About this topic
Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins & Stan 2014. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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  1. Metaphysical Foundations for Natural Law.Owen Anderson - 2006 - New Blackfriars 87 (1012):617-630.
  2. Who Thought That Form in the Case of Angels, and That Form Plus a Certain Originating Quantity of Matter in the Case of Corporal Substances (Where 'Quantity of Matter'was Not Conceived of Haecceitistically) Was Sufficient for Individuation. See His On Being and Essence. 10 'Causal and Metaphysical Necessity,'. [REVIEW]Thomas Aquinas - 1998 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79:66.
  3. Aquinas and Kant the Foundations of the Modern Sciences.Gavin W. R. Ardley - 1950 - Longmans, Green.
  4. On Poincaré's “Mathematical Creation”.Lucien Arréat - 1910 - The Monist 20 (4):615-617.
  5. Review of Michael Potter, Set Theory and its Philosophy: A Critical Introduction[REVIEW]Timothy Bays - 2005 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (3).
  6. Steve Russ. The Mathematical Works of Bernard Bolzano. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Pp. XXX + 698. Isbn 0-19-853930-. [REVIEW]Ali Behboud - 2006 - Philosophia Mathematica 14 (3):352-362.
    In his book on The Mathematics of Great Amateurs Coolidge starts the chapter on Bolzano saying that he included Bolzano because it seemed interesting to him ‘that a man who was a remarkable pulpit orator, only removed from his chair for his political opinions, should have thought so far into the deepest problems of a science which he never taught in a professional capacity’ [Coolidge, 1990, p. 195]. In fact, considering Bolzano's poor health and his enormous productivity in his ‘professional (...)
  7. Remarks on Bolzano's Collections.Ali Behboud - 1997 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:109-115.
  8. The Incredible Shrinking Manifold.John L. Bell - unknown
    Traditionally, there have been two methods of deriving the theorems of geometry: the analytic and the synthetic. While the analytical method is based on the introduction of numerical coordinates, and so on the theory of real numbers, the idea behind the synthetic approach is to furnish the subject of geometry with a purely geometric foundation in which the theorems are then deduced by purely logical means from an initial body of postulates. The most familiar examples of the synthetic geometry are (...)
  9. Husserl and Bolzano.Joeelyn Benoist - 2002 - Analecta Husserliana 80:98-99.
  10. Kant's Conception of Proper Science.Berg H. Van den - unknown
  11. Bolzano and Situation Semantics: Variations on a Theme of Variation in Bolzano-Studien.J. Berg - 1987 - Philosophia Naturalis 24 (4):373-377.
  12. Bolzano on Induction in Bolzano-Studien.J. Berg - 1987 - Philosophia Naturalis 24 (4):442-446.
  13. Jennifer Mensch, Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy.Jonathan H. Berk - 2013 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 34 (2):487-491.
  14. Selected Writings on Ethics and Politics.Bernard Bolzano (ed.) - 2007 - Rodopi.
    Celebrated today for his groundbreaking work in logic and the foundations of mathematics, Bernard Bolzano was best known in his own time as a leader of the reform movement in his homeland . As professor of religious science at the Charles University in Prague from 1805 to 1819, Bolzano was a highly visible public intellectual, a courageous and determined critic of abuses in Church and State. Based in large part on a carefully argued utilitarian practical philosophy, he developed a non-violent (...)
  15. Émilie Du Châtelet and the Foundations of Physical Science.Katherine Brading - unknown
    Du Châtelet’s 1740 text Foundations of Physics tackles three of the major foundational issues facing natural philosophy in the early eighteenth century: the problem of bodies, the problem of force, and the question of appropriate methodology. This paper offers an introduction to Du Châtelet’s philosophy of science, as expressed in her Foundations of Physics, primarily through the lens of the problem of bodies.
  16. Questions of Form: Logic and Analytic Proposition From Kant to Carnap.Anastasios Albert Brenner (ed.) - 1989 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    _Questions of Form _was first published in 1989. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. In _Questions on Form_, Joelle Proust traces the concept of the analytic proposition from Kant's development of the notion down to its place in the work of Rudolf Carnap, a founder of logical empiricism and a key figure in contemporary analytic philosophy. Using a method known in France (...)
  17. The Nature and Geometry of Space.C. N. Broad - 1916 - Mind 25:522.
  18. Multidimensionality and Nearest-Neighbor Searches-Approximation Techniques to Enable Dimensionality Reduction for Voronoi-Based Nearest Neighbor Search.Christoph Brochhaus, Marc Wichterich & Thomas Seidl - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 3896--204.
  19. Nature and Judgment.Justus Buchler - 1955 - University Press of America.
  20. Kant's Philosophy of Physical Science: Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, 1786-1986Robert E. Butts.Ronald Calinger - 1989 - Isis 80 (4):708-709.
  21. Michael Friedman and Alfred Nordmann , The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 2006. Pp. Iv+370. ISBN 0-262-06254-2. £29.95. [REVIEW]Kenneth L. Caneva - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Science 41 (2).
  22. BUTTS, ROBERT E. [1984]: Kant and the Double Government Methodology. D. Reidel. Pp. Xvi+339. (Hardback 20.25) (ISBN 90-277-1760-5). [REVIEW]M. Capozzi - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (3):371-375.
  23. Is There Any Room for Spatial Intuition in Riemann’s Philosophy of Geometry?Dinçer Çevik - 2015 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):81.
  24. Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism.Alberto Coffa - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
  25. The Philosophy of Bernard Bolzano: Logic and Ontology.Raul Corazzon - unknown
    volumes of his work, in his discussions of what underlay a Wissenschaftslehre or theory of science in the sense of his conception; he did so with such purity and scientific strictness, and with such a rich store of original, scientifically confirmed and fruitful thoughts, that we must count him as one of the greatest logicians of all time. He must be placed historically in fairly close proximity to Leibniz, with whom he shares important thoughts and fundamental conceptions, and to whom (...)
  26. Poincaré on Mathematical Intuition. A Phenomenological Approach to Poincaré's Philosophy of Arithmetic.Jairo José Da Silva - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (2):87-99.
  27. The Pen and the Sword : Philosophy of Science in the Writing of Girard Thibault.Peregrine Dace - unknown
    This work is an investigation of the influence of academic philosophy on non-academics in the Early Modern period (the 16th and 17th centuries). The first chapter will use Craig’s Similarity Thesis to examine Early Modern philosophy in general, Philosophy of Science and Theology and how they interacted to elevate human reason to the level of divine certainty. The second chapter will draw on Dear’s description of the changing status of mathematics in academia in the Early Modern period. This second chapter (...)
  28. From Kant to Einstein.Hervey de Montmorency - 1926 - W. Heffer.
  29. Kant and the Exact SciencesMichael Friedman.Robert Disalle - 1994 - Isis 85 (1):159-160.
  30. The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.Hans Driesch - 1908 - American Mathematical Society.
  31. Synthetic History Reconsidered.Albert Einstein - 2010 - In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  32. The Idea of Cause.A. C. Ewing - 1929 - Philosophy 4 (16):453-.
    Some modern thinkers have supposed that “cause” is an outworn notion, or at least that it is one of which modern science has no need. This is due mainly to the discovery that, while the scientist can give us general laws as to what in fact happens, he cannot help us to discern the reason for the laws or the inward nature of the forces on which they depend. He can tell us the “that” but not the “why”; he cannot (...)
  33. The Geometry of the State Space.Hans R. Fischer & G. T. Rüttimann - 1978 - In A. R. Marlow (ed.), Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory. Academic Press. pp. 153--176.
  34. Response to Michael Friedman.Juliet Floyd - 2004 - In Schneewind J. (ed.), Teaching New Histories of Philosophy. pp. 225-234.
  35. Synthetic History Reconsidered.Michael Friedman - 2010 - In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
  36. Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.Michael Friedman (ed.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a translation by Michael Friedman which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main connections between the argument of the Metaphysical (...)
  37. I–Michael Friedman.Michael Friedman - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):111-129.
  38. Kant on Laws of Nature and the Foundations of Newtonian Science.Michael Friedman - 1989 - Proceedings of the Sixth International Kant Congress 2 (2):97-107.
  39. Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.) - 2010 - Open Court.
    Addressing a wide range of topics, from Newton to Post-Kuhnian philosophy of science, these essays critically examine themes that have been central to the influential work of philosopher Michael Friedman.
  40. In and On: Investigating the Functional Geometry of Spatial Prepositions.Simon Garrod, Gillian Ferrier & Siobhan Campbell - 1999 - Cognition 72 (2):167-189.
  41. Bolzano on Time in Bolzano-Studien.R. George - 1987 - Philosophia Naturalis 24 (4):452-468.
  42. Psychologism in Logic: Bacon to Bolzano.Rolf George - 1997 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 30 (3):213 - 242.
  43. Theory of Science.Rolf George & Paul Rusnock (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This edition provides the first complete English translation of Bernard Bolzano's four-volume Wissenschaftslehre or Theory of Science, a masterwork of theoretical philosophy. First published in 1837, the Wissenschaftslehre is a monumental, wholly original study in logic, epistemology, heuristics, and scientific methodology. Unlike most logical studies of the period, it is not concerned with the "psychological self-consciousness of the thinking mind." Instead, it develops logic as the science of "propositions in themselves" and their parts, especially the relations between these entities. It (...)
  44. Geometry and Space.H. V. Gill - 1933 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):69-77.
  45. R. Lanier Anderson, The Poverty of Conceptual Truth: Kant’s Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics New York: Oxford University Press, 2015 Pp. 384 ISBN 9780198724575 £50.00. [REVIEW]Nathaniel Goldberg - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (1):146-151.
  46. Ramsey, F., The Foundations of Mathematics.T. Greenwood - 1933 - Kant-Studien 38:279.
  47. Philosophy of Geometry From Riemann to Poincare.Nicholas Griffin & Roberto Torretti - 1978 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (125):374.
  48. Euclidean Nostalgia.J. Grünfeld - 1983 - International Logic Review 27:41-50.
  49. Bolzano's Criticism of Indirect Proofs/La Critique de Bolzano des Preuves Indirectes.Johannes Hafner - 1999 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 52 (3):385-398.
  50. Kant, Riemann, and Reichenbach on Space and Geometry.William L. Harper - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 1:423-454.
    Classic examples of ostensive geometrical constructions are used to clarify Kant’s account of how they provide knowledge of claims about rigid bodies we can observe and manipulate. It is argued that on Kant’s account claims warranted by ostensive constructions must be limited to scales and tolerances corresponding to our perceptual competencies. This limitation opens the way to view Riemann’s work as contributing valuable conceptual resources for extending geometrical knowledge beyond the bounds of observation. It is argued that neither Reichenbach’s descriptions (...)
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