a partir de la ambigüedad del concepto de realidad y de su precisión en la filosofía crítica.
  34. Kant's Critique of the Ontological Argument: FAIL.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper, I argue that Kant's famous critique of the Ontological Argument largely begs the question against that argument, and is no better when supplemented by the modern quantificational analysis of "exists." In particular, I argue that the claim, common to Hume and Kant, that conceptual truths can never entail substantive existential claims is false,and thus no ground for rejecting the Ontological Argument.
  35. Kant's Pre-Critical Proof for God's Existence.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In his Beweisgrund (1762), Kant presents a sketch of "the only possible basis" for a proof of God's existence. In this essay, I attempt to present that proof as a valid and sound argument for the existence of God.
  36. The Cosmological Argument After Kant.Louis Dupré - 1972 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (3):131 - 145.
  37. Kritik der Theologie Und Gottespostulat Bei Kant.Klaus Düsing - 2010 - In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Herder.
  38. Kant's Refutation of the Ontological Proof.Errol E. Harris - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (199):90 - 92.
  39. Kant's Conception of God.G. A. Ellard - 1931 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 5 (4):686-690.
  40. Kant's `Refutation' of the Ontological Argument.S. Morris Engel - 1963 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (1):20-35.
  41. Moral Obligation After the Death of God: Critical Reflections on Concerns From Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. [REVIEW]H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr - 2010 - In Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.), Social Philosophy and Policy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 317-340.
    Once God is no longer recognized as the ground and the enforcer of morality, the character and force of morality undergoes a significant change, a point made by G.E.M. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. There is no longer in principle a God's-eye perspective from which one can envisage setting moral pluralism aside. In addition, it becomes impossible (...)
  42. Kant's Conception of God.F. E. England - 1929 - New York: Humanities Press.
    , WOKING PREFATORY NOTE THIS essay is an attempt to follow critically the development of Kants metaphysical thought with special reference to the concept of God ...
  43. On Christopher Insole's "Kant and the Creation of Freedom".Wolfgang Ertl - 2017 - Critique.
    Insole claims that the Critical Kant is by and large a mere conservationist, transcendental-idealistically modified through the distinction between things in themselves and appearances. ‘Mere conservationism’ is a position within the debate about the interplay of God as the first cause and the created entities as secondary causes and belongs to the doctrine of divine concursus. For Insole, it is by virtue of this mere conservationism with regard to things in themselves as opposed to appearances, that transcendental freedom of man, (...)
  44. Kant Und Die Theologie.Georg Essen & Magnus Striet (eds.) - 2005 - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  45. Kant’s Discussion of the Ontological Argument.Nicholas Everitt - 1995 - Kant-Studien 86 (4):385-405.
  46. Refutação do Argumento Ontológico, ou Filosofia Crítica versus Filosofia Dogmática.Andrea Luisa Bucchile Faggion - 2011 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 56 (2):64-83.
    Em seu artigo “Kant’s Critique of the Three Theistic Proofs [partial], from Kant’s Rational Theology”, incluído no livro Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Critical Essays, Allen Wood pretende mostrar que Kant não teria provado que a existência não poderia ser um predicado real ou determinante. Em seu artigo “Anselm’s Ontological Arguments”, publicado na revista The Philosophical Review, Norman Malcolm pretende mostrar que Kant não teria provado que a existência necessária não poderia ser um predicado real ou determinante. Lidando com as (...)
  47. Ragione teoretica e fede morale in Kant. Riflessioni in margine al volume di Giovanni Ferretti «Ontologia e teologia in Kant».P. Faggiotto - 1997 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 26 (3-4):343-367.
  48. Kant's Philosophy of Religion.J. H. Farley - 1925 - The Monist 35 (2):259-279.
  49. Robert Theis: La raison et son Dieu. Étude sur la théologie kantienne.Jean Ferrari - 2015 - Kant-Studien 106 (2):360-362.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 106 Heft: 2 Seiten: 360-362.
  50. Der Streit Um Die Hundert Taler: Begriff Und Erkenntnis des Wirklichen Bei Kant Und Hegel.Hector Ferreiro - 2016 - Revista Eletrônica Estudos Hegelianos 21:23-38.
    In the Transcendental Dialectic (KrV, A 599-560/B 627-628), Kant presents the argument of the hundred talers as a concrete example of his general claim against conceiving existence as a real predicate. According to Kant, the content of concepts can be completely determined as merely possible content; in the existential judgment, the subject then relates the completely determined content of his internal thoughts with perception: it is only through perception that the subject knows the content of his concepts as real things (...)
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