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Summary Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy constitutes a philosophical system, a theory about the conditions for objective knowledge. Kant's approach to theoretical philosophy, in his pre-Critical and Critical works, is influenced heavily by his engagement with science, with mathematics, and with logic. Kant's views on these subjects have been widely influential, though they have been criticized widely as well. Appreciation of Kant's work in science, mathematics, and logic is philosophically productive at least two ways: (1) A contextual history of Kant's own work, emphasizing his responses to his predecessors and contemporaries, and (2) A systematic understanding of how the Kantian approach has been employed in these fields.
Key works One locus classicus for Kant's epistemological positions on reason, mathematics,  judgment, and objectivity is The Critique of Pure Reason. A recent translation and edition of Kant's work on science, including the Universal Natural History, can be found in Natural Science. Among the most significant of Kant's texts for his philosophy of science specifically are The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. This category also encompasses elements of Kant's theory of judgment, key texts for which include The Critique of Judgment and Lectures on Logic.
Introductions A general introduction to Kant's philosophy of science, with references to other texts, is found at Watkins & Stan 2014. A similar article for Kant's theory of judgment is Hanna 2008.
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  1. Robert Adamson (1883). Kant's View of Mathematical Premisses and Reasonings. Mind 31:424-425.
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  2. Owen Anderson (2006). Metaphysical Foundations for Natural Law. New Blackfriars 87 (1012):617-630.
  3. Gavin W. R. Ardley (1950). Aquinas and Kant the Foundations of the Modern Sciences. Longmans, Green.
  4. Jonathan H. Berk (2013). Jennifer Mensch, Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 34 (2):487-491.
  5. Katherine Brading, Émilie Du Châtelet and the Foundations of Physical Science.
    Du Châtelet’s 1740 text Foundations of Physics tackles three of the major foundational issues facing natural philosophy in the early eighteenth century: the problem of bodies, the problem of force, and the question of appropriate methodology. This paper offers an introduction to Du Châtelet’s philosophy of science, as expressed in her Foundations of Physics, primarily through the lens of the problem of bodies.
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  6. Anastasios Albert Brenner (ed.) (1989). Questions of Form: Logic and Analytic Proposition From Kant to Carnap. Univ of Minnesota Press.
    _Questions of Form _was first published in 1989. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. In _Questions on Form_, Joelle Proust traces the concept of the analytic proposition from Kant's development of the notion down to its place in the work of Rudolf Carnap, a founder of logical empiricism and a key figure in contemporary analytic philosophy. Using a method known in France (...)
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  7. Ronald Calinger (1989). Kant's Philosophy of Physical Science: Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, 1786-1986Robert E. Butts. Isis 80 (4):708-709.
  8. Kenneth L. Caneva (2008). Michael Friedman and Alfred Nordmann , The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 2006. Pp. Iv+370. ISBN 0-262-06254-2. £29.95. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 41 (2).
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  9. Dinçer Çevik (2015). Is There Any Room for Spatial Intuition in Riemann’s Philosophy of Geometry? Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):81.
  10. Alberto Coffa (1982). Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism. Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
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  11. Hervey de Montmorency (1926). From Kant to Einstein. W. Heffer.
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  12. Robert Disalle (1994). Kant and the Exact SciencesMichael Friedman. Isis 85 (1):159-160.
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  13. Michael Friedman (ed.) (2004). Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a translation by Michael Friedman which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main connections between the argument of the Metaphysical (...)
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  14. Michael Friedman (1998). I–Michael Friedman. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):111-129.
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  15. Rolf George & Paul Rusnock (eds.) (2014). Theory of Science. Oxford University Press UK.
    This edition provides the first complete English translation of Bernard Bolzano's four-volume Wissenschaftslehre or Theory of Science, a masterwork of theoretical philosophy. First published in 1837, the Wissenschaftslehre is a monumental, wholly original study in logic, epistemology, heuristics, and scientific methodology. Unlike most logical studies of the period, it is not concerned with the "psychological self-consciousness of the thinking mind." Instead, it develops logic as the science of "propositions in themselves" and their parts, especially the relations between these entities. It (...)
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  16. Nathaniel Goldberg (2016). R. Lanier Anderson, The Poverty of Conceptual Truth: Kant’s Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics New York: Oxford University Press, 2015 Pp. 384 ISBN 9780198724575 £50.00. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 21 (1):146-151.
  17. Wilson Harris (1999). The Psyche of Space and Intuition of Otherness. Clr James Journal 7 (1):3-13.
  18. Otto Hölder (2013). Intuition and Reasoning in Geometry. Philosophia Scientae 17:15-52.
  19. Philippe Huneman (2007). Michael Friedman;Alfred Nordmann.The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth‐Century Science.370 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006. $45. [REVIEW] Isis 98 (3):646-647.
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  20. David Hyder (2014). Michael Friedman.Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of theMetaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Xix + 646 Pp., Bibl., Index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. $110. [REVIEW] Isis 105 (2):433-435.
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  21. No Authorship Indicated (1895). Epitome of the Synthetic Philosophy. Psychological Review 2 (2):190-190.
  22. Paisley Livingston (2015). Bernard Bolzano: On the Concept of the Beautiful - A Philosophical Essay. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 52 (2):203-266.
    An intorduction to an English translation of Bernad Bolzano´s On the Concept of the Beautiful. A neglected gem in the history of aesthetics, Bolzano’s essay on beauty is best understood when read alongside his other writings and philosophical sources. This introduction is designed to contribute to such a reading. In Part I, I identify and discuss three salient ways in which Bolzano’s account can be misunderstood. As a lack of familiarity with Bolzano’s background assumptions is one source of these misunderstandings, (...)
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  23. Michela Massimi (2009). Philosophy and the Sciences After Kant. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 65:275-311.
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  24. Peter McLaughlin (2016). Kant’s Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. In Sally Sedgwick & Dina Emundts (eds.), Bewusstsein/Consciousness. De Gruyter. pp. 286-290.
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  25. Michael McNulty, The Geometry of Intuitions: Reconsidering Kantian Constructivism.
    The role of visual methods in geometry is puzzling. Though diagrams can make a geometric theorem immediately evident, current rules of proper inference suggest that diagrams are mere heuristics-simply aiding in the psychological digestibility of a proof. Securing a justificatory role for visual methods involves describing how inference from a diagram guarantees the universality and the a:priority of a geometric theorem. Such an analysis is provided in Kant's synthetic a priori account of geometry. In this paper, Kant's theory is explicated (...)
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  26. Larry W. Miller (1975). Kant’s Philosophy of Mathematics. Kant-Studien 66 (1-4).
  27. David Simon Oderberg, The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Law.
  28. Pasternack (2014). Kant on Opinion: Assent, Hypothesis, and the Norms of General Applied Logic. Kant-Studien 105 (1).
  29. Paolo Pecere (2016). Monadology, Materialism and Newtonian Forces: The Turn in Kant’s Theory of Matter. Quaestio 16:167-189.
    Kant elaborated his dynamical theory of matter in two quite different systematic accounts, the first in the Monadologia physica, the second in the Dynamics chapter of the Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft. In this paper I investigate the transition from the monadological to the “continuum” dynamical theory of matter, whose exact timing and motives are not explicitly clarified in Kant’s writings. I locate Kant’s turn around the middle 1760s, presenting Kant’s abandonment of his own physical monadology as a way out of (...)
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  30. Michael Potter (2002). Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic From Kant to Carnap. Oxford University Press UK.
    'This is an excellent book: informative, suggestive, and a genuine pleasure to read.' -William Demopoulos, British Journal for the Philosophy of ScienceReason's Nearest Kin is a critical examination of the most exciting period there has been in the philosophical study of the properties of the natural numbers, from the 1880s to the 1930s. Reassessing the brilliant innovations of Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, and others, which transformed philosophy as well as our understanding of mathematics, Michael Potter places arithmetic at the interface between (...)
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  31. Robert J. Richards (2000). Kant and Blumenbach on the Bildungstrieb: A Historical Misunderstanding. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (1):11-32.
  32. Lisa Shabel (2011). Mathematics in Kant's Critical Philosophy: Reflections on Mathematical Practice. Routledge.
    This book provides a reading of Kant's theory of the construction of mathematical concepts through a fully contextualised analysis. In this work the author argues that it is only through an understanding of the relevant eighteenth century mathematics textbooks, and the related mathematical practice, that the material and context necessary for a successful interpretation of Kant's philosophy can be provided.
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  33. H. Sidgwick (1883). Kant's Theory of Mathematics. Mind 32:577-578.
  34. Lawrence Sklar & Adolf Grunbaum (1972). Geometry and Chronometry in Philosophical Perspective. Philosophical Review 81 (4):506.
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  35. H. R. Smart & Edwin Arthur Burtt (1926). The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science. Philosophical Review 35 (6):589.
  36. J. J. C. Smart (1963). Bolzano's Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 60 (19):562-564.
  37. Marius Stan (2009). Kant’s Early Theory of Motion. Leibniz Society Review 19:29-61.
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  38. Nicholas F. Stang (forthcoming). The Poverty of Conceptual Truth: Kant's Analytic/Synthetic Distinction and the Limits of Metaphysics, by R. Lanier Anderson. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-3.
  39. Peter Suber, Geometry and Arithmetic Are Synthetic.
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  40. Sarah Tietz, Kant on Concepts: Or, Was Kant Frege?
  41. Mary Tiles (2001). Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic From Kant to CarnapMichael Potter. Isis 92 (2):439-440.
  42. Catherine Wilson (1990). IV. Metaphysical Foundations for Natural Science. In Leibniz's Metaphysics: A Historical and Comparative Study. Princeton University Press. pp. 121-157.
  43. J. Michael Young (ed.) (2004). Lectures on Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's views on logic and logical theory play an important part in his critical writings, especially the Critique of Pure Reason. However, since he published only one short essay on the subject, we must turn to texts derived from his logic lectures to understand his views. This volume includes three previously untranslated transcripts of Kant's logic lectures: the Blomberg Logic, the Vienna Logic supplemented by the recently discovered Hechsel Logic, and the Dohna-Wundlacken Logic. Also included is a new translation of (...)
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  44. John H. Zammito (2012). The Lenoir Thesis Revisited: Blumenbach and Kant. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):120-132.
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Kant: Philosophy of Science
  1. Erich Adickes (1922). Zur Lehre von der Wärme von Fr. Bacon bis Kant. Kant-Studien 27 (1-2):328-368.
  2. Erich Adickes (1897). Die bewegenden Kräfte in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung und die beiden Pole seines Systems. Zweiter Artikel. Kant-Studien 1 (1-3):161-196.
  3. Karl Ameriks (2001). Kant on Science and Common Knowledge. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 31--52.
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  4. Abraham Anderson (1994). Metaphysics and Methods in Descartes and Kant. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174).
    This essay is a review of Daniel Garber's "Descartes' Metaphysical Physics" (Chicago U P 1992) and Michael Friedman's "Kant and the Exact Sciences" (Harvard U P 1992). Garber's study of Descartes is scrupulous but his historicist assumptions result in a failure to grasp Descartes' originality or the unity and power of his thought. Friedman, by taking Kant's conception of science seriously, sheds great light on Kant's thought generally and implicitly raises important philosophical problems for the present day.
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  5. Erik Anderson (1994). Kant, Natural Kind Terms, and Scientific Essentialism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (4):355 - 373.
  6. Nikolaos Avgelis (1991). Die Duhem-Quine-These unter dem Geltungsaspekt der erkenntnistheoretischen Fragestellung Kants. Kant-Studien 82 (3):285-302.
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