About this topic
Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins & Stan 2014. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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  1. Metaphysical Foundations for Natural Law.Owen Anderson - 2006 - New Blackfriars 87 (1012):617-630.
  2. Who Thought That Form in the Case of Angels, and That Form Plus a Certain Originating Quantity of Matter in the Case of Corporal Substances (Where 'Quantity of Matter'was Not Conceived of Haecceitistically) Was Sufficient for Individuation. See His On Being and Essence. 10 'Causal and Metaphysical Necessity,'. [REVIEW]Thomas Aquinas - 1998 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79:66.
  3. On Poincaré's “Mathematical Creation”.Lucien Arréat - 1910 - The Monist 20 (4):615-617.
  4. Review of Michael Potter, Set Theory and its Philosophy: A Critical Introduction[REVIEW]Timothy Bays - 2005 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (3).
  5. The Incredible Shrinking Manifold.John L. Bell - unknown
    Traditionally, there have been two methods of deriving the theorems of geometry: the analytic and the synthetic. While the analytical method is based on the introduction of numerical coordinates, and so on the theory of real numbers, the idea behind the synthetic approach is to furnish the subject of geometry with a purely geometric foundation in which the theorems are then deduced by purely logical means from an initial body of postulates. The most familiar examples of the synthetic geometry are (...)
  6. The Nature and Geometry of Space.C. N. Broad - 1916 - Mind 25:522.
  7. Multidimensionality and Nearest-Neighbor Searches-Approximation Techniques to Enable Dimensionality Reduction for Voronoi-Based Nearest Neighbor Search.Christoph Brochhaus, Marc Wichterich & Thomas Seidl - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 3896--204.
  8. Nature and Judgment.Justus Buchler - 1955 - University Press of America.
  9. Is There Any Room for Spatial Intuition in Riemann’s Philosophy of Geometry?Dinçer Çevik - 2015 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):81.
  10. Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism.Alberto Coffa - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
  11. Kant on Beauty and Cognition: The Aesthetic Dimension of Cognition.Alix Cohen - 2018 - In Otávio Bueno, George Darby, Steven French & Dean Rickles (eds.), Thinking about Science and Reflecting on Art: Bringing Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Science Together. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 140-154.
    Kant often seems to suggest that a cognition – whether an everyday cognition or a scientific cognition – cannot be beautiful. In the Critique of Judgment and the Lectures on Logic, he writes: ‘a science which, as such, is supposed to be beautiful, is absurd.’ (CJ 184 (5:305)) ‘The expression "beautiful cognition" is not fitting at all’ (LL 446 (24:708)). These claims are usually understood rather straightforwardly. On the one hand, cognition cannot be beautiful since on Kant’s account, it is (...)
  12. ARDLEY, G. -Aquinas and Kant. The Foundations of the Modern Sciences. [REVIEW]F. C. Copleston - 1951 - Mind 60:417.
  13. The Philosophy of Bernard Bolzano: Logic and Ontology.Raul Corazzon - unknown
    volumes of his work, in his discussions of what underlay a Wissenschaftslehre or theory of science in the sense of his conception; he did so with such purity and scientific strictness, and with such a rich store of original, scientifically confirmed and fruitful thoughts, that we must count him as one of the greatest logicians of all time. He must be placed historically in fairly close proximity to Leibniz, with whom he shares important thoughts and fundamental conceptions, and to whom (...)
  14. Poincaré on Mathematical Intuition. A Phenomenological Approach to Poincaré's Philosophy of Arithmetic.Jairo José Da Silva - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (2):87-99.
  15. The Pen and the Sword : Philosophy of Science in the Writing of Girard Thibault.Peregrine Dace - unknown
    This work is an investigation of the influence of academic philosophy on non-academics in the Early Modern period (the 16th and 17th centuries). The first chapter will use Craig’s Similarity Thesis to examine Early Modern philosophy in general, Philosophy of Science and Theology and how they interacted to elevate human reason to the level of divine certainty. The second chapter will draw on Dear’s description of the changing status of mathematics in academia in the Early Modern period. This second chapter (...)
  16. From Kant to Einstein.Hervey de Montmorency - 1926 - W. Heffer.
  17. Kant and the Exact SciencesMichael Friedman.Robert Disalle - 1994 - Isis 85 (1):159-160.
  18. The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.Hans Driesch - 1908 - American Mathematical Society.
  19. Synthetic History Reconsidered.Albert Einstein - 2010 - In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  20. The Idea of Cause.A. C. Ewing - 1929 - Philosophy 4 (16):453-.
    Some modern thinkers have supposed that “cause” is an outworn notion, or at least that it is one of which modern science has no need. This is due mainly to the discovery that, while the scientist can give us general laws as to what in fact happens, he cannot help us to discern the reason for the laws or the inward nature of the forces on which they depend. He can tell us the “that” but not the “why”; he cannot (...)
  21. The Geometry of the State Space.Hans R. Fischer & G. T. Rüttimann - 1978 - In A. R. Marlow (ed.), Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory. Academic Press. pp. 153--176.
  22. Response to Michael Friedman.Juliet Floyd - 2004 - In Schneewind J. (ed.), Teaching New Histories of Philosophy. pp. 225-234.
  23. In and On: Investigating the Functional Geometry of Spatial Prepositions.Simon Garrod, Gillian Ferrier & Siobhan Campbell - 1999 - Cognition 72 (2):167-189.
  24. Bolzano on Time in Bolzano-Studien.R. George - 1987 - Philosophia Naturalis 24 (4):452-468.
  25. Psychologism in Logic: Bacon to Bolzano.Rolf George - 1997 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 30 (3):213 - 242.
  26. Geometry and Space.H. V. Gill - 1933 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 8 (1):69-77.
  27. Ramsey, F., The Foundations of Mathematics.T. Greenwood - 1933 - Kant-Studien 38:279.
  28. Philosophy of Geometry From Riemann to Poincare.Nicholas Griffin & Roberto Torretti - 1978 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (125):374.
  29. Euclidean Nostalgia.J. Grünfeld - 1983 - International Logic Review 27:41-50.
  30. Bolzano's Criticism of Indirect Proofs /La Critique de Bolzano des Preuves Indirectes.Johannes Hafner - 1999 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 52 (3):385-398.
  31. The Psyche of Space and Intuition of Otherness.Wilson Harris - 1999 - Clr James Journal 7 (1):3-13.
  32. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Weierstrassian Mathematics.Thomas Hawkins - 1983 - In Joseph Warren Dauben & Virginia Staudt Sexton (eds.), History and Philosophy of Science: Selected Papers. New York Academy of Sciences.
  33. The Foundations of Geometry and the Concept of Motion: Helmholtz and Poincaré.Gerhard Heinzmann - 2001 - Science in Context 14 (3).
  34. Intuition and Reasoning in Geometry.Otto Hölder - 2013 - Philosophia Scientae 17:15-52.
  35. Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis Lectures on Transcental Logic.Edmund Husserl - 2001
  36. Helmholtz's Naturalized Conception of Geometry and His Spatial Theory of Signs.David Hyder - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):286.
    I analyze the two main theses of Helmholtz's "The Applicability of the Axioms to the Physical World," in which he argued that the axioms of Euclidean geometry are not, as his neo-Kantian opponents had argued, binding on any experience of the external world. This required two argumentative steps: 1) a new account of the structure of our representations which was consistent both with the experience of our (for him) Euclidean world and with experience of a non-Euclidean one, and 2) a (...)
  37. Epitome of the Synthetic Philosophy.No Authorship Indicated - 1895 - Psychological Review 2 (2):190-190.
  38. Reinach and Bolzano.Kimberly Jaray - 2006 - Symposium 10 (2):473-491.
  39. Analytic and Synthetic Method and the Structure of Kant's Grounding.Darrell Johnson - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 2:613-620.
  40. Analytic and Synthetic Moral Judgments.Jack Kaminsky - 1949 - Journal of Philosophy 46 (22):693-702.
  41. Reinvigorating Culture.Russell Kirk - 1994 - Humanitas 7 (1):27-42.
  42. L' « a Priori » Dans la Science.W. M. Kozlowski - 1906 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 62:400 - 411.
  43. The Analytic Logic of G. W. Leibniz and Chr. Wolff: A Problem in Kant Research.Winfried Lenders - 1971 - Synthese 23 (1):147 - 153.
  44. On Physiological, as Distinguished From Geometrical, Space.Ernst Mach - 1901 - The Monist 11 (3):321-338.
  45. History and Philosophy of Science: A Marriage of Convenience?Ernan McMullin - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:585 - 601.
  46. Geometry and Chronometry in Philosophical Perspective.Jacques Merleau-Ponty - 1970 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 160 (4):471 - 475.
  47. From Kantian-Reinen Vernunft to the Real Dark Energy Density of the Cosmos Via the Measure Concentration of Convex Geometry in Quasi Banach Spacetime.Mohamed S. El Naschie - 2015 - Open Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):123-130.
  48. How Euclidean Geometry has Misled Metaphysics.Graham Nerlich - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (4):169-189.
  49. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Law.David Simon Oderberg - unknown
  50. On Formal, Transcendental, and Dialectical Logic.N. Patrick Peritore - 1977 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 4 (3):217-238.
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