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  1. Signaling Systems and the Transcendental Deduction.A. Ahmed - forthcoming - In T. Goldschmidt K. Pearce (ed.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics.
    The paper offers a model of Kant's claim that unity of consciousness entails objectivity of experience. This claim has nothing especially to do with thought, language or the categories but is a general truth about arbitrary signaling systems of the sort modeled in the paper. In conclusion I draw some consequences for various forms of idealism.
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  2. Gestalten der transzendentalen Einheit. Bedingungen der Synthesis bei Kant. [REVIEW]Anselmo Aportone - 2009 - Walter de Gruyter.
    The author explores the differing forms of unity in the transcendental conditions for the synthesis of experience.
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  3. Kant and the Understanding's Role in Imaginative Synthesis.Patrick E. Arens - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1).
  4. Review: Wolff, Kant's Theory of Mental Activity: A Commentary on the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason. [REVIEW]R. J. B. - 1964 - Review of Metaphysics 17 (3):484-484.
  5. A Peculiar Intuition: Kant's Conceptualist Account of Perception.Nathan Bauer - 2012 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 55 (3):215-237.
    Abstract Both parties in the active philosophical debate concerning the conceptual character of perception trace their roots back to Kant's account of sensible intuition in the Critique of Pure Reason. This striking fact can be attributed to Kant's tendency both to assert and to deny the involvement of our conceptual capacities in sensible intuition. He appears to waver between these two positions in different passages, and can thus seem thoroughly confused on this issue. But this is not, in fact, the (...)
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  6. Kant's Subjective Deduction.Nathan Bauer - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 18 (3):433-460.
    In the transcendental deduction, the central argument of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant seeks to secure the objective validity of our basic categories of thought. He distinguishes objective and subjective sides of this argument. The latter side, the subjective deduction, is normally understood as an investigation of our cognitive faculties. It is identified with Kant’s account of a threefold synthesis involved in our cognition of objects of experience, and it is said to precede and ground Kant’s proof of the (...)
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  7. Kant and Strawson on Transcendental Synthesis.J. I. Biro - 1979 - New Scholasticism 53 (4):486-501.
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  8. Kant's Concepts of Synthesis and Analysis.Zhi-Yuan Chen - 2005 - Modern Philosophy 1 (3):111-120.
    How synthetic a priori judgments possible problem is that Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason," the basic problem. Possibility of a priori truth is the problem, and integrated synthetic a priori judgments is to answer the key question of truth. This comprehensive concept of Kant's four-fold meaning of the study, which is a comprehensive concept of logic, epistemology, the concept of an integrated, comprehensive concept of methodology, the comprehensive concept of ontology. In this paper, the analysis related to the concept of (...)
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  9. La Synthèse mentale.G. Dwelshauvers - 1909 - Kant-Studien 14 (1-3):86-88.
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  10. "Vermögen" e "Kraft": Una rilettura del concetto di "sintesi" nella Critica della ragion pura di Kant.Giann Gigliotti - 1995 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 50 (2):255-275.
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  11. The Crisis of Syntheticity: The Kant-Eberhard Controversy.Moltke S. Gram - 1980 - Kant-Studien 71 (1-4):155-180.
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  12. Kant on Apperception and "A Priori" Synthesis.Paul Guyer - 1980 - American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (3):205-212.
  13. Aspekte der Schelerschen Personlehre.Erwin Hufnagel - 1974 - Kant-Studien 65 (1-4):436-456.
  14. Self-Affection and Pure Intuition in Kant.Jonas Jervell Indregard - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (4):627-643.
    Are the pure intuitions of space and time, for Kant, dependent upon the understanding's activity? This paper defends the recently popular Self-Affection Thesis : namely, that the pure intuitions require an activity of self-affection—an influence of the understanding on the inner sense. Two systematic objections to this thesis have been raised: The Independence objection claims that SAT undermines the independence of sensibility; the Compatibility objection claims that certain features of space and time are incompatible with being the products of the (...)
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  15. Sensations as Representations in Kant.Tim Jankowiak - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (3):492-513.
    This paper defends an interpretation of the representational function of sensation in Kant's theory of empirical cognition. Against those who argue that sensations are ?subjective representations? and hence can only represent the sensory state of the subject, I argue that Kant appeals to different notions of subjectivity, and that the subjectivity of sensations is consistent with sensations representing external, spatial objects. Against those who claim that sensations cannot be representational at all, because sensations are not cognitively sophisticated enough to possess (...)
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  16. Poetique de L'Ipse: Etude Sur le Je Pense Kantien.Paulo Jesus - 2008 - Lang.
  17. Kant's Thinker.Patricia Kitcher - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Overview -- Locke's internal sense and Kant's changing views -- Personal identity amd its problems -- Rationalist metaphysics of mind -- Consciousness, self-consciousness, and cognition -- Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachlass -- A transcendental deduction for a priori concepts -- Synthesis : why and how? -- Arguing for apperception -- The power of apperception -- "I-think" as the destroyer of rational psychology -- Is Kant's theory consistent? -- The normativity objection -- Is Kant's thinker (as such) a free (...)
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  18. Kantian Conceptualism.Thomas Land - 2011 - In Guenther Abel & James Conant (eds.), Rethinking Epistemology. De Gruyter. pp. 1--197.
    In the recent debate between conceptualists and nonconceptualists about perceptual content, Kant’s notion of intuition has been invoked on both sides. Conceptualists claim Kant as a forerunner of their position, arguing that Kantian intuitions have the same kind of content as conceptual thought. On the other hand, nonconceptualists claim Kant as a forerunner of their own position, contending that Kantian intuitions have a distinctly nonconceptual kind of content. In this paper, I argue first, that both sides are wrong about Kant, (...)
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  19. Kant and After Kant.Alfred H. Lloyd - 1915 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 12 (14):373-381.
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  20. Wahrnehmung als Zusammenspiel von Schematisierung und figürlicher Synthesis: Überlegungen zur Leistung der Einbildungskraft bei Kant.D. Lohmar - 1993 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 55 (1):100 - 129.
    According to Kant the figurative synthesis and the schemata are both serving the mediation of intuition and concept. In this article, I investigate their respective functions and the special manner of their cooperation in the process of knowledge. Kant prefers geometrical concepts as examples for schemata. The schema of a triangle is a rule to construct it, that is a rule which is able to produce an image. The representation of a triangle requires a construction, which is an action of (...)
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  21. Synthesis, Logical Forms, and the Objects of Our Ordinary Experience Response to Michael Friedman.Béatrice Longuenesse - 2001 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83 (2):199-212.
    In the 82/2 (2000) issue of this journal, Michael Friedman has offered a stimulating discussion of my recent book, Kant and the Capacity to Judge. His conclusion is that on the whole I fail to do justice to what is most revolutionary about Kant's natural philosophy, and instead end up attributing to Kant a pre-Newtonian, Aristotelian philosophy of nature. This is because, according to Friedman, I put excessive weight on Kant's claim to have derived his categories from a set of (...)
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  22. Die Funktionssynthese.Arthur Lünemann - 1930 - Kant-Studien 35 (1-4):240-251.
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  23. Kant's Theory of the Imagination.Samantha Matherne - 2016 - In Amy Kind (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Imagination. London: Routledge. pp. 55-68.
  24. Images and Kant’s Theory of Perception.Samantha Matherne - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    My aim in this paper is to offer a systematic analysis of a feature of Kant’s theory of perception that tends to be overlooked, viz., his account of how the imagination forms images in perception. Although Kant emphasizes the centrality of this feature of perception, indeed, calling it a ‘necessary ingredient’ of perception, commentators have instead focused primarily on his account of sensibility and intuitions on the one hand, and understanding and concepts on the other. However, I show that careful (...)
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  25. Animals and Objectivity.Colin McLear - forthcoming - In Lucy Allais & John Callanan (eds.), Kant on Animals. Oxford University Press.
    Starting from the assumption that Kant allows for the possible existence of conscious sensory states in non-rational animals, I examine the textual and philosophical grounds for his acceptance of the possibility that such states are also 'objective'. I elucidate different senses of what might be meant in crediting a cognitive state as objective. I then put forward and defend an interpretation according to which the cognitive states of animals, though extremely limited on Kant's view, are nevertheless minimally objective.
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  26. Getting Acquainted with Kant.Colin McLear - 2016 - In Dennis Schulting (ed.), Kantian Nonconceptualism. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 171-97.
    My question here concerns whether Kant claims that experience has nonconceptual content, or whether, on his view, experience is essentially conceptual. However there is a sense in which this debate concerning the content of intuition is ill-conceived. Part of this has to do with the terms in which the debate is set, and part to do with confusion over the connection between Kant’s own views and contemporary concerns in epistemology and the philosophy of mind. However, I think much of the (...)
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  27. Two Kinds of Unity in the Critique of Pure Reason.Colin McLear - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (1):79-110.
    I argue that Kant’s distinction between the cognitive roles of sensibility and understanding raises a question concerning the conditions necessary for objective representation. I distinguish two opposing interpretive positions—viz. Intellectualism and Sensibilism. According to Intellectualism all objective representation depends, at least in part, on the unifying synthetic activity of the mind. In contrast, Sensibilism argues that at least some forms of objective representation, specifically intuitions, do not require synthesis. I argue that there are deep reasons for thinking that Intellectualism is (...)
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  28. Comments on Stefanie Grüne's Blinde Anschauung.Colin McLear - 2014 - Virtual Critique.
  29. The Kantian (Non)‐Conceptualism Debate.Colin McLear - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (11):769-790.
    One of the central debates in contemporary Kant scholarship concerns whether Kant endorses a “conceptualist” account of the nature of sensory experience. Understanding the debate is crucial for getting a full grasp of Kant's theory of mind, cognition, perception, and epistemology. This paper situates the debate in the context of Kant's broader theory of cognition and surveys some of the major arguments for conceptualist and non-conceptualist interpretations of his critical philosophy.
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  30. Attention and Synthesis in Kant's Conception of Experience.Merritt Melissa & Markos Valaris - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (268):571-592.
    In an intriguing but neglected passage in the Transcendental Deduction, Kant appears to link the synthetic activity of the understanding in experience with the phenomenon of attention (B156-7n). In this paper, we take up this hint, and draw upon Kant's remarks about attention in the Anthropology to shed light on the vexed question of what, exactly, the understanding's role in experience is for Kant. We argue that reading Kant's claims about synthesis in this light allows us to combine two aspects (...)
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  31. Kant on Truth.Jennifer Mensch - 2004 - Idealistic Studies 34 (2):163-172.
    This essay discusses Kant’s account of truth, arguing that he offers us a weak coherence theory: weak for his insistence on an independent, sensuous content for intuition, coherentist for the transcendental apparatus supporting experience. While Kant is free to use the language of correspondence within experience, “empirical truth” will always be limited by the formative requirements set by “transcendental truth.” The difficulty, for Kant, is the role played by sensuous content since the sameness of this content in intersubjective experience seems (...)
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  32. Kant's Argument for the Apperception Principle.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2011 - European Journal of Philosophy 19 (1):59-84.
    Abstract: My aim is to reconstruct Kant's argument for the principle of the synthetic unity of apperception. I reconstruct Kant's argument in stages, first showing why thinking should be conceived as an activity of synthesis (as opposed to attention), and then showing why the unity or coherence of a subject's representations should depend upon an a priori synthesis. The guiding thread of my account is Kant's conception of enlightenment: as I suggest, the philosophy of mind advanced in the Deduction belongs (...)
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  33. Why Did Kant Write Two Versions of the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories?Michel Meyer - 1981 - Synthese 47 (3):357 - 383.
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  34. The Unity of Time and Space, and Its Role In Kant’s Doctrine of Apriori Synthesis.Michael D. Newman - 1981 - Idealistic Studies 11 (2):109-124.
  35. Definitions of Kant's Categories.Tyke Nunez - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (5-6):631-657.
    The consensus view in the literature is that, according to Kant, definitions in philosophy are impossible. While this is true prior to the advent of transcendental philosophy, I argue that with Kant's Copernican Turn definitions of some philosophical concepts, the categories, become possible. Along the way I discuss issues like why Kant introduces the ‘Analytic of Concepts’ as an analysis of the understanding, how this faculty, as the faculty for judging, provides the principle for the complete exhibition of the categories, (...)
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  36. Synthesis and Transcendental Idealism.H. J. Paton - forthcoming - Kant-Studien.
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  37. Review: Hoppe, Synthesis Bei Kant[REVIEW]Robert B. Pippin - 1985 - Review of Metaphysics 39 (1):158-160.
  38. Concept Formation, Synthesis and Judgment.Ulrich Schlösser - 2013 - In Dina Emundts (ed.), Self, World and Art: Metaphysical Topics in Kant and Hegel. de Gruyter. pp. 177-205.
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  39. Kant's Deduction From Apperception. An Essay on the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories.Dennis Schulting - forthcoming - Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    This book offers a thoroughgoing, analytic account of the first half of the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories in the B-edition of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason that is different from existing interpretations in at least one important aspect: its central claim is that each of the 12 categories is wholly derivable from the principle of apperception, which goes against the current view that the Deduction is not a proof in a strict philosophical sense and the standard reading that in (...)
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  40. Figurative Synthesis, Spatial Unity and the Possibility of Perceptual Knowledge.Dennis Schulting - 2017 - In Kant's Radical Subjectivism. Perspectives on the Transcendental Deduction. London, UK: Palgrave. pp. 295-337.
    Besides addressing structural and methodical issues relating to the so-called ‘second step’ of the B-Deduction, this paper expands on the theme of synthesis and addresses Kant’s argument in that second step about how figurative synthesis (synthesis speciosa) or transcendental or productive imagination accounts for the possibility of perceptual knowledge of spatiotemporal objects. I consider three key points: First, I discuss some systematic issues regarding the precise relation between intellectual and figurative synthesis. I argue that figurative synthesis is in fact intellectual (...)
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  41. Subjectivism, Material Synthesis and Idealism.Dennis Schulting - 2017 - In Kant's Radical Subjectivism. Perspectives on the Transcendental Deduction. London, UK: Palgrave. pp. 371-429.
    In this paper, I show that there is at least one crucial, non-short, argument, which does not involve arguments about spatiotemporality, why Kant’s subjectivism about the possibility of knowledge, argued in the Transcendental Deduction, must lead to idealism. This has to do with the fact that given the implications of the discursivity thesis, namely, that the domain of possible determination of objects is characterised by limitation, judgements of experience can never reach the completely determined individual, i.e. the thing in itself (...)
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  42. Kant's Threefold Synthesis On a Moderately Conceptualist Interpretation.Dennis Schulting - 2017 - In Kant's Radical Subjectivism. Perspectives on the Transcendental Deduction. London, UK: Palgrave. pp. 257-293.
    In this paper, I advance a moderately conceptualist interpretation of Kant’s account of the threefold synthesis in the A-Deduction. Often the first version of TD, the A-Deduction, is thought to be less conceptualist than the later B-version from 1787 (e.g. Heidegger 1991; 1995). Certainly, it seems that in the B-Deduction Kant puts more emphasis on the role of the understanding in determining the manifold of representations in intuition than he does in the A-Deduction. It also appears that in the A-Deduction (...)
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  43. Kant's Deduction and Apperception. Explaining the Categories.Dennis Schulting - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Dennis Schulting offers a thoroughgoing, analytic account of the first half of the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories in the B-edition of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason that is different from existing interpretations in at least one important aspect: its central claim is that each of the 12 categories is wholly derivable from the principle of apperception, which goes against the current view that the Deduction is not a proof in a strict philosophical sense and the standard reading that in (...)
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  44. Review: Kant et le pouvoir de juger. [REVIEW]Juliette Simont - 1994 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 6 (3):95-100.
  45. Kant's Refutation of Idealism.Erling Skorpen - 1968 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 6 (1):23.
  46. Synthetic Unities of Experience.Leslie Stevenson - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):281-306.
    Inspired by Kant, Merleau-Ponty and Sellars, I illustrate and identify certain kinds of unity which are typical (if not universal) features of our conscious experience, and argue that Kant was right to claim that such unities are produced by unconscious processes of synthesis: A perceptual experience of succession is not reducible to a succession of perceptual experiences. The experience of perceiving one object as having several features is not reducible to a conjunction of perceptual experiences of those features. A cross-modal (...)
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  47. Time, Synthesis, and the End of Metaphysics : Heidegger and Strawson on Kant.Barry Stocker - 2003 - In C. G. Prado (ed.), A House Divided: Comparing Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Humanity Books.
  48. Going Back to Kant.George J. Stokes - 1884 - Mind 9 (34):274-281.
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  49. Kant. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Tlumak - 1982 - Teaching Philosophy 5 (3):251-254.
  50. The Non-Conceptuality of the Content of Intuitions: A New Approach.Clinton Tolley - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (1):107-36.
    There has been considerable recent debate about whether Kant's account of intuitions implies that their content is conceptual. This debate, however, has failed to make significant progress because of the absence of discussion, let alone consensus, as to the meaning of in this context. Here I try to move things forward by focusing on the kind of content associated with Frege's notion of, understood as a mode of presentation of some object or property. I argue, first, that Kant takes intuitions (...)
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